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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Tumors of the diaphragm, diagnosis and surgical treatment].
Kyobu Geka
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Primary tumors of the diaphragm are very rare, and we often have difficulties in preoperative diagnosis and accurate evaluation of invasion. We experienced 3 surgical cases of tumor of diaphragm:primary mucinous adenocarcinoma, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and mesothelioma. Besides computed tomography (CT) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), respiratory dynamic cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine MRI) was performed. Cine MRI was acquired using steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence, and about 80 consecutive images of the same slice were taken while a patient breathed deeply. In all cases, cine MRI showed lack of tumor movement along the diaphragm during respiration. During surgery, we found that tumor was originated from diaphragm and there was no adhesion to other organs. Securing a sufficient margin, we resected tumor including the diaphragm. Since the defect of diaphragm was from 4 to 5cm in short diameter, we could close the diaphragm by direct suture. Cine MRI could provide useful information concerning discrimination between diaphragmatic and para-diaphragmatic tumor.
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Milnacipran influences the indexes of I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in elderly depressed patients.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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This study investigated whether or not and how much milnacipran influences the indexes of I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-MIBG) scintigraphy, early heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio, delayed H/M ratio, and wash-out rate.
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Association between social functioning and prefrontal hemodynamic responses in elderly adults.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Social functioning has received widespread attention as one of the most important outcomes in psychiatric disorders and has been related to cognitive functioning and the underlying brain activity. Cognitive decline, however, appears not only in the psychiatric population but also in aged individuals. In our previous study, we demonstrated a significant relationship between social functioning and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in patients with depression. However, it has not been shown whether the above relationship could be extended to healthy populations. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a possible association between social functioning and prefrontal hemodynamic responses in healthy elderly adults by using a non-invasive and low-constraint functional neuroimaging technique, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Study subjects included 55 healthy, elderly volunteers. We measured hemodynamic responses over prefrontal cortical (PFC) areas during the verbal fluency task by using multi-channel NIRS and analyzed the relationship between task-associated hemodynamic responses and social functioning as measured by the social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS). A significant positive relationship was observed between the SASS total score and PFC activation. Our findings suggest that PFC activation is associated with social functioning in healthy elderly adults. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses assessed using non-invasive NIRS could be a useful biological marker of these characteristics.
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New instrument for measuring multiple domains of social cognition: construct validity of the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (Japanese version).
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The present study aimed to test the construct validity and internal consistency of the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ) (Japanese version).
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Histological findings of an autologous dermal fat graft implanted onto the pectoralis major muscle of a rat model.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the maintenance of volume as a spacer by comparing vascular supply and apoptosis in an implanted autologous-free dermal fat graft (FDFG) and free fat graft (FFG). An autologous FDFG is a material used in plastic surgery and oncoplastic breast surgery that is ideal for immediate volume replacement after partial mastectomy because of its easy availability and minimal invasion of the donor site; however, immunohistochemical findings and survival procedures have not yet been reported.
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A pilot study on the effects of cognitive remediation on hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortices of patients with schizophrenia: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The regional neuronal changes taking place between before and after cognitive rehabilitation are still not characterized in schizophrenia patients. In addition, it is not known whether these regional changes are predictive or correlated with treatment response. We conducted a preliminary quasi-experimental study to investigate the effects of a Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Cognitive Remediation (NEAR), one of the cognitive remediation therapies, on neurocognitive functioning assessed by the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J), and on prefrontal and temporal hemodynamic responses during working memory (WM) task (2-back, letter version) using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We assessed 19 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder twice with an interval of 6months. Moreover, taking into consideration the possible practice effect, we assessed 12 control patients twice with an interval of 6months. The NEAR group, in comparison with the control group, showed significant improvement in two subcomponents of BACS-J, that is, motor speed and executive function along with the composite scores. The NEAR group also showed a significant increase in brain activation in the bilateral cortical regions associated with WM, and in comparison with the control group the between-group differences were restricted to the right frontopolar area. In addition, the amount of enhancement in some cognitive subcomponents was positively correlated with the magnitude of an increase in hemodynamic response during WM task predominantly in the right hemispheres. These findings suggest that neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia and their neural dysfunction may be improved by NEAR, and NIRS may be a useful tool to assess the changes of the neural activity underlying the improvement of neurocognitive functioning elicited by neurocognitive rehabilitation.
