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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A quantitative evaluation of abdominal aorta aneurysm by CT images.
Technol Health Care
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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An abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) is a disease that aortic vessel inflates abnormally. The aorta blows up continuously, which may lead to the rupture of the aorta. The mortality of rupturing the aorta is between 75 and 90% to properly treat this disease, we need to accurate measure about variation of AAA size. our team performed that AAA is reconstructed as three dimensional (3D) images by computer tomography (CT), and analyzed the elements of inflation through a geometric parameter measurement . Subjects (seven males) who undergo an AAA are enrolled for the analysis. The authors used CT images as a primary source, and obtained secondary CT images 12 months later.By means of these data, the authors constructed 3D images of AAA and performed examinations using a geometric analysis that calculates geometric parameter such as the tortuosity, diameter, saccular and so on based on volume, area of the segmented region of the CT slices that is set up by the centroids and 8 points around it. The result of the severity biomechanical factor shows increased AAA tortuosity ratio (4.9%), AAA diameter expansion ratio [cm/year] (6.8%), AAA total diameter ratio (4.7%), AAA saccular ratio (2.4%) than 12-month before. Through these results, We can plan to endovascular repair surgery to undergoing AAA patients and possible diagnosis estimation of AAA.
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Objective Assessment of Corneal Staining using Digital Image Analysis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Purpose: To validate a new objective digital image analysis technique to evaluate corneal staining. Methods: One hundred photographs of corneal staining from various ocular surface diseases, in 100 patients were quantified by a new strategy: a combination of the difference of Gaussians (DoG) edge detection for morphologic properties of corneal erosions and the red-green-blue (RGB) systems and hue-saturation-value (HSV) color model for detection of color. To enhance the image, we adopted a median filter, Otsu thresholding, and contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). To validate the diagnostic value of this new strategy, the same photographs were also graded by two independent clinicians using the Oxford scheme and the National Eye Institute/Industry [NEI]-recommended guidelines. The correlation between the average subjective grade and objective image analysis measurement was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The new algorithm showed a strong correlation with the clinical grading scale in the Oxford scheme and the NEI-recommended guidelines (R = 0.850 and 0.903, p < 0.001, respectively). The repeatability of the objective measurement was excellent (R= 0.994). Conclusions: The new algorithm showed excellent correlation with the traditional subjective clinical grading scales. It may be useful for objective assessment of corneal staining, independent of disease conditions.
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EVpedia: A Community Web Portal for Extracellular Vesicles Research.
Dae-Kyum Kim, Jaewook Lee, Sae Rom Kim, Dong-Sic Choi, Yae Jin Yoon, Ji Hyun Kim, Gyeongyun Go, Dinh Nhung, Kahye Hong, Su Chul Jang, Si-Hyun Kim, Kyong-Su Park, Oh Youn Kim, Hyun Taek Park, Ji Hye Seo, Elena Aikawa, Monika Baj-Krzyworzeka, Bas W M van Balkom, Mattias Belting, Lionel Blanc, Vincent Bond, Antonella Bongiovanni, Francesc E Borràs, Luc Buée, Edit I Buzás, Lesley Cheng, Aled Clayton, Emanuele Cocucci, Charles S Dela Cruz, Dominic M Desiderio, Dolores Di Vizio, Karin Ekström, Juan M Falcon-Perez, Chris Gardiner, Bernd Giebel, David W Greening, Julia Christina Gross, Dwijendra Gupta, An Hendrix, Andrew F Hill, Michelle M Hill, Esther Nolte-'t Hoen, Do Won Hwang, Jameel Inal, Medicharla V Jagannadham, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Young-Koo Jee, Malene Jørgensen, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Thomas Kislinger, Cecilia Lässer, Dong Soo Lee, Hakmo Lee, Johannes van Leeuwen, Thomas Lener, Ming-Lin Liu, Jan Lötvall, Antonio Marcilla, Suresh Mathivanan, Andreas Möller, Jess Morhayim, François Mullier, Irina Nazarenko, Rienk Nieuwland, Diana N Nunes, Ken Pang, Jaesung Park, Tushar Patel, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Hernando Del Portillo, Ulrich Putz, Marcel I Ramirez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Tae-Young Roh, Felix Royo, Susmita Sahoo, Raymond Schiffelers, Shivani Sharma, Pia Siljander, Richard J Simpson, Carolina Soekmadji, Philip Stahl, Allan Stensballe, Ewa Stępień, Hidetoshi Tahara, Arne Trummer, Hadi Valadi, Laura J Vella, Sun Nyunt Wai, Kenneth Witwer, María Yáñez-Mó, Hyewon Youn, Reinhard Zeidler, Yong Song Gho.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for extracellular vesicle-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging.
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Anamorphic optical transformation of an amplitude spatial light modulator to a complex spatial light modulator with square pixels [Invited].
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A method is proposed for the construction of a square pixel complex spatial light modulator (SLM) from a commercial oblong full-high-definition (full-HD) amplitude SLM using an anamorphic optical filter. In the proposed scheme, one half-band of the optical Fourier transform of the amplitude-only spatial light field is rejected in the optical Fourier plane and the other half-band is reformatted to be an effective complex SLM with square pixels. This has an advantage in the viewing window plane since the shape of the viewing window becomes square and more ideal for observers who watch the hologram contents through it. For optimal transformation, the amplitude computer generated hologram encoding scheme was developed. Mathematical modeling of the proposed system is described herein, and it was experimentally demonstrated that the effective complex SLM displays complex holographic three-dimensional images with a clear depth discrimination effect.
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Strain of bone-implant interface and insertion torque regarding different miniscrew thread designs using an artificial bone model.
Eur J Orthod
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Summary OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the initial stability of dual-thread miniscrews by analyzing the strain at the bone-implant interface and insertion torque during implantation in artificial bone models with different cortical bone thicknesses.
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Superior Ion-Conducting Hybrid Solid Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Batteries.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Herein, we developed a high-performance lithium ion conducting hybrid solid electrolyte, consisted of LiTFSI salt, Py14 TFSI ionic liquid, and TiO2 nanoparticles. The hybrid solid electrolyte prepared by a facile method had high room temperature ionic conductivity, excellent thermal stability and low interface resistance with good contact. In addition, the lithium transference number was highly increased by the scavenger effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. With the hybrid solid electrolyte, the pouch-type solid-state battery exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 150?mA?h?g(-1) at room temperature, and even at 1?C, the reversible capacity was as high as 106?mA?h?g(-1) .
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Air atmospheric-pressure plasma-jet treatment enhances the attachment of human gingival fibroblasts for early peri-implant soft tissue seals on titanium dental implant abutments.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Abstract Objective. Although dental implants are commonly used for tooth restoration, there is a lack of studies of treatment regimens for preventing extra-oral infection and decreasing osseointegration failures by establishing early peri-implant soft tissue seals on titanium dental implant abutments. In this study, air atmospheric-pressure plasma-jet (AAPPJ) treatment was applied to titanium disks to assay the potential for early peri-implant soft tissue seals on titanium dental implant abutment. Materials and methods. After titanium disks were treated with AAPPJ for 10 s at 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 sccm, surface analysis was performed; the control group received air only or no treatment. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were seeded onto the specimens for evaluating cell attachment and proliferation and adherent-cell morphology was visualized via confocal microscopy. Results. In AAPPJ-treated specimens, the water contact angle decreased according to increased flow rate. Oxygen composition increased in XPS, but no topographical changes were detected. The effect of AAPPJ treatment at 1000 sccm was apparent 2 mm from the treated spot, with a 20% increase in early cell attachment and proliferation. Adherent HGF on AAPPJ-treated specimens displayed a stretched phenotype with more vinculin formation than the control group. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that AAPPJ treatment may enhance the early attachment and proliferation of HGF for establishing early peri-implant soft tissue seals on titanium dental implant abutments with possible favorable effects of osseointegration of dental implant.
