A common function of the TFIID and SAGA complexes, which are recruited by transcriptional activators, is to deliver TBP to promoters to stimulate transcription. Neither the relative contributions of the five shared TBP-associated factor (TAF) subunits in TFIID and SAGA nor the requirement for different domains in shared TAFs for transcriptional activation is well understood. In this study, we uncovered the essential requirement for the highly conserved C-terminal region (CRD) of Taf9, a shared TAF, for transcriptional activation in yeast. Transcriptome profiling performed under Gcn4-activating conditions showed that the Taf9 CRD is required for induced expression of ?9% of the yeast genome. The CRD was not essential for the Taf9-Taf6 interaction, TFIID or SAGA integrity, or Gcn4 interaction with SAGA in cell extracts. Microarray profiling of a SAGA mutant (spt20?) yielded a common set of genes induced by Spt20 and the Taf9 CRD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that, although the Taf9 CRD mutation did not impair Gcn4 occupancy, the occupancies of TFIID, SAGA, and the preinitiation complex were severely impaired at several promoters. These results suggest a crucial role for the Taf9 CRD in genome-wide transcription and highlight the importance of conserved domains, other than histone fold domains, as a common determinant for TFIID and SAGA functions.
Cellular homeostasis is an outcome of complex interacting processes with nonlinear feedbacks that can span distinct spatial and temporal dimensions. Skin tanning is one such dynamic response that maintains genome integrity of epidermal cells. Although pathways underlying hyperpigmentation cascade are recognized, negative feedback regulatory loops that can dampen the activated melanogenesis process are not completely understood. In this study, we delineate a regulatory role of IFN-? in skin pigmentation biology. We show that IFN-? signaling impedes maturation of the key organelle melanosome by concerted regulation of several pigmentation genes. Withdrawal of IFN-? signal spontaneously restores normal cellular programming. This effect in melanocytes is mediated by IFN regulatory factor-1 and is not dependent on the central regulator microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Chronic IFN-? signaling shows a clear hypopigmentation phenotype in both mouse and human skin. Interestingly, IFN-? KO mice display a delayed recovery response to restore basal state of epidermal pigmentation after UV-induced tanning. Together, our studies delineate a new spatiotemporal role of the IFN-? signaling network in skin pigmentation homeostasis, which could have implications in various cutaneous depigmentary and malignant disorders.
Our previous work has demonstrated the roles played by L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels (VGCC) in regulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) survival and pathogenesis. Here we decipher mechanisms and pathways engaged by the pathogen to regulate VGCC expression in macrophages. We show that M. tb and its antigen Rv3416 use phospho-CREB (pCREB), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Protein Kinase C (PKC) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) to modulate VGCC expression in macrophages. siRNA mediated knockdown of MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK2 or TRAF6 significantly inhibited antigen mediated VGCC expression. Inhibiting Protein Kinase C (PKC) or MEK-ERK1/2 further increased VGCC expression. Interestingly, inhibiting intracellular calcium release upregulated antigen mediated VGCC expression, while inhibiting extracellular calcium influx had no significant effect. siRNA mediated knockdown of transcription factors c-Jun, SOX5 and CREB significantly inhibited Rv3416 mediated VGCC expression. A dynamic reciprocal cross-regulation between ROS and pCREB was observed that in turn governed VGCC expression with ROS playing a limiting role in the process. Further dissection of the mechanisms such as the interplay between ROS and pCREB would improve our understanding of the regulation of VGCC expression during M. tb infection.
