A synthetic strategy to construct discrete indium-organic polyhedra has been illustrated based on small three-membered windows from a 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (PDC) ligand with an angle of 120°. [Et2NH2]6[In6(PDC)12] (InOF-10) is a high-symmetry octahedron with eight three-membered windows, and [Et2NH2]18[In18(BPDC)6(PDC)30] (InOF-11) is a complex polyhedron derived from 3-edge-removed octahedra with an auxiliary biphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate (BPDC) ligand. Moreover, the sorption behavior of the latter is also well investigated.
With the help of the ligand-oriented method, we have successfully embedded independent copper-based units into the indium-organic framework system for the first time, in which the Cu4I4 clusters and In3O(CO2)6 clusters coexist. This heterometallic cluster-based framework has a large porosity with extra-open channels along the c-axis, and its sorption capacity has also been investigated.
A porous metal-organic framework with high surface area was designedly synthesized, in which polyhedral cages and one-dimensional channels coexist. It shows a total gravimetric H2 uptake of 11.35 wt% at 77 K and 90 bar and a total CH4 uptake of 305.07 cm(3) g(-1) at 298 K and 35 bar.
A highly porous metal-organic framework structurally consists of three topological kinds of 3-connected 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate ligands, Zn2(COO)4, Zn3O(COO)6 and Zn4O(COO)6 SBUs, featuring a new 3,3,3,4,4,6-c hexanodal topology. Sorption behaviour in this complicated microporous MOF material has also been investigated.
Schwann cell development is hallmarked by the induction of a lipogenic profile. Here we used amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells and focused on the mechanisms occurring during early steps of differentiation along the Schwann cell lineage. Therefore, we initiated Schwann cell differentiation in AFS cells and monitored as well as modulated the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, the major regulator of anabolic processes. Our results show that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is essential for glial marker expression and expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) target genes. Moreover, SREBP target gene activation by statin treatment promoted lipogenic gene expression, induced mTORC1 activation and stimulated Schwann cell differentiation. To investigate mTORC1 downstream signaling we expressed a mutant S6K1, which subsequently induced the expression of the Schwann cell marker S100b, but did not affect lipogenic gene expression. This suggests that S6K1 dependent and independent pathways downstream of mTORC1 drive AFS cells to early Schwann cell differentiation and lipogenic gene expression. In conclusion our results propose that future strategies for peripheral nervous system regeneration will depend on ways to efficiently induce the mTORC1 pathway.
A novel open helmetlike coordination cage has been synthesized based on Co4-calixarene shuttlecock-like secondary building units and in situ generated phosphate anions, where the opening of the cage comprises a large 16-membered ring. The above unprecedented Co20 nanocage presents the first pentameric calixarene coordination compound. Sorption behavior and magnetic properties are also investigated.
Four kite-like tetranuclear Zn(II)Ln(III)3 (Ln= Gd 1, Tb 2, Dy 3, Ho 4) clusters supported by p-tert-butylthiacalixarene (H4BTC4A) have been prepared under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the structures of these four complexes, each of them is capped by two tail-to-tail p-tert-butylthiacalixarene molecules to form a bent sandwich-like unit. The photoluminescent analyses reveal that the H4BTC4A is an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) ions in 2. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-4 are also investigated, in which complex 3 exhibits slow magnetization relaxation typical for single molecule magnets.
The ultraviolet (UV) absorption of various sections of the human lens was studied and compared with protein expression paralleling differential UV absorbance in anterior and posterior lenticular tissue. The UV absorbance of serial lens cryostat sections (60 ?m) and that of lens capsules was determined using a Shimadzu scanning spectrophotometer, and the absorption coefficients were calculated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed using two pooled lenticular protein extracts (anterior and posterior sections). Protein spots were quantified and significantly different spots were identified by mass spectrometry following in-gel digestion with trypsin and chymotrypsin. The UV-C and UV-B absorption of the human lens increased toward the posterior parts of the lens. The anterior and posterior lens capsules also effectively absorbed UV radiation. Levels of molecular chaperone proteins Beta-crystallin B2 (UniProtKB ID:P43320), A3 (UniProtKB ID:P05813) and of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (UniProtKB ID:P04406) were significantly higher in the anterior part of the lens, whereas lens proteins Beta-crystallin B1 (UniProtKB ID:P53674) and Alpha-crystallin A chain (UniProtKB ID:P02489) were higher in the posterior sections. These results provide evidence that differential UV absorption in the anterior and posterior lens is accompanied by differential protein expression.