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Mitochondria-Immobilized pH-Sensitive Off-On Fluorescent Probe.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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We report here a mitochondria-targetable pH-sensitive probe that allows for a quantitative measurement of mitochondrial pH changes, as well as the real-time monitoring of pH-related physiological effects in live cells. This system consists of a piperazine-linked naphthalimide as a fluorescence off-on signaling unit, a cationic triphenylphosphonium group for mitochondrial targeting, and a reactive benzyl chloride subunit for mitochondrial fixation. It operates well in a mitochondrial environment within whole cells and displays a desirable off-on fluorescence response to mitochondrial acidification. Moreover, this probe allows for the monitoring of impaired mitochondria undergoing mitophagic elimination as the result of nutrient starvation. It thus allows for the monitoring of the organelle-specific dynamics associated with the conversion between physiological and pathological states.
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Improvement of neurological dysfunctions in aphakia mice, a model of Parkinson's disease, after transplantation of ES cell-derived dopaminergic neuronal precursors.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective death of the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, and previously we have shown that aphakia mice, which harbor spontaneous Pitx3 gene mutation, show specific degeneration of the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons accompanied by behavioral deficits that is reversed by L-DOPA treatment or transplantation of dopaminergic neural precursors. Here, we describe transplantation of dopaminergic neural precursors to a mouse model of PD, an aphakia mouse, followed by behavioral analyses of transplanted mice.
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Correlation between orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 expression and amyloid deposition in 5XFAD mice, an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The functional roles of the orphan nuclear receptor, Nurr1, have been extensively studied and well established in the development and survival of midbrain dopamine neurons. As Nurr1 and other NR4A members are widely expressed in the brain in overlapping and distinct manners, it has been an open question whether Nurr1 has important function(s) in other brain areas. Recent studies suggest that up-regulation of Nurr1 expression is critical for cognitive functions and/or long-term memory in forebrain areas including hippocampal formation. Questions remain about the association between Nurr1 expression and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain pathology. Here, using our newly developed Nurr1-selective antibody, we report that Nurr1 protein is prominently expressed in brain areas with A? accumulation, that is, the subiculum and the frontal cortex, in the 5XFAD mouse and that Nurr1 is highly co-expressed with A? at early stages. Furthermore, the number of Nurr1-expressing cells significantly declines in the 5XFAD mouse in an age-dependent manner, accompanied by increased plaque deposition. Thus, our findings suggest that altered expression of Nurr1 is associated with AD progression. Using our newly developed Nurr1-selective antibody, we show that Nurr1 protein is prominently expressed in brain areas accumulating amyloid-beta (A?) in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that Nurr1 is highly co-expressed with A? at early stages (upper panel). Furthermore, in the AD brain the number of Nurr1-expressing cells significantly declines in an age-dependent manner concomitant with increased A? accumulation (lower diagram) highlighting a possible Nurr1 involvement in AD pathology.
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The condensin component NCAPG2 regulates microtubule-kinetochore attachment through recruitment of Polo-like kinase 1 to kinetochores.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The early event of microtubule-kinetochore attachment is a critical stage for precise chromosome segregation. Here we report that NCAPG2, which is a component of the condensin II complex, mediates chromosome segregation through microtubule-kinetochore attachment by recruiting PLK1 to prometaphase kinetochores. NCAPG2 colocalizes with PLK1 at prometaphase kinetochores and directly interacts with the polo-box domain (PBD) of PLK1 via its highly conserved C-terminal region. In both humans and Caenorhabditis elegans, when NCAPG2 is depleted, the attachment of the spindle to the kinetochore is loosened and misoriented. This is caused by the disruption of PLK1 localization to the kinetochore and by the decreased phosphorylation of its kinetochore substrate, BubR1. In addition, the crystal structure of the PBD of PLK1, in complex with the C-terminal region of NCAPG2, (1007)VLS-pT-L(1011), exhibits structural conservation of PBD-phosphopeptides, suggesting that the regulation of NCAPG2 function is phosphorylation-dependent. These findings suggest that NCAPG2 plays an important role in regulating proper chromosome segregation through a functional interaction with PLK1 during mitosis.
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Computerized texture analysis of persistent part-solid ground-glass nodules: differentiation of preinvasive lesions from invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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To retrospectively investigate the value of computerized three-dimensional texture analysis for differentiation of preinvasive lesions from invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas (IPAs) that manifest as part-solid ground-glass nodules (GGNs).
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New parametric imaging method with fluorescein angiograms for detecting areas of capillary nonperfusion.
Healthc Inform Res
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Fluorescein angiography (FAG) is currently the most useful diagnostic modality for examining retinal circulation, and it is frequently used for the evaluation of patients with diabetic retinopathy, occlusive diseases, such as retinal venous and arterial occlusions, and wet macular degeneration. This paper presents a method for objectively evaluating retinal circulation by quantifying circulation-related parameters.
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Gold-plated magnetic polymers for highly specific enrichment and label-free detection of blood biomarkers under physiological conditions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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A mass-based label-free detection of blood biomarkers under physiological conditions is realised using gold-plated magnetic polymer microspheres covered with self-assembled monolayers of polyethylene glycol alkanethiolates that effectively prevent heavy nonspecific binding of serum proteins.
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MiR-126 Regulates Growth Factor Activities and Vulnerability to Toxic Insult in Neurons.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Dysfunction of growth factor (GF) activities contributes to the decline and death of neurons during aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, neurons become more resistant to GF signaling with age. Micro (mi)RNAs are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may be crucial to age- and disease-related changes in GF functions. MiR-126 is involved in regulating insulin/IGF-1/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, and we recently demonstrated a functional role of miR-126 in dopamine neuronal cell survival in models of Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated toxicity. Here, we show that elevated levels of miR-126 increase neuronal vulnerability to ubiquitous toxicity mediated by staurosporine (STS) or Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid beta 1-42 peptides (A?1-42). The neuroprotective factors IGF-1, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and soluble amyloid precursor protein ? (sAPP?) could diminish but not abrogate the toxic effects of miR-126. In miR-126 overexpressing neurons derived from Tg6799 familial AD model mice, we observed an increase in A?1-42 toxicity, but surprisingly, both A?1-42 and miR-126 promoted neurite sprouting. Pathway analysis revealed that miR-126 overexpression downregulated elements in the GF/PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling cascades, including AKT, GSK-3?, ERK, their phosphorylation, and the miR-126 targets IRS-1 and PIK3R2. Finally, inhibition of miR-126 was neuroprotective against both STS and A?1-42 toxicity. Our data provide evidence for a novel mechanism of regulating GF/PI3K signaling in neurons by miR-126 and suggest that miR-126 may be an important mechanistic link between metabolic dysfunction and neurotoxicity in general, during aging, and in the pathogenesis of specific neurological disorders, including PD and AD.