Candida albicans, a common fungal pathogen which diverged from the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the unique ability to utilise N-acetylglucosamine, an amino sugar and exhibits phenotypic differences. It has acquired intricate regulatory mechanisms at different levels in accordance with its life style. N-acetylglucosamine kinase, a component of the N-acetylglucosamine catabolic cascade is an understudied gene since Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks it. We report HXK1 to act as both positive and negative regulator of transcription of genes involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis. It is involved in repression of hyphal specific genes in addition to metabolic genes. Its regulation of filamentation and GlcNAc metabolism is independent of the known classical regulators like EFG1, CPH1, RAS1, TPK2 or TUP1. Moreover, Hxk1-GFP is localised to cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria in a condition specific manner. By employing two-step affinity purification, we report the interaction of HXK1 with SIR2 under filamentation inducing conditions. Our work highlights a novel regulatory mechanism involved in filamentation repression and attempts to decipher the GlcNAc catabolic regulatory cascade in eukaryotes.
Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, resides in the macrophages of the mammalian host. The aquaporin family of proteins form important components of the parasite-host interface. The parasite-host interface could be a potential target for chemotherapy. Analysis of L. major and L. infantum genomes showed the presence of five aquaporins (AQPs) annotated as AQP9 (230aa), AQP putative (294aa), AQP-like protein (279aa), AQP1 (314aa) and AQP-like protein (596aa). We report here the structural modeling, localization and functional characterization of the AQPs from L. donovani. LdAQP1, LdAQP9, LdAQP2860 and LdAQP2870 have the canonical NPA-NPA motifs, whereas LdAQP putative has a non-canonical NPM-NPA motif. In the carboxyl terminal to the second NPA box of all AQPs except AQP1, a valine/alanine residue was found instead of the arginine. In that respect these four AQPs are similar to tonoplast intrinsic proteins in plants, which are localized to intracellular organelles. Confocal microscopy of L. donovani expressing GFP-tagged AQPs showed an intracellular localization of LdAQP9 and LdAQP2870. Real-time PCR assays showed expression of all aquaporins except LdAQP2860, whose level was undetectable. Three-dimensional homology modeling of the AQPs showed that LdAQP1 structure bears greater topological similarity to the aquaglyceroporin than to aquaporin of E. coli. The pore of LdAQP1 was very different from the rest in shape and size. The cavity of LdAQP2860 was highly irregular and undefined in geometry. For functional characterization, four AQP proteins were heterologously expressed in yeast. In the fps1? yeast cells, which lacked the key aquaglyceroporin, LdAQP1 alone displayed an osmosensitive phenotype indicating glycerol transport activity. However, expression of LdAQP1 and LdAQP putative in a yeast gpd1? strain, deleted for glycerol production, conferred osmosensitive phenotype indicating water transport activity or aquaporin function. Our analysis for the first time shows the presence of subcellular aquaporins and provides structural and functional characterization of aquaporins in Leishmania donovani.
Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in organisms across evolutionary time scale as iron is essential for various cellular processes. In a computational screen, we identified the Yap/bZIP domain family in Candida clade genomes. Cap2/Hap43 is essential for C. albicans growth under iron-deprivation conditions and for virulence in mouse. Cap2 has an amino-terminal bipartite domain comprising a fungal-specific Hap4-like domain and a bZIP domain. Our mutational analyses showed that both the bZIP and Hap4-like domains perform critical and independent functions for growth under iron-deprivation conditions. Transcriptome analysis conducted under iron-deprivation conditions identified about 16% of the C. albicans ORFs that were differentially regulated in a Cap2-dependent manner. Microarray data also suggested that Cap2 is required to mobilize iron through multiple mechanisms; chiefly by activation of genes in three iron uptake pathways and repression of iron utilizing and iron storage genes. The expression of HAP2, HAP32, and HAP5, core components of the HAP regulatory complex was induced in a Cap2-dependent manner indicating a feed-forward loop. In a feed-back loop, Cap2 repressed the expression of Sfu1, a negative regulator of iron uptake genes. Cap2 was coimmunoprecipitated with Hap5 from cell extracts prepared from iron-deprivation conditions indicating an in vivo association. ChIP assays demonstrated Hap32-dependent recruitment of Hap5 to the promoters of FRP1 (Cap2-induced) and ACO1 (Cap2-repressed). Together our data indicates that the Cap2-HAP complex functions both as a positive and a negative regulator to maintain iron homeostasis in C. albicans.