Owing to growing rates of diabetes, hypertension and the ageing population, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease, developed from earlier stages of chronic kidney disease, and of acute renal failure is dramatically increasing. Dialysis and preferable renal transplantation are widely applied therapies for this incurable condition. However these options are limited because of morbidity, shortage of compatible organs and costs. Therefore, stem cell-based approaches are becoming increasingly accepted as an alternative therapeutic strategy.
In own previous work CD1 mice were tested in the Multiple T-maze (MTM), a robust land maze allowing determination of latency to reach the goal box with food reward and to evaluate correct decisions made on the way to the goal box. Herein, hippocampi of these animals were used for the current study with the aim to investigate differences in protein levels between trained and yoked mice and, moreover, to determine differences in protein levels between trained and yoked mice with and without memory formation in the MTM. Three training sessions were carried out for four training days each, followed by probe trials on Days 5 and 12. Good and no-performers in the MTM were separated based on means and median of latency to reach the goal box on probe trial Day 12. Six hours following the probe trial on Day 12, animals were sacrificed and hippocampi were taken. Proteins were extracted and run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, spots were quantified and differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry using an ion trap. Levels of 17 proteins were significantly different in trained vs. yoked mice. Seven proteins were differentially expressed comparing trained vs. yoked mice from good and no-performers. A series of proteins were significantly correlated with latency and may link these proteins to spatial memory formation. Differential protein expression in trained vs. yoked mice and in good and no-performers may allow insight into spatial memory formation as well as represent tentative pharmacological targets.
The objective of the study was to explore the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and the mechanism of valproate administration in the early stage of MTLE development. We performed a global comparative analysis and function classification of differentially expressed proteins using proteomics. MTLE models of developmental rats were induced by lithium-pilocarpine. Proteins in the hippocampus were separated by 2-DE technology. PDQuest software was used to analyze 2-DE images, and MALDI-TOF-MS was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Western blot was used to determine the differential expression levels of synapse-related proteins synapsin-1, dynamin-1 and neurogranin in both MTLE rat and human hippocampus. A total of 48 differentially expressed proteins were identified between spontaneous and non-spontaneous MTLE rats, while 41 proteins between MTLE rats and post valproate-treatment rats were identified. All of the proteins can be categorized into several groups by biological functions: synaptic and neurotransmitter release, cytoskeletal structure and dynamics, cell junctions, energy metabolism and mitochondrial function, molecular chaperones, signal regulation and others. Western blot results were similar to the changes noted in 2-DE. The differentially expressed proteins, especially the proteins related to synaptic and neurotransmitter release function, such as synapsin-1, dynamin-1 and neurogranin, are probably involved in the mechanism of MTLE and the pharmacological effect of valproate. These findings may provide important clues to elucidate the mechanism of chronic MTLE and to identify an optimum medication intervention time and new biomarkers for the development of pharmacological therapies targeted at epilepsy.
Chronic articular cartilage defects are the most common disabling conditions of humans in the western world. The incidence for cartilage defects is increasing with age and the most prominent risk factors are overweight and sports associated overloading. Damage of articular cartilage frequently leads to osteoarthritis due to the aneural and avascular nature of articular cartilage, which impairs regeneration and repair. Hence, patients affected by cartilage defects will benefit from a cell-based transplantation strategy. Autologous chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells are suitable donor cells for regeneration approaches and most recently the discovery of amniotic fluid stem cells has opened a plethora of new therapeutic options. It is the aim of this review to summarize recent advances in the use of amniotic fluid stem cells as novel cell sources for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. Molecular aspects of articular cartilage formation as well as degeneration are summarized and the role of growth factor triggered signaling pathways, scaffolds, hypoxia and autophagy during the process of chondrogenic differentiation are discussed.