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Osteoconduction capacity of human deciduous and permanent teeth ash in a rat calvarial bone defect model.
Cell Tissue Bank
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to confirm the osteoconduction capacities and determine the potential of permanent teeth ash (PTA), and deciduous teeth ash (DTA) as bone substitutes. Rats (n = 71) were divided randomly into four groups: sham, micro macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP), PTA, and DTA. A sample of the each group was transplanted into preformed 8-mm calvarial defects (one per rat). The density of new bone was calculated and the crystallinities of the PTA and DTA were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The degree of new bone formation was high in the MBCP and DTA groups but low in the PTA groups. The DTA was highly crystalline, whereas the PTA was not. The percentages of ?-tricalcium phosphate in the DTA and PTA were 10.7 and 3.7 %, respectively. DTA has a high osteoconduction capacity, suggesting that it is a useful bone substitute.
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Molecular and Functional Analyses of Motor Neurons Generated from Human Cord-Blood-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have become the most promising candidates for in vitro modeling of motor neuron (MN) diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and possibly for future therapeutic implementation in regenerative medicine. We here present for the first time the differentiation of human cord-blood-derived iPSCs (hCBiPSCs) into MNs, the cell type primarily affected in ALS. In contrast to iPSCs generated from adult tissue, the hCBiPSCs used in this study hold the promise of lower genetic mutation burden or epigenetic alterations, which makes them ideal candidates for transplantation studies. Small-molecule-derived neural precursor cells (smNPCs) were generated from hCBiPSCs and used for the following differentiation studies to substantially shorten MN differentiation time. Consequently, as early as 18 days of in vitro differentiation, the MNs stained positive for neuronal- and for MN-specific markers accompanied by respective gene expression patterns. To demonstrate that the hCBiPSC-derived neural precursor cells (smNPCs) can be differentiated into functional MNs, the cells were characterized by calcium imaging and patch-clamp analysis. Calcium imaging detected the expression of functional voltage-dependent calcium and ligand-gated channels of several important neurotransmitters. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we observed functional neuronal properties like sodium-inward currents and action potentials (APs). Some cells showed spontaneous APs and synaptic activity that are signs of essential functional maturation. Having established a rapid and efficient method to generate functional MNs from hCBiPSCs, we demonstrate the differentiation potential of genetically unbiased hCBiPSCs as promising source for transplantation studies and also create a framework for future in-vitro disease modeling.
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Characterization of hydroxyapatite containing a titania layer formed by anodization coupled with blasting.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Abstract Objectives. The modification of dental implant surface by increasing the surface roughness or/and altering chemical composition have been attempted. Among them, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are typically bioactive. On the other hand, titania coatings have good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fabricate HA containing a titania layer using an HA blasting and anodization method to benefit from the advantages of both, followed by surface characterization and biocompatibility. Materials and methods. HA blasting was performed followed by microarc oxidation (MAO) using various applied voltages (100, 150, 200, 250 V). For surface characterization, the microstructure of the surface, surface phase and surface roughness were observed. Bonding strength was measured using a universal testing machine and potentiodynamic corrosion testing was performed. Biocompatibility was evaluated based on bioactivity and cell proliferation test. Results. The porous titanium oxide-containing HA was formed at 150 and 200 V. These surfaces were a lower corrosion current compared to the titanium treated only with HA blasting. In addition, composite treated titanium showed a rougher surface and tighter bonding strength compared to the titanium treated only with MAO. Biocompatibility demonstrated that HA/Titania composite layer on titanium showed a rapid HA precipitation and also enhanced cell proliferation. Conclusions. These results suggested that HA containing titania layer on titanium had not only excellent physicochemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties, but also improved bioactivity and biological properties that could be applied as material for a dental implant system.
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Development of Biopsy Gun for Aspiration and Drug Injection.
Surg Innov
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy.
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Multiparametric Monitoring of Early Response to Antiangiogenic Therapy: A Sequential Perfusion CT and PET/CT Study in a Rabbit VX2 Tumor Model.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Objectives. To perform dual analysis of tumor perfusion and glucose metabolism using perfusion CT and FDG-PET/CT for the purpose of monitoring the early response to bevacizumab therapy in rabbit VX2 tumor models and to assess added value of FDG-PET to perfusion CT. Methods. Twenty-four VX2 carcinoma tumors implanted in bilateral back muscles of 12 rabbits were evaluated. Serial concurrent perfusion CT and FDG-PET/CT were performed before and 3, 7, and 14 days after bevacizumab therapy (treatment group) or saline infusion (control group). Perfusion CT was analyzed to calculate blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability surface area product (PS); FDG-PET was analyzed to calculate SUVmax, SUVmean, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), entropy, and homogeneity. The flow-metabolic ratio (FMR) was also calculated and immunohistochemical analysis of microvessel density (MVD) was performed. Results. On day 14, BF and BV in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group. There were no significant differences in all FDG-PET-derived parameters between both groups. In the treatment group, FMR prominently decreased after therapy and was positively correlated with MVD. Conclusions. In VX2 tumors, FMR could provide further insight into the early antiangiogenic effect reflecting a mismatch in intratumor blood flow and metabolism.
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Gynecomastia surgery is associated with improved nipple location in young korean patients.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Gynecomastia is benign enlargement of breast tissue in males and is fairly common. Mastectomy not only helps in improving the shape of anterior chest, but can also improve the location of nipple. Therefore, a principle element of mastectomy design is defining the normal location of nipple based on major anatomical reference points. Here, the nipple location was compared for before and after gynecomastia surgery. In addition, the same was also compared between male patients undergoing gynecomastia surgery and control group of subjects without gynecomastia.
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Mass spectrometric analysis of protein tyrosine nitration in aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
Mass Spectrom Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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This review highlights the significance of protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) in signal transduction pathways, the progress achieved in analytical methods, and the implication of nitration in the cellular pathophysiology of aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Although mass spectrometry of nitrated peptides has become a powerful tool for the characterization of nitrated peptides, the low stoichiometry of this modification clearly necessitates the use of affinity chromatography to enrich modified peptides. Analysis of nitropeptides involves identification of endogenous, intact modification as well as chemical conversion of the nitro group to a chemically reactive amine group and further modifications that enable affinity capture and enhance detectability by altering molecular properties. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in chemical derivatization of nitropeptides for enrichment and mass analysis, and for detection and quantification using various analytical tools. PTN participates in physiological processes, such as aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine has been found to occur during the aging process; this was identified through mass spectrometry. Further, there are several studies implicating the presence of nitrated tyrosine in age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.