Protective immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection are regulated at multiple levels and critically dependent on the balance in the secretion of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. A key factor that governs this balance at the cellular level is suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS). We recently demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 and dendritic cell (DC)-SIGNR1 differentially regulate SOCS1 expression in DCs during M. tuberculosis infection. This consecutively regulated IL-12 production and determined M. tuberculosis survival. In this study, we characterized the role of SOCS1 in regulating effector responses from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells during M. tuberculosis infection. Our data indicate that T cells from M. tuberculosis-infected mice show increased and differential association of SOCS1 with CD3 and CD28, when compared with uninfected mice. While SOCS1 displays increased association with CD3 than CD28 in CD4(+) T cells; SOCS1 is associated more with CD28 than CD3 in CD8(+) T cells. Further, SOCS1 shows increased association with IL-12 and IL-2 receptors in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from infected mice when compared with naive mice. Silencing SOCS1 in T cells increased signal transduction from T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 with enhanced activation of key signaling molecules and proliferation. Significantly, SOCS1-silenced T cells mediated enhanced clearance of M. tuberculosis inside macrophages. Finally, adoptive transfer of SOCS1-silenced T cells in M. tuberculosis-infected mice mediated significant reduction in M. tuberculosis loads in spleen. These results exemplify the negative role played by SOCS1 during T cell priming and effector functions during M. tuberculosis infection.
A prerequisite for successful establishment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the host is its ability to survive after internalization in alveolar macrophages that they encounter after inhalation. The innate immune response protects some individuals to the extent that they remain uninfected. In others, the innate immune system is not sufficient and an adaptive immune response is generated. This is usually protective, but not sterilizing, and individuals remain latently infected. In susceptible individuals, M. tuberculosis successfully escapes immune surveillance. The interplay between the host innate immune response and the bacterial mechanisms in play to offset this response, is of considerable importance in dictating the course of the disease. In order to gain an understanding of this interplay it is of importance to analyze how M. tuberculosis interacts with innate immune receptors and makes its entry into macrophages, how it subverts the bactericidal effects of macrophages, and dampens processes required for protective immunity, including cytokine and chemokine induction. This review will focus on some of the Indian efforts in these areas, concentrating mainly on the interaction of M. tuberculosis with macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). The role of the PE/PPE family of proteins in regulating the immune response, will not be discussed in this chapter. The genome-wide approaches of analyzing host-M. tuberculosis interactions will also be discussed elsewhere.
Oxidative stress is widely believed to be a contributing factor in vitiligo pathogenesis. To explore mechanisms by which epidermis responds to mounting oxidative stress, we investigated the involvement of phase II detoxification genes in vitiligo. Phase II detoxification pathways have recently been identified as being important in the regulation of epidermal skin homeostasis. In this study we show that the key transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the downstream genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidase-1 (NQO-1), ?-glutamyl cystine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), and ?-glutamyl cystine ligase modifying subunit (GCLM) are upregulated in the lesional epidermal skin of subjects with vitiligo vulgaris. The differences between lesional and nonlesional skin were further investigated by studying the induced expression of Nrf2-dependent transcripts in skin punch biopsies using curcumin and santalol. Surprisingly, nonlesional skin showed induction of all transcripts while a similar effect was not observed for the skin punches from the lesional skin. The use of curcumin and santalol on epidermal cells showed that keratinocytes were more susceptible to apoptosis, whereas melanocytes induced phase II genes under the same concentrations with negligible apoptosis. Our studies provide new insights into the role of phase II detoxification pathway in maintaining skin homeostasis and sustaining redox balance in vitiligo patients.