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Association between cognitive insight and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in schizophrenia: a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Insight has been studied mostly from a clinical perspective. Recently, the focus of this research field shifted to cognitive insight or the ability to monitor and correct the erroneous convictions of individuals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between cognitive insight and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in 30 patients with clinically stable schizophrenia and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We measured the changes in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal and temporal cortical regions during a verbal fluency task (VFT) by using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Regional hemodynamic changes were significantly smaller in the schizophrenia group than in the control group in prefrontal and temporal regions, and significant positive relationship was observed between the score of the BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale and right ventrolateral prefrontal and right temporal functions during the VFT. These results suggest that the right ventrolateral prefrontal and temporal cortical regions are associated with cognitive insight in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and that NIRS is an efficient medical tool for monitoring these characteristics.
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Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the posterior mediastinum.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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We report a rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the posterior mediastinum. A 36-year-old man was referred to our hospital with right flank pain. Computed tomography showed a cystic mass in the posterior mediastinum, and the tumor displaced the diaphragm downward and the inferior vena cava forward. The patient underwent extirpation of the tumor. The cut surface of the resected tumor showed a unilocular cyst filled with abundant gray gelatinous fluid. Microscopically, the tumor had a fibrous capsule lined with cuboidal and columnar malignant epithelial cells with intracellular mucin accumulation and was diagnosed as a mucinous adenocarcinoma.
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Association between subjective well-being and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in schizophrenia: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in schizophrenia. Twenty-four patients with clinically stable schizophrenia participated in the study. We measured the change in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal region during a verbal fluency task (VFT) by using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The subjective well-being of participants was assessed using the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS). A significant positive relationship was observed between the SWNS score and frontopolar, left ventrolateral, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal function during the VFT. These results suggest that the frontopolar and left ventrolateral and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortical regions are associated with the subjective well-being of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and that NIRS may be an efficient medical tool for monitoring these characteristics.
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[Cognitive remediation].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Cognitive deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia and marked in the sub-domains of cognition. They have been shown to predict whether a patient will be able to meet functional goals. Because of the small effect size of pharmacotherapy on cognitive function, cognitive remediation has gradually been introduced into the psychiatric rehabilitation. This non-pharmacological treatment for improving neurocognition aims to enhance the neurocognitive strategies relevant to their chosen recovery goals through engaging the participants in learning activities in a highly motivated way. Most meta-analytic studies on this new treatment report moderate effect sizes on cognition with the notable differences in their effects possibly due to their distinct practice methods. The impact of this treatment on daily functioning, however, has been found to be smaller than that on neurocognitive skills. It is thus suggested that cognitive remediation should be implemented in concert with other types of programs for psychiatric rehabilitation.
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Relationship between prefrontal function during a cognitive task and social functioning in male Japanese workers: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To investigate whether prefrontal function during a cognitive task reflects the social functioning of male Japanese workers, prefrontal function during a working memory task in 181 male workers was measured by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Social functioning was assessed using the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS). The results indicated that cortical oxygenation level increases in dorsolateral prefrontal region showed significant positive correlations with the interest and motivation factor scores on the SASS. These results suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal function is associated with the interest and motivation factor in social functioning in male workers and that NIRS could be an addition to the medical tools for monitoring these characteristics on mental health examination.