Two heterometallic thiacalixarene-supported complexes possess a trinary-cubane core composed of one [Ni(2)Ln(2)] cubane unit and two [NaNi(2)Ln] cubane units sharing one Ln(III) ion (Ln = Dy and Tb). Only the Dy(III) complex exhibits slow magnetic relaxation behaviour of single molecule magnet nature.
Avastin® (bevacizumab) is a protein drug widely used for cancer treatment although its further use is questionable due to serious side effects reported. As no systematic proteomic study on posttranslational modifications (PTMs) was reported so far, it was the aim of the current study to use a gel-based proteomics method for determination of Avastin®-protein(s). Avastin® was run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), spots were picked, followed by multi-enzyme in-gel digestion. Subsequently, the resulting peptides and posttranslational modifications were identified by mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS; HCT and LTQ Orbitrap MS). Heavy and light chains were observed and the 9 spots that were picked from 2DE-gels were identified as bevacizumab with high sequence coverage. MS/MS results showed multiple tyrosine nitrations on the Avastin® light and heavy chains that were either represented as nitrotyrosine or as aminotyrosine, which was shown to be generated from nitrotyrosine under reducing conditions. Protein nitration is known to significantly change protein functions and interactions and it may well be that some of the adverse effects of the protein drug Avastin® may be due to this PTM, which may have been generated during production--thus, nitration of Avastin® is a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry.
A series of individual proteins have been linked to performance in the Morris water maze (MWM) but no global effects have been reported. It was therefore the aim of the study to show which proteins were strain-independent, global factors for training in the MWM. Strains C57BL/6J, apodemus sylvaticus and PWD/PhJ were used. MWM and gels from trained animals were from a previous own study and corresponding yoked groups were generated. Hippocampal proteins were extracted and run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Spots with different expressional levels between trained and yoked groups were punched and identified by mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS, ion trap). Two-way ANOVA with two factors (strain and training) was carried out and a Bonferroni test was used to compare groups. 12 proteins from several pathways and cascades showed different levels in trained mice versus corresponding yoked animals in all strains tested. Four out of these proteins were verified by immunoblotting: beta-synuclein, profilin 2, nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NME1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 3. Four proteins verified by immunoblotting could be shown to be involved in training in the MWM as a global effect, independent of the strain tested.
A series of discrete complexes, [Ni(8)(BTC4A)(2)(?(6)-CO(3))(2)(?-CH(3)COO)(4)(dma)(4)]·H(2)O (1), [Ni(8)(BTC4A)(2)(?(6)-CO(3))(2)(?-Cl)(2)(?-HCOO)(2)(dma)(4)]·2DMF·2CH(3)CN (2), [Ni(8)(PTC4A)(2) (?(6)-CO(3))(2)(?-CH(3)COO)(4)(dma)(4)]·DMF (3), and [Ni(8)(PTC4A)(2)(?(6)-CO(3))(2)(?-OH)(?-HCOO)(3) (dma)(4)] (4) (p-tert-butylthiacalixarene = H(4)BTC4A, p-phenylthiacalixarene = H(4)PTC4A, dma = dimethylamine, and DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide), have been prepared under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, powder XRD, and IR spectroscopy. These four complexes are stacked by dumbbell-like building blocks with one chairlike octanuclear-nickel(II) core, which is capped by two thiacalixarene molecules and connected by two in situ generated carbonato anions and different auxiliary anions. This work implied that not only the solvent molecules but also the upper-rim groups of thiacalixarenes have significant effects on the self-assembly of the dumbbell-like building blocks. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-4 were examined, indicating strong antiferromagnetic interactions between the nickel(II) ions in the temperature range of 50-300 K.
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