We report the enrichment of and immune responses mediated by genes expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside macrophages as a function of time. Results indicate that M. tuberculosis expresses different genes at different times postinfection. Genes expressed early (day 1) following infection enhance M. tuberculosis-mediated activation of dendritic cells (DCs), whereas genes expressed later (day 5) in the infection prevent DC activation. However, all genes downmodulated MHC class I and II expression on infected macrophages, thus compromising their ability to interact with Ag-specific T cells. Day-1 and -5 genes downmodulated proinflammatory cytokine production from DCs, thus impairing signal 3 during DC-T cell cognate interactions. Consequently, T cells activated by Ag-experienced DCs secreted low levels of IFN-gamma and IL-17 but maintained high IL-10 secretion, thus inducing suppressor responses. Further characterization revealed that day-1 and -5 genes increased TLR2-induced expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 from DCs and downmodulated IL-12 expression. In addition, day-1 and -5 genes prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species in DCs. In contrast, although day-5 genes increased TLR2-mediated suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 expression in macrophages, day-1 genes downmodulated the expression of inducible NO synthase 2. Similar downregulation of immune responses was observed upon exogenous stimulation with day-1 or -5 Ags. Finally, day-1 and -5 genes promoted enhanced survival of M. tuberculosis inside DCs and macrophages. These results indicate that M. tuberculosis genes, expressed inside infected macrophages as a function of time, collectively suppress protective immune responses by using multiple and complementary mechanisms.
The secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) have been known to be involved in the virulence, pathogenesis as well as proliferation of the pathogen. Among this set, many proteins have been hypothesized to play a critical role at the genesis of the onset of infection, the primary site of which is invariably the human lung.
A hallmark of protective immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection is the regulated secretion of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) are key regulators of cytokine secretion and function. In this study we investigated regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin receptor 1 (DC-SIGNR1)-mediated SOCS1 expression in DCs during M. tb infection. We show that, compared with TLR2, stimulating DC-SIGNR1 on DCs induces higher SOCS1 expression and lower interleukin-12 production. Co-stimulating DC-SIGNR1 and TLR2 differentially regulates SOCS1 expression depending on the relative concentration of their ligands. Stimulating DC-SIGNR1 with M. tb infection increases SOCS1 expression, while stimulating TLR2 with M. tb infection reduces SOCS1 expression. Knockdown of SOCS1 in DCs by siRNA enhances interleukin-12 transcription and protein expression upon DC-SIGNR1 stimulation. Raf-1 and Syk differentially regulate TLR2- and DC-SIGNR1-mediated SOCS1 expression. In addition, DC-SIGNR1 shows greater association with SOCS1 when compared with TLR2. Interestingly, compared with healthy asymptomatic individuals, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis disease showed higher expression of SOCS1, which was reduced following chemotherapy. Similarly, stimulating DC-SIGNR1 on DCs from M. tb-infected TLR2(-/-) mice enhanced SOCS1 expression that was reduced following chemotherapy. Further, knockdown of SOCS1 in mouse DCs or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells resulted in increased killing of virulent M. tb. These results indicate that TLR2 and DC-SIGNR1 differentially regulate SOCS1 expression during M. tb infection. This in turn regulates M. tb survival by governing key cytokine expression.