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Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) that belongs to a subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) plays diverse roles in the central nervous system. Activation of ERK1/2 has been observed in various types of neuronal excitation, including seizure activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as in NMDA-receptor (NMDA-R)-dependent long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. On the other hand, recent studies in cultured neurons have shown that NMDA-R stimulation could result in either ERK1/2 activation or non-activation, depending on the pharmacological manipulations. To assess NMDA-R-dependent regulation of ERK1/2 activity in vivo, here we examined the effect of NMDA-R-induced seizure activity on ERK1/2 activation by using rat cortical slice preparations. NMDA-R-dependent seizure activity introduced by Mg2+ -free condition did not cause ERK1/2 activation. On the other hand, when picrotoxin was added to concurrently suppress GABAA-receptor-mediated inhibition, profound ERK1/2 activation occurred, which was accompanied by strong phospho-ERK1/2-staining in the superficial and deep cortical layer neurons. In this case, prolonged membrane depolarization and enhanced burst action potential firings, both of which were much greater than those in Mg2+ -free condition alone, were observed. Differential ERK1/2 activation was supported by the concurrent selective increase in phosphorylation of a substrate protein, phospho-site 4/5 of synapsin I. These results indicate that NMDA-R activation through a release from Mg2+ -blockade, which accompanies enhancement of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, was not enough, but concurrent suppression of GABAergic inhibition, which leads to a selective increase in excitatory synaptic transmission, was necessary for robust ERK1/2 activation to occur within the cortical network.
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[Outcome studies of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia].
Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Cognitive remediation purports to improve the cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia, and has many forms. Eighty percent of people with schizophrenia suffer from cognitive dysfunction. The impact of cognitive dysfunction on everyday activity is widespread. Cognitive remediation as a non-pharmaceutical, psychosocial treatment modality for cognitive dysfunction has received attention as medical treatment has been able to make only limited gains. The ultimate goal of cognitive remediation is to improve the functional outcome. The increased interest in cognitive remediation resulted in numerous reports of outcome studies and meta-analysis. This paper reports different methods of cognitive remediation, evaluations of outcome studies, and various outcome indices. Cognitive remediation differs according to whether specific cognitions are targeted, and whether a method takes a compensatory or restorative approach. This paper briefly reviews methods of cognitive remediation which demonstrated their effect through RCT: IPT, NEAR, CET, and NET. Cognitive remediation often includes sessions that aim for transfer of the gained learning, such as verbal sessions or vocational skills training. Cognitive remediation is considered most effective when included as part of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. It is important to note that various studies report different outcome indices, control groups, and effect sizes in evaluating the effect of cognitive remediation.
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The pilot study of a Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Cognitive Remediation for patients with schizophrenia in Japan.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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The main aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of a Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Cognitive Remediation (NEAR) in Japan. This multi-site study used a quasi-experimental design. Fifty-one patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. The NEAR program consisted of two 1-h computer sessions per week and an additional group meeting session lasting 30 to 60 min once a week. The subjects completed 6 months of NEAR sessions before being assessed. Moreover, taking into consideration the possible practice effect, we assessed 21 control patients twice with an interval of 6 months. We assessed cognitive function by using the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J). Consequently, the NEAR group showed significant improvement in overall cognitive function, and in comparison with the control group, these findings were generally similar except for motor speed. Although the present study has its limitations, it demonstrates that the NEAR is feasible in Japan as well as it is in Western countries.
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Immediate breast reconstruction using autologous free dermal fat grafts provides better cosmetic results for patients with upper inner cancerous lesions.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Although breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is the standard form of treatment for early-stage breast cancer, in patients with small breasts cosmetic results can be poor, especially when the lesion is located on the inner upper quadrant area. This study analyzes our use of autologous free dermal fat grafts (FDFGs) for immediate breast reconstruction.
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Clinical implication of HLA class I expression in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I molecules on tumor cells have been regarded as crucial sites where cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can recognize tumor-specific antigens and are strongly associated with anti-tumor activity. However, the clinical impact of HLA class I expression in breast cancer has not been clarified.
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A multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study of prefrontal cortex activation during working memory task in major depressive disorder.
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Many neuropsychological studies demonstrate impairment of working memory in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there are not enough functional neuroimaging studies of MDD patients seeking for the underlying brain activity relevant to working memory function. The objective of this study is to evaluate prefrontal hemodynamic response related to working memory function in patients with MDD. Twenty-four subjects with MDD and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited for the present study. We measured hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical surface areas during the execution of working memory task (WM; 2-back, letter version) using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which enables real-time monitoring of task-related changes in cerebral blood volumes in the cortical surface areas. MDD patients showed a smaller increase in lateral prefrontal and superior temporal cortex activation during the 2-back task and associated poorer task performance than healthy controls. The results coincided with previous findings in terms of working memory deficits and prefrontal cortex dysfunction in MDD patients, but contradicted with some previous fMRI studies that suggested increased cortical activity during the working memory task in patients with depression. The contradiction may, in part, be explained by a relatively low level of cognitive demand imposed on the subjects in the present study.