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Phospholipids of tumor extracellular vesicles stratify gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells from gefitinib-sensitive cells.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib are one of gold standard treatment options for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, which eventually fail due to the acquired resistance and relapse because of the development of secondary activating mutations such as T790M in EGFR. Predicting chemo-responsiveness of cancer patients provides a major challenge in chemotherapy. The goal of the present study is to determine whether phospholipid signatures of tumor extracellular vesicles (EV) are associated with gefitinib-resistance of NSCLC. A sophisticated mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic assays were performed for in-depth analysis of the lipidomes of gefitinib-resistant (PC9R) and responsive (PC9) NSCLC cells and their shed EV from these cell lines (PC9EV or PC9REV). Lipid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry analysis showed that EV phospholipid composition was significantly distinct in PC9R, compared to PC9 cells. Following statistical analyses has identified 35 (20 positive and 15 negative ion mode) differentially regulated lipids, which are significantly over- or under-expressed in PC9R EV, compared to PC9 EV (p value < 0.01, fold change > 1.5). Our phospholipid signatures suggest that EV associates with drug sensitivity, which is worthy of additional investigation to assess chemoresistance in patients with NSCLC treated with anti-EGFR TKIs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The disinfection of impression materials by using microwave irradiation and hydrogen peroxide.
J Prosthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Microwave irradiation and immersion in solutions have been recommended for denture disinfection. However, the effect of dry conditions and impression materials has not been completely evaluated.
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Analysis of nitrated proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in mating signal transduction.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a post-translational modification that regulates signal transduction and inflammatory responses, and is related to neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular function of PTN remains unclear because the low stoichiometry of PTN limits the identification and quantification of nitrated peptides. Effective enrichment is an important aspect of PTN analysis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo nitroproteome elicited by mating signal transduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel chemical enrichment method followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass (LC-MS/MS). Nitroproteome profiling successfully identified changes in the nitration states of 14 proteins during mating signal transduction in S. cerevisiae, making this the first reported in vivo nitroproteome in yeast. We investigated the biological functions of these nitroproteins and their relationships to mating signal transduction in S. cerevisiae using a protein-protein interaction network. Our results suggest that PTN and denitration may be involved in non-reactive nitrogen species-mediated signal transduction and can provide clues for understanding the functional roles of PTN in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Increased genomic integrity of an improved protein-based mouse induced pluripotent stem cell method compared with current viral-induced strategies.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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It has recently been shown that genomic integrity (with respect to copy number variants [CNVs]) is compromised in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated by viral-based ectopic expression of specific transcription factors (e.g., Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc). However, it is unclear how different methods for iPSC generation compare with one another with respect to CNV formation. Because array-based methods remain the gold standard for detecting unbalanced structural variants (i.e., CNVs), we have used this approach to comprehensively identify CNVs in iPSC as a proxy for determining whether our modified protein-based method minimizes genomic instability compared with retro- and lentiviral methods. In this study, we established an improved method for protein reprogramming by using partially purified reprogramming proteins, resulting in more efficient generation of iPSCs from C57/BL6J mouse hepatocytes than using protein extracts. We also developed a robust and unbiased 1 M custom array CGH platform to identify novel CNVs and previously described hot spots for CNV formation, allowing us to detect CNVs down to the size of 1.9 kb. The genomic integrity of these protein-based mouse iPSCs (p-miPSCs) was compared with miPSCs developed from viral-based strategies (i.e., retroviral: retro-miPSCs or lentiviral: lenti-miPSCs). We identified an increased CNV content in lenti-miPSCs and retro-miPSCs (29?53 CNVs) compared with p-miPSCs (9?10 CNVs), indicating that our improved protein-based reprogramming method maintains genomic integrity better than current viral reprogramming methods. Thus, our study, for the first time to our knowledge, demonstrates that reprogramming methods significantly influence the genomic integrity of resulting iPSCs.
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Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems.
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A novel semi-automatic snake robot for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: preclinical tests in animal and human cadaver models (with video).
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging surgical technique. We aimed to design, create, and evaluate a new semi-automatic snake robot for NOTES.
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Risk acceptance and expectations of laryngeal allotransplantation.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Laryngeal allotransplantation (LA) is a technique involving transplantation of a deceased donor's larynx into a recipient, and it may be substituted for conventional laryngeal reconstruction. There are widely different views on LA, as the recipient is administered continuous, potentially life-threatening, immunosuppressive therapy for a functional or aesthetic result, which is not directly related to life extension. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in risk acceptance and expectations of LA between four population groups.
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Impact of circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERB? on midbrain dopamine production and mood regulation.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The circadian nature of mood and its dysfunction in affective disorders is well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that the circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERB?, which is associated with bipolar disorder, impacts midbrain dopamine production and mood-related behavior in mice. Genetic deletion of the Rev-erb? gene or pharmacological inhibition of REV-ERB? activity in the ventral midbrain induced mania-like behavior in association with a central hyperdopaminergic state. Also, REV-ERB? repressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene transcription via competition with nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (NURR1), another nuclear receptor crucial for dopaminergic neuronal function, thereby driving circadian TH expression through a target-dependent antagonistic mechanism. In conclusion, we identified a molecular connection between the circadian timing system and mood regulation, suggesting that REV-ERB? could be targeting in the treatment of circadian rhythm-related affective disorders.
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Imaging mass spectrometry in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the identification and validation of biomarker proteins.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Direct tissue imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry has become increasingly important in biology and medicine, because this technology can detect the relative abundance and spatial distribution of interesting proteins in tissues. Five thyroid cancer samples, along with normal tissue, were sliced and transferred onto conductive glass slides. After laser scanning by MALDI-TOF equipped with a smart beam laser, images were created for individual masses and proteins were classified at 200-µm spatial resolution. Based on the spatial distribution, region-specific proteins on a tumor lesion could be identified by protein extraction from tumor tissue and analysis using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using all the spectral data at each spot, various intensities of a specific peak were detected in the tumor and normal regions of the thyroid. Differences in the molecular weights of expressed proteins between tumor and normal regions were analyzed using unsupervised and supervised clustering. To verify the presence of discovered proteins through IMS, we identified ribosomal protein P2, which is specific for cancer. We have demonstrated the feasibility of IMS as a useful tool for the analysis of tissue sections, and identified the tumor-specific protein ribosomal protein P2.
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Coexpression of multiple genes reconstitutes two pathways of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Pichia pastoris.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The introduction of novel traits to cells often requires the stable coexpression of multiple genes within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by delta 6-desaturase, an ELOVL5 involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and delta 5-desaturase. The coexpression of McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES encoding the corresponding enzymes, produced docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3), as well as arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The expression of each gene increased within 24 h, with high transcript levels after induction with 0.5 or 1 % methanol. High levels of the newly expressed VLC-PUFAs occurred after 144 h. This expression system exemplifies the recent progress and future possibilities of the metabolic engineering of VLC-PUFAs in oilseed crops.
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A new hemostatic clip for endoscopic surgery that can maintain blood flow after clipping.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To develop a new hemostatic device for endoscopic surgery that can control the bleeding without completely occluding the bleeding vessel.
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Posttranslational modifications of defined embryonic reprogramming transcription factors.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by expressing ectopic reprogramming transcriptional factors such as Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, and Nanog is one of the cutting-edge discoveries in stem cell and cancer research. This discovery has raised several safety issues regarding the use of iPSC technology for human disease research. Tumorigenesis is the major obstacle observed for iPSC-mediated transplantation therapy. Recently, a new method to generate human iPSCs either by a chemical method or by direct delivery of reprogramming factors has become a promising approach for future customized cell therapy of human disorders. These reprogramming transcriptional factors play critical roles in diverse cellular functions such as transactivation, cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) (phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, sumoylation, and so on) of these proteins act as a regulatory signal to control protein activity, expression, and stability in a wide variety of cellular processes. We attempt to summarize the accumulated evidence to address the role of PTMs of Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, and Nanog in regulating their biological functions. This review allows us to understand the importance of PTMs and their application in developing an efficient and safe reprogramming method without cancer development for cell therapy. Finally, we discuss the importance of PTMs of reprogramming factors in tumor pathogenesis.