The highly co-evolved relationship of parasites and their hosts appears to include modulation of host immune signals, although the molecular mechanisms involved in the host-parasite interplay remain poorly understood. Characterization of these key genes and their cognate proteins related to the host-parasite interplay should lead to a better understanding of this intriguing biological phenomenon. The malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum is predicted to export a cohort of several hundred proteins to remodel the host erythrocyte. However, proteins actively exported by the asexual intracellular parasite beyond the host red blood cell membrane (before merozoite egress) have been poorly investigated so far. Here we used two complementary methodologies, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/MS and LC-MS/MS, to examine the extracellular secreted antigens at asexual blood stages of P. falciparum. We identified 27 novel antigens exported by P. falciparum in the culture medium of which some showed clustering with highly polymorphic genes on chromosomes, suggesting that they may encode putative antigenic determinants of the parasite. Immunolocalization of four novel secreted proteins confirmed their export beyond the infected red blood cell membrane. Of these, preliminary functional characterization of two novel (Sel1 repeat-containing) parasite proteins, PfSEL1 and PfSEL2 revealed that they down-regulate expression of cell surface Notch signaling molecules in host cells. Also a novel protein kinase (PfEK) and a novel protein phosphatase (PfEP) were found to, respectively, phosphorylate/dephosphorylate parasite-specific proteins in the extracellular culture supernatant. Our study thus sheds new light on malaria parasite extracellular secreted antigens of which some may be essential for parasite development and could constitute promising new drug targets.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates levels and activity of key intracellular second messengers to evade protective immune responses. Calcium release from voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) regulates immune responses to pathogens. In this study, we investigated the roles of VGCC in regulating protective immunity to mycobacteria in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting L-type or R-type VGCC in dendritic cells (DCs) either using antibodies or by siRNA increased calcium influx in an inositol 1,4,5-phosphate and calcium release calcium activated channel dependent mechanism that resulted in increased expression of genes favoring pro-inflammatory responses. Further, VGCC-blocked DCs activated T cells that in turn mediated killing of M. tuberculosis inside macrophages. Likewise, inhibiting VGCC in infected macrophages and PBMCs induced calcium influx, upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and resulted in enhanced killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis. Importantly, compared to healthy controls, PBMCs of tuberculosis patients expressed higher levels of both VGCC, which were significantly reduced following chemotherapy. Finally, blocking VGCC in vivo in M. tuberculosis infected mice using specific antibodies increased intracellular calcium and significantly reduced bacterial loads. These results indicate that L-type and R-type VGCC play a negative role in M. tuberculosis infection by regulating calcium mobilization in cells that determine protective immunity.
Set2-mediated methylation of histone H3 at Lys?36 (H3K36me) is a co-transcriptional event that is necessary for the activation of the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex, thereby maintaining the coding region of genes in a hypoacetylated state. In the absence of Set2, H3K36 or Rpd3S acetylated histones accumulate on open reading frames (ORFs), leading to transcription initiation from cryptic promoters within ORFs. Although the co-transcriptional deacetylation pathway is well characterized, the factors responsible for acetylation are as yet unknown. Here we show that, in yeast, co-transcriptional acetylation is achieved in part by histone exchange over ORFs. In addition to its function of targeting and activating the Rpd3S complex, H3K36 methylation suppresses the interaction of H3 with histone chaperones, histone exchange over coding regions and the incorporation of new acetylated histones. Thus, Set2 functions both to suppress the incorporation of acetylated histones and to signal for the deacetylation of these histones in transcribed genes. By suppressing spurious cryptic transcripts from initiating within ORFs, this pathway is essential to maintain the accuracy of transcription by RNA polymerase?II.
With rising incidence of acquired drug resistance among life-threatening pathogens, alternative approaches to improve therapy and vaccination have taken center stage. To this end, genome-wide and pathway-specific siRNA libraries are being employed increasingly to identify genes that regulate immune responses against a number of pathogens. In this study using calcium and cysteine protease pathway-specific siRNA libraries, we identified genes that play critical roles in modulating diverse functions of dendritic cells (DCs) during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Knockdown of many of these genes in the two pathways resulted in reduced bacterial burden within DCs. These included genes that regulated activation of transcription factors, ubiquitin-specific peptidases, and genes that are involved in autophagy and neddylation. Knockdown of certain genes increased the expression of IL-12p40 and surface densities of costimulatory molecules in an antigen- and receptor-specific manner. Increased IL-12p40 and costimulatory molecules on DCs also promoted the development of Th1 responses from a Th2 inducing antigen. Furthermore, modulation of autophagy and oxidative burst appeared to be one of the mechanisms by which these genes regulated survival of M. tuberculosis within DCs. Although some genes regulated specific responses, others regulated multiple responses that included IL-12 production, T cell priming, as well as intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis. Further dissection of the mechanisms such as neddylation, by which these genes regulate immune responses, would improve our understanding of host parameters that are modulated during M. tuberculosis infection.
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