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Oncoplastic surgery for Japanese patients with ptotic breasts.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Oncoplastic techniques, which combine the concepts of oncologic and plastic surgery, are becoming more common, especially in Western countries, however, only a few case reports have been published in Japan. We report the results of oncoplastic surgery for Japanese patients with early breast cancer in the lateral quadrant area.
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[Intrapleural perfusion hyperthermo-chemotherapy with cisplatin in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma].
Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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The preferred treatment for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has not been determined. In order to obtain adequate control of malignant effusion for multimodality therapy, we have introduced intrapleural perfusion hyperthermo-chemotherapy (IPHC) with cisplatin. IPHC was performed with a roller pump and heat exchanger. Cisplatin was added when the temperature stabilized to a mean of 42.5 degrees C. Dosages of cisplatin were 80 mg/m2. The circuit was filled with 2,000 ml saline. A IPHC was performed for 60 minutes under both lung ventilation. IPHC with cisplatin is feasible, easy to perform, and relatively safe. This method had brought an ideal pleural adhesion. IPHC may offer excellent local control for patients with MPM. Some literatures have reported the utility of IPHC for trimodality therapy on MPM.
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Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male patient following hormone therapy for prostate cancer.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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We report an unusual case of bilateral, synchronous breast cancer in a male patient who had a history of estrogen therapy for prostate cancer. A 64-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with T1N0M0 prostate cancer and received a total prostatectomy. Twenty months after the resection, the patient developed multiple bone metastases, and received radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and hormone therapy for 15 months. After completing this treatment, he was diagnosed with T1N0M0 primary breast cancer in his left breast and underwent a modified mastectomy. Five months after the mastectomy he received systemic chemotherapy followed by estrogen therapy because of the progression of prostate cancer. Three months after this treatment, he was diagnosed with T1N0M0 primary breast cancer in his right breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is a rare case of synchronous bilateral male breast cancer following hormone therapy for prostate cancer.
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[Thoracoscopic surgery].
Kyobu Geka
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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Thoracoscopic apparatus is essential in present general thoracic surgery. Historically, the first description of diagnostic use of thoracoscopy traces back to 1910 when Jacobaeus inspected thoracic cavity with cystoscope. In Japan, Kimoto treated lung tuberculosis by thoracic ablation with thoracoscope in 1944. Thereafter thoracoscopic procedure did not spread until 1990s when laparoscopic cholecystectomy had rapidly popularized in Japan. After 1992 many reports about thoracoscopic surgery or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) were published. In the early years VATS was done only for spontaneous pneumothorax, and then indication of VATS had been gradually extended for lung cancer, mediastinal tumor and other thoracic diseases. Nowadays 40% of lung cancer operations are done by VATS in Japan. A thoracoscopic surgery is minimal invasive procedure in operations of thoracic diseases, but should not be mixed with a limited operation of the thoracic diseases. It is necessary to understand that these are different meanings. In VATS the technical procedures are different from the conventional general thoracic surgical procedures and operators have to take special trainings of VATS procedure. But at present we do not have effective training systems of VATS for beginner surgeons. Various training method such as training box, animal laboratory, virtual reality system are effective respectively therefore an accurate training system should be made as soon as possible. Operators should keep in mind that the procedure of VATS or standard thoracotomy operation is not a question and that the most important is to perform a smooth operation in adequate time for patients ease.
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Immediate reconstruction using thoracodorsal adipofascial flap after partial mastectomy.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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BCT (breast conserving therapy) has become a standard strategy for breast cancer and ensures local control and acceptable cosmetic results. However, an insufficient resection margin may increase local recurrence if too much attention is paid to cosmesis. Here, we describe a simple technique for reconstruction of the defect on the outer upper part of the breast with early breast cancer using thoracodorsal adipofascial flap.