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Quantitative MRI morphology of invasive breast cancer: correlation with immunohistochemical biomarkers and subtypes.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with intrinsic molecular subtypes. The different biology and histology of breast cancer exhibit different tumor morphology at breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, few studies have examined the quantitative relationship between the MRI morphological and immunohistochemical features in breast cancer.
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Efficient specification of interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells by dorsoventral and rostrocaudal modulation.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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GABAergic interneurons regulate cortical neural networks by providing inhibitory inputs, and their malfunction, resulting in failure to intricately regulate neural circuit balance, is implicated in brain diseases such as Schizophrenia, Autism, and Epilepsy. During early development, GABAergic interneuron progenitors arise from the ventral telencephalic area such as medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) by the actions of secreted signaling molecules from nearby organizers, and migrate to their target sites where they form local synaptic connections. In this study, using combinatorial and temporal modulation of developmentally relevant dorsoventral and rostrocaudal signaling pathways (SHH, Wnt, and FGF8), we efficiently generated MGE cells from multiple human pluripotent stem cells. Most importantly, modulation of FGF8/FGF19 signaling efficiently directed MGE versus CGE differentiation. Human MGE cells spontaneously differentiated into Lhx6-expressing GABAergic interneurons and showed migratory properties. These human MGE-derived neurons generated GABA, fired action potentials, and displayed robust GABAergic postsynaptic activity. Transplantation into rodent brains results in well-contained neural grafts enriched with GABAergic interneurons that migrate in the host and mature to express somatostatin or parvalbumin. Thus, we propose that signaling modulation recapitulating normal developmental patterns efficiently generate human GABAergic interneurons. This strategy represents a novel tool in regenerative medicine, developmental studies, disease modeling, bioassay, and drug screening.
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Positive control for cytotoxicity evaluation of dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using sodium lauryl sulfate.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Abstract Objectives. Vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) is elastomeric dental impression material which, despite having very few reports of adverse reactions, has shown high levels of cytotoxicity that is difficult to be interpreted without referencing to the positive control material. Therefore, in this study, positive control VPS was developed using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for the reference of cytotoxicity test. Materials and methods. The positive control VPS with SLS was formed with a different proportion of SLS (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 wt%) added to the base. The cytotoxicity test was then carried out using the extractions or dilutions of the extractions from each of the test samples using murine fibroblast cells (L929). Results. The final product of positive control VPS behaved similar to commercially available VPS; being initially liquid-like and then becoming rubber-like. Ion chromatography showed that the level of SLS released from the product increased as the proportion of added SLS increased, consequently resulting in an increased level of cytotoxicity. Also, the commercially available VPS was less cytotoxic than the positive control VPS with more or equal to 2 wt% of SLS. However, even the VPS with the highest SLS (16 wt%) did not cause oral mucosa irritation during the animal study. Conclusions. The positive control VPS was successfully produced using SLS, which will be useful in terms of providing references during in vitro cytotoxicity testing.
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Pitx3 deficient mice as a genetic animal model of co-morbid depressive disorder and parkinsonism.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Approximately 40-50% of all patients with Parkinson?s disease (PD) show symptoms and signs of depressive disorders, for which neither pathogenic understanding nor rational treatment are available. Using Pit3x-deficient mice, a model for selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we tested depression-related behaviors and acute stress responses to better understand how a nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit increases the prevalence of depressive disorders in PD patients. Pitx3-deficient mice showed decreased sucrose consumption and preference in the two-bottle free-choice test of anhedonia. Acute restraint stress increased c-Fos (known as a neuronal activity marker) expression levels in various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), in both Pitx3+/+ and -/- mice. However, the stress-induced increases in c-Fos levels in the cortex, dorsal striatum, and PVN were significantly greater in Pitx3-/- than +/+ mice, suggesting that signs of depressive disorders in parkinsonism are related to altered stress vulnerability. Based on these results, we propose that Pitx3-/- mice may serve as a useful genetic animal model for co-morbid depressive disorder and parkinsonism.
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Determination of selected reaction monitoring peptide transitions via multiplexed product-ion scan modes.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Although in silico prediction of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) peptide transitions is the most commonly used approach in quantitative proteomics, systematically detectable peptide transitions selected from actual experimental data are desirable. Here, we demonstrated the use of two triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS) operation modes to identify reliable SRM peptide transitions of target peptides selected from a shotgun proteomic linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (LIT-MS) profiling dataset.
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Extracellular vesicles shed from gefitinib-resistant nonsmall cell lung cancer regulate the tumor microenvironment.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including gefitinib, are the first-line treatment of choice for nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating EGFR mutations, however, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable. The main objective of this study was to identify informative protein signatures of extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from gefitinib-resistant nonsmall cell lung cancer cells using proteomics analysis. Nano-LC-MS/MS analysis identified with high confidence (false discovery rate < 0.05, fold change ?2) 664 EV proteins enriched in PC9R cells, which are resistant to gefitinib due to EGFR T790M mutation. Computational analyses suggested components of several signal transduction mechanisms including the AKT (also PKB, protein kinase B)/mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway are overrepresented in EV from PC9R cells. Treatment of recipient cells with EV harvested from PC9R cells increased phosphorylation of signaling molecules, and enhanced proliferation, invasion, and drug resistance to gefitinib-induced apoptosis. Dose- and time-dependent pharmaceutical inhibition of AKT/mTOR pathway overcame drug resistance of PC9R cells and those of H1975 exhibiting EGFR T790M mutation. Our findings provide new insight into an oncogenic EV protein signature regulating tumor microenvironment, and will aid in the development of novel diagnostic strategies for prediction and assessment of gefitinib resistance.
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Low C24-OH and C22-OH sulfatides in human renal cell carcinoma.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Histopathologic diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may sometimes be difficult with small biopsy samples. We applied histology-directed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to RCC samples to evaluate whether and how lipid profiles are different between RCC and normal tissue. We evaluated 59 RCC samples and 24 adjacent normal tissue samples collected from patients who underwent surgery. Five peaks were significantly differently expressed (p?
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A case of nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap for below-knee amputation stump wound: treatment option for compartment syndrome after fibular free flap surgery.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Despite the frequent use of the fibular free flap, there have been no reports of severe compartment syndrome of the donor leg that necessitated limb amputation. A 66-yr-old man had a fibular osseous free flap transfer from the left leg to the mandible that was complicated by postoperative compartment syndrome. An extensive chronic leg wound resulted, which was treated with multiple debridements and finally with below-knee amputation. Successful coverage of the below-knee amputation stump was accomplished with a nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap. Various foot fillet flaps may be used acutely as a free or an island pedicled flap, but dissection of the vascular pedicle may be difficult in a chronically inflamed wound because of inflammation and adhesions to surrounding tissue. The nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap may be considered as a useful option for treatment of a chronically inflamed stump wound after below-knee amputation.
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Global gene expression responses to waterlogging in leaves of rape seedlings.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Soil waterlogging is a serious constraint to crop production. We investigated the physiological responses of rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings to waterlogging stress and analyzed global gene transcription responses in the aerial leaves of waterlogged rape seedlings. Seedlings of 'Tammi' and 'Youngsan' cultivars were subjected to waterlogging for 3 and 6 days and recovery for 5 days. Waterlogging stress caused a significant decrease in leaf chlorophyll content and premature senescence of the leaves. Maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) decreased in the waterlogged seedlings compared with the control plants. To evaluate whether the observed physiological changes in the leaves are associated with the differential regulation of gene expression in response to waterlogging stress, we analyzed the global transcriptional profile of leaves of 'Tammi' seedlings that were exposed to waterlogging for a short period (36 and 72 h). SolexaQA RNA-seq analysis revealed that a total of 4,484 contigs (8.5 %) of all contigs assayed (52,747) showed a twofold change in expression after 36 h of the start of waterlogging and 9,659 contigs (18.3 %) showed a twofold change after 72 h. Major genes involved in leaf photosynthesis, including light reactions and carbon-fixing reactions, were downregulated, while a number of genes involved in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, degradation (proteins, starch, and lipids), premature senescence, and abiotic stress tolerance were upregulated. Transcriptome analysis data suggested that the aerial leaves of waterlogged rape seedlings respond to hypoxia by regulating the expression of diverse genes in the leaves.
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BMP-2 Promotes Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell Invasion by Inducing CCL5 Release.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-containing bone grafts are useful regenerative materials for oral and maxillofacial surgery; however, several in vitro and in vivo studies previously reported cancer progression-related adverse effects caused by BMP-2. In this study, by quantifying the rhBMP-2 content released from bone grafts, the rhBMP-2 concentration that did not show cytotoxicity in each cell line was determined and applied to the in vitro monoculture or coculture model in the invasion assay. Our results showed that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2, while not affecting cancer cell viability, significantly increased the invasion ability of the cancer cells cocultured with fibroblasts. Cocultured medium with rhBMP-2 also contained increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases. rhBMP-2-treated cocultured fibroblasts did not show a prominent difference in mRNA expression profile. Some cytokines, however, were detected in the conditioned medium by a human cytokine antibody array. Among them, the cancer invasion-related factor CCL5 was quantified by ELISA. Interestingly, CCL5 neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the invasion of oral cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2 may induce invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells by CCL5 release in coculture models. Therefore, we propose that a careful clinical examination before the use of rhBMP-2-containing biomaterials is indispensable for using rhBMP-2 treatment to prevent cancer progression.
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Phosphatidylcholine alteration identified using MALDI imaging MS in HBV-infected mouse livers and virus-mediated regeneration defects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we investigated whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes the alteration of lipid metabolism and composition during acute infection and liver regeneration in a mouse model. The liver controls lipid biogenesis and bile acid homeostasis. Infection of HBV causes various liver diseases and impairs liver regeneration. As there are very few reports available in the literature on lipid alterations by HBV infection or HBV-mediated liver injury, we have analyzed phospholipids that have important roles in liver regeneration by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) in the livers of HBV model mice. As a result, we identified different phosphatidylcholines (PCs) showing significant changes in their composition as well as cationized ion adduct formation in HBV-infected mouse livers which are associated with virus-mediated regeneration defects. To find the factor of altered PCs, the expression kinetics of enzymes was also examined that regulate PC biosynthesis during liver regeneration. It is noteworthy that the expression of choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A (PCYT1A) was significantly delayed in wild type HBV-expressing livers. Moreover, the amount of hepatic total PC was also significantly decreased in wt HBV-expressing mice. These results suggest that infection of HBV alters the composition of PCs which may involve in HBV-mediated regeneration defects and liver disease.
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Analysis of the phospholipid profile of metaphase II mouse oocytes undergoing vitrification.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oocyte freezing confers thermal and chemical stress upon the oolemma and various other intracellular structures due to the formation of ice crystals. The lipid profiles of oocytes and embryos are closely associated with both, the degrees of their membrane fluidity, as well as the degree of chilling and freezing injuries that may occur during cryopreservation. In spite of the importance of lipids in the process of cryopreservation, the phospholipid status in oocytes and embryos before and after freezing has not been investigated. In this study, we employed mass spectrometric analysis to examine if vitrification has an effect on the phospholipid profiles of mouse oocytes. Freshly prepared metaphase II mouse oocytes were vitrified using copper grids and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Fresh and vitrified-warmed oocytes were subjected to phospholipid extraction procedure. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that multiple species of phospholipids are reduced in vitrified-warmed oocytes. LIFT analyses identified 31 underexpressed and 5 overexpressed phospholipids in vitrified mouse oocytes. The intensities of phosphatidylinositol (PI) {18?2/16?0} [M-H]- and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) {14?0/18?2} [M-H]- were decreased the most with fold changes of 30.5 and 19.1 in negative ion mode, respectively. Several sphingomyelins (SM) including SM {d38?3} [M+H]+ and SM {d34?0} [M+K]+ were decreased significantly in positive ion mode. Overall, the declining trend of multiple phospholipids demonstrates that vitrification has a marked effect on phospholipid profiles of oocytes. These results show that the identified phospholipids can be used as potential biomarkers of oocyte undergoing vitrification and will allow for the development of strategies to preserve phospholipids during oocyte cryopreservation.
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Targeted next-generation sequencing at copy-number breakpoints for personalized analysis of rearranged ends in solid tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The concept of the utilization of rearranged ends for development of personalized biomarkers has attracted much attention owing to its clinical applicability. Although targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for recurrent rearrangements has been successful in hematologic malignancies, its application to solid tumors is problematic due to the paucity of recurrent translocations. However, copy-number breakpoints (CNBs), which are abundant in solid tumors, can be utilized for identification of rearranged ends.
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Usefulness of texture analysis in differentiating transient from persistent part-solid nodules(PSNs): a retrospective study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Early discrimination between transient and persistent par-solid ground-glass nodules (PSNs) at CT is essential for patient management. The objective of our study was to retrospectively investigate the value of texture analysis in differentiating pulmonary transient and persistent PSNs in addition to clinical and CT features.
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Functional Roles of Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a in Neurogenesis and Phenotype Specification of Dopamine Neurons During In Vitro Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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To elucidate detailed functional mechanisms of key fate-determining transcription factors (eg, Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a) and their functional interplay for midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons, we developed highly efficient gain-of-function system by transducing the neural progenitors (NPs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with retroviral vectors, allowing the analysis of downstream molecular and cellular effects. Overexpression of each factors, Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a robustly promoted the dopaminergic differentiation of ESC-NP cells exposed to sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). In addition, each of these factors directly interacts with potential binding sites within the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and activated its promoter activity. Interestingly, however, overexpression of Nurr1, but not of Pitx3 or Lmx1a, generated a significant number of nonneuronal TH-positive cells. In line with this, Pitx3 and Lmx1a, but not Nurr1, induced expression of the Ngn2 gene, which is critical for neurogenesis. We also observed that Pitx3 directly bound to its potential binding sites within the Ngn2 gene and the pan-neuronal marker ?-tubulin III gene, suggesting that Pitx3 contributes to mDA neurogenesis by directly regulating these genes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that key mDA regulators (Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a) play overlapping as well as distinct roles during neurogenesis and neurotransmitter phenotype determination of mDA neurons.