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Reduced prefrontal cortex activation during the working memory task associated with poor social functioning in late-onset depression: multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Psychiatry Res
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A number of studies have demonstrated impairment of working memory (WM) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between the underlying brain activity associated with impairment of WM function in MDD patients and their clinical characteristics is not yet clear. The objective of this study is to evaluate prefrontal hemodynamic response related to a WM task in patients with late-onset depression (LOD) and to assess the relationship between activation in the prefrontal cortex and clinical characteristics. Thirty-six patients with LOD and 35 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited for the present study. We measured hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal and temporal regions during a WM (2-back, letter version) task using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). LOD patients were associated with reduced increase in prefrontal and temporal activation compared with healthy controls. Moreover, reduced activation in the prefrontal and temporal regions was significantly related to lower scores on the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS) in the patient group. More specifically, the reduced hemodynamic response in the frontopolar region was associated with functional impairment related to interpersonal relationship factor scores on the SASS. These findings suggest that hemodynamic response in prefrontal and temporal regions during a WM task may act as a biological marker of social functioning in LOD patients.
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The relationship between the prefrontal activation during a verbal fluency task and stress-coping style in major depressive disorder: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.
J Psychiatr Res
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This study aimed to identify coping styles used by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in comparison with those used by healthy controls, and to explore their association with prefrontal hemodynamic response related to a cognitive task. Regional hemodynamic changes were monitored during a verbal fluency task (VFT) using a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) apparatus in 26 MDD patients in depressive state and 30 matched healthy controls, and their correlation with coping styles assessed by Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) were examined. We found the Emotion-oriented coping style was significantly higher, whereas the Task-oriented coping and Avoidance-oriented coping style were lower in the MDD group compared with controls. Emotion-oriented coping style positively correlated with subjective assessment of depression severity. Regional hemodynamic changes were significantly smaller in the MDD group than in the control group in prefrontal and temporal regions, and positively correlated with Task-oriented coping (adaptive coping) in the bilateral ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the midline fronto-polar and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex regions. These findings suggest coping styles may be considered an important source of knowledge for patients who struggle with the illness and for mental health professionals who work with MDD patients, and that hemodynamic response in the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, midline fronto-polar, and orbitofrontal cortex regions during a VFT may reflect the adaptive coping (Task-oriented coping) style in MDD patients in depressive state.
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Fish consumption is positively associated with social functioning: a cross-sectional study in male Japanese workers.
Psychiatry Res
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This study investigated the association of fish consumption with social functioning. One hundred forty male Japanese workers completed the social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS) and their customary fish consumption was assessed. The total, interest, and motivation factor scores on SASS showed significant positive correlations with fish consumption.
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[Clinicopathologic analysis of small-sized non-small cell lung cancer].
Kyobu Geka
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We reviewed the data on 149 patients who underwent complete resection for small-sized (? 2 cm)peripheral non-small cell lung cancer at our institution between January 2002 and July 2010. Patients with small-sized lung cancer underwent a lobectomy in 121, segmentectomy in 13, and wedge resection in 15 cases. The overall and 5-year disease-free survivals were 89% and 82%, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival of patients with tumors exceeding 1.5 cm was lower than that of patients with tumors 1.5 cm or smaller (p=0.01). The 5-year disease-free survival for patients without pleulal invasion was 87%, whereas it was 45% for those with pleulal invasion (p=0.004). The 5-year disease-free survival according to the serum level of carcinoembrionic antigen( CEA) were 82% for the normal group and 70% for the high group( p=0.007). Although the results were not significantly different, patients with tumors with high maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) on FDG-PET/CT showed a trend toward a lower 5-year disease-free survival rate( p=0.10). There were no recurrences in patients with ground-glass opacity (GGO) or GGO-dominant lesion including those who underwent sublober resection. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and pleural invasion were independent prognostic factors. Indication of sublober resection for solid-type small-sized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be carefully determined considering tumor size, pleural involvement, serum carcinoembryonic antigen( CEA) level, and maximum SUV.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.