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Induced heat property of polyethyleneglycol-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with dispersion stability for hyperthermia.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been used for hyperthermia treatment in an attempt to overcome various problems. When using hyperthermia treamtment, it is critical to control the surface modification of the particles. Magnetic nanoparticles tend to aggregate due to strong magnetic dipole--dipole attractions. The particles then have a high surface area and are of larger sizes, posing serious practical limitations. The nanoparticles are used to generate maximum heat and to maintain a constant heating temperature using the minimum magnetic nanoparticles dosage. In this study, we investigated the effect of PEG coated onto Fe3O4 nanoparticles. We tested the dispersion stability and repetitive heating property of nanoparticles for different PEG concentrations under an AC magnetic field. The results confirmed that the nanoparticles on a colloidal system maintained the heating properties of repetitve inductive heating as PEG concentration increased with dispersion stability. The nanoparticles with superior dispersion stability will be appropriate for hyperthermia applications in cancer treatments.
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Body fat assessment method using CT images with separation mask algorithm.
J Digit Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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In recent years, the number of obese population in Korea has been growing up along with the economic development, environmental factors, and the change in life style. Considering the growth of obese population and the adverse effect of obesity on health, it is getting more important to prevent and diagnose the obesity with the quantitative measurement of body fat that has become an important indicator for obesity. In this study, we proposed a procedure for the automated fat assessment from computed tomography (CT) data using image processing technique. The proposed method was applied to a single-CT image as well as CT-volume data, and results were correlated to those of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) that is known as the reliable method for evaluating body fat. Using single-CT images, correlation coefficients between DEXA and the automated assessment and DEXA and the manual assessment were 0.038 and 0.058, respectively (P?>?0.05). Hence, there was no significant correlation between three methods using the proposed method with single-CT images. On the other hand, in case of CT-volume data, the above correlation coefficients were increased to 0.826, 0.812, and 0.805, respectively (P?
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Percutaneous navigation surgery of osteoid osteoma of the femur neck.
Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Abstract Surgery on benign bone tumors such as osteoid osteoma does not necessarily require bone exposure through a surgical incision. In most reported cases of the osteoid osteoma resection through computer-assisted surgery, registration and surgery were performed by exposing the bone. We have succeeded in performing percutaneous registration and navigated burr excision of the osteoid osteoma using computer-assisted navigation.
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Inhibition of pluripotent stem cell-derived teratoma formation by small molecules.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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The future of safe cell-based therapy rests on overcoming teratoma/tumor formation, in particular when using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Because the presence of a few remaining undifferentiated hPSCs can cause undesirable teratomas after transplantation, complete removal of these cells with no/minimal damage to differentiated cells is a prerequisite for clinical application of hPSC-based therapy. Having identified a unique hESC signature of pro- and antiapoptotic gene expression profile, we hypothesized that targeting hPSC-specific antiapoptotic factor(s) (i.e., survivin or Bcl10) represents an efficient strategy to selectively eliminate pluripotent cells with teratoma potential. Here we report the successful identification of small molecules that can effectively inhibit these antiapoptotic factors, leading to selective and efficient removal of pluripotent stem cells through apoptotic cell death. In particular, a single treatment of hESC-derived mixed population with chemical inhibitors of survivin (e.g., quercetin or YM155) induced selective and complete cell death of undifferentiated hPSCs. In contrast, differentiated cell types (e.g., dopamine neurons and smooth-muscle cells) derived from hPSCs survived well and maintained their functionality. We found that quercetin-induced selective cell death is caused by mitochondrial accumulation of p53 and is sufficient to prevent teratoma formation after transplantation of hESC- or hiPSC-derived cells. Taken together, these results provide the "proof of concept" that small-molecule targeting of hPSC-specific antiapoptotic pathway(s) is a viable strategy to prevent tumor formation by selectively eliminating remaining undifferentiated pluripotent cells for safe hPSC-based therapy.
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Transcription elongation factor Tcea3 regulates the pluripotent differentiation potential of mouse embryonic stem cells via the Lefty1-Nodal-Smad2 pathway.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Self-renewal and pluripotency are hallmark properties of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and iPS cells. Previous studies revealed the ESC-specific core transcription circuitry and showed that these core factors (e.g., Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog) regulate not only self-renewal but also pluripotent differentiation. However, it remains elusive how these two cell states are regulated and balanced during in vitro replication and differentiation. Here, we report that the transcription elongation factor Tcea3 is highly enriched in mouse ESCs (mESCs) and plays important roles in regulating the differentiation. Strikingly, altering Tcea3 expression in mESCs did not affect self-renewal under nondifferentiating condition; however, upon exposure to differentiating cues, its overexpression impaired in vitro differentiation capacity, and its knockdown biased differentiation toward mesodermal and endodermal fates. Furthermore, we identified Lefty1 as a downstream target of Tcea3 and showed that the Tcea3-Lefty1-Nodal-Smad2 pathway is an innate program critically regulating cell fate choices between self-replication and differentiation commitment. Together, we propose that Tcea3 critically regulates pluripotent differentiation of mESCs as a molecular rheostat of Nodal-Smad2/3 signaling.
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Internal mammary artery perforator-based V-Y advancement flap for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the sternal region.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Abstract We successfully reconstructed a large defect that had been created by resection of an unstable, contracted, and hypertrophic scar with a chronic ulcer on the lower sternal area of a 67-year-old man. We used bilateral V-Y advancement flaps based on internal mammary artery perforators.
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New clinical grading scales and objective measurement for conjunctival injection.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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To establish a new clinical grading scale and objective measurement method to evaluate conjunctival injection.
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Lipid profiles for HER2-positive breast cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Accumulating data indicate that human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. We undertook a study to correlate lipid profiles with heterogeneous clinicopathological features of HER2-positive breast cancer.
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Reconstruction of the medial canthus using an ipsilateral paramedian forehead flap.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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The medial canthus is an important area in determining the impression of a persons facial appearance. It is composed of various structures, including canthal tendons, lacrimal canaliculi, conjunctiva, the tarsal plate, and skin tissues. Due to its complexity, medial canthal defect reconstruction has been a challenging procedure to perform. The contralateral paramedian forehead flap is usually used for large defects; however, the bulkiness of the glabella and splitting at the distal end of the flap are factors that can reduce the rate of flap survival. We reconstructed medial canthal defects using ipsilateral paramedian forehead flaps, minimizing glabellar bulkiness.
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Quantitative measurement method for possible rib fractures in chest radiographs.
Healthc Inform Res
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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This paper proposes a measurement method to quantify the abnormal characteristics of the broken parts of ribs using local texture and shape features in chest radiographs.
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Analysis of the biochemical role of Lys-11 in polyubiquitin chain formation using quantitative mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Protein ubiquitination plays a critical role in regulating many cellular events, such as protein localization and stability, cellular signal transduction and DNA repair. Recent studies have shown that polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains elongate through heterogeneous isopeptide linkages to K11, K29, K48 and K63. In this study we have investigated the usage of isopeptide linkages of polyUb chains in different molecular weight regions by using quantitative mass spectrometry.
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Cytotoxicity evaluation of zinc oxide-eugenol and non-eugenol cements using different fibroblast cell lines.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Abstract Objectives: Despite being commonly used as temporary cements in dentistry, there is a lack of studies regarding the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) and zinc oxide non-eugenol (ZONE) cements. In addition, cytotoxicity evaluation of the materials often involves animal-based cells. Therefore, in this study, a cytotoxicity evaluation of commercially available ZOE and ZONE cements was carried out using both animal and human-based cells. Materials and methods. The extraction or dilution of the extraction from four commercially available cements (two zinc oxide-eugenol and two zinc oxide non-eugenol) was tested for cytotoxicity, using three different cells and a water-soluble treatzolium salt assay. The results were confirmed using a confocal laser microscope following calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining. Results. The results showed that there was a significant difference in cell viability depending on which cell was used, even when the same material was tested. Generally, L929 showed relatively low cell viability with a low EC50 (effective concentration of extracts that caused 50% of cell viability compared to the control) value compared to both HGF-1 and hTERT-hNOF. Such results were also confirmed by a confocal laser microscope. Conclusions. Careful consideration on interpreting the results for cytotoxicity evaluation of ZOE and ZONE cements is needed when different cells are used.
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Continuity of outpatient treatment after discharge of patients with major depressive disorder.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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This study aimed to identify the predictors associated with the continuity of outpatient treatment after discharge for patients with major depression.
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Cerebrospinal fluid-compensated medication reservoir for an implantable infusion device: concept and preliminary evaluation.
Int J Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Conventional gas-compensated medication reservoirs used for implantable infusion devices require perfect sealing of the gas chamber, because the gases used are generally toxic. In addition, the physical properties of selected gas critically affect the performance of infusion devices and hydraulic performance of the infusion device can be affected by the amount of medication discharged.?In this study, we suggest a new medication reservoir that adopts a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-compensating mechanism, such that when a medication is released from the reservoir by a mechanical actuator, native CSF enters into the reservoir to minimize the build-up of pressure drop. We evaluated in vitro performance and conducted in vivo feasibility tests by using an intrathecal infusion device developed at the Korean National Cancer Center. Experimental results showed that the proposed CSF-compensated infusion pump was essentially less affected by ambient temperature or pressure conditions compared to the gas-compensated infusion pump. Moreover, it showed moderate implant feasibility and operating stability during an animal experiment performed for 12 days. We believe that the proposed volume-compensating mechanism could be applied in various medical fields that use implantable devices.
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Low-mass-ion discriminant equation: A new concept for colorectal cancer screening.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Blood metabolites can be detected as low-mass ions (LMIs) by mass spectrometry (MS). These LMIs may reflect the pathological changes in metabolism that occur as part of a disease state, such as cancer. We constructed a LMI discriminant equation (LOME) to investigate whether systematic LMI profiling might be applied to cancer screening. LMI information including m/z and mass peak intensity was obtained by five independent MALDI-MS analyses, using 1,127 sera collected from healthy individuals and cancer patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BRC), gastric cancer (GC) and other types of cancer. Using a two-stage principal component analysis to determine weighting factors for individual LMIs and a two-stage LMI selection procedure, we selected a total of 104 and 23 major LMIs by the LOME algorithms for separating CRC from control and rest of cancer samples, respectively. CRC LOME demonstrated excellent discriminating power in a validation set (sensitivity/specificity: 93.21%/96.47%). Furthermore, in a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) of available validation samples, the discriminating power of CRC LOME was much stronger (sensitivity/specificity: 94.79%/97.96%) than that of the FOBT (sensitivity/specificity: 50.00%/100.0%), which is the standard CRC screening tool. The robust discriminating power of the LOME scheme was reconfirmed in screens for BRC (sensitivity/specificity: 92.45%/96.57%) and GC (sensitivity/specificity: 93.18%/98.85%). Our study demonstrates that LOMEs might be powerful noninvasive diagnostic tools with high sensitivity/specificity in cancer screening. The use of LOMEs could potentially enable screening for multiple diseases (including different types of cancer) from a single sampling of LMI information.
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Does antiplatelet therapy increase the risk of hemoptysis during percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy of a pulmonary lesion?
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether antiplatelet therapy increases the occurrence and severity of percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB)-related hemoptysis.
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Fingertip reconstruction using the hypothenar perforator free flap.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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The purpose of this study was to present the results of using the hypothenar perforator free flap for fingertip reconstruction.
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Hepatocystin/80K-H inhibits replication of hepatitis B virus through interaction with HBx protein in hepatoma cell.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a key player in HBV replication as well as HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the pathogenesis of HBV infection and the mechanisms of host-virus interactions are still elusive. In this study, a combination of affinity purification and mass spectrometry was applied to identify the host factors interacting with HBx in hepatoma cells. Thirteen proteins were identified as HBx binding partners. Among them, we first focused on determining the functional significance of the interaction between HBx and hepatocystin. A physical interaction between HBx and hepatocystin was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that HBx and hepatocystin colocalized in the hepatoma cells. Domain mapping of both proteins revealed that the HBx C-terminus (amino acids 110-154) was responsible for binding to the mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology domain (amino acids, 419-525) of hepatocystin. Using translation and proteasome inhibitors, we found that hepatocystin overexpression accelerated HBx degradation via a ubiquitin-independent proteasome pathway. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated by an interaction between both proteins using a HBx deletion mutant. Hepatocystin overexpression significantly inhibited HBV DNA replication and expression of HBs antigen concomitant with HBx degradation. Using the hepatocystin mutant constructs that bind HBx, we also confirmed that hepatocystin inhibited HBx-dependent HBV replication. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that hepatocystin functions as a chaperon-like molecule by accelerating HBx degradation, and thereby inhibits HBV replication. Our results suggest that inducing hepatocystin may provide a novel therapeutic approach to control HBV infection.
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Automated analysis of binocular alignment using an infrared camera and selective wavelength filter.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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We present a computerized method of measuring binocular alignment using a selective wavelength filter and an infrared camera, and validate the efficacy of automated image analysis compared to the gold standard prism and alternate cover test (PCT).
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Staphylococcus aureus extracellular vesicles carry biologically active ?-lactamase.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Gram-positive bacteria naturally produce extracellular vesicles. However, little is known regarding the functions of Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles, especially in the bacterial community. Here, we investigated the role of Staphylococcus aureus extracellular vesicles in interbacterial communication to cope with antibiotic stress. We found that S. aureus liberated BlaZ, a ?-lactamase protein, via extracellular vesicles. These extracellular vesicles enabled other ampicillin-susceptible Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to survive in the presence of ampicillin. However, S. aureus extracellular vesicles did not mediate the survival of tetracycline-, chloramphenicol-, or kanamycin-susceptible bacteria. Moreover, S. aureus extracellular vesicles did not contain the blaZ gene. In addition, the heat-treated S. aureus extracellular vesicles did not mediate the survival of ampicillin-susceptible bacteria. The ?-lactamase activities of S. aureus soluble and extracellular vesicle-associated BlaZ were similar, but only the extracellular vesicle-associated BlaZ was resistant to protease digestion, which suggests that the enzymatic activity of BlaZ in extracellular vesicles is largely protected by the vesicle structure. Our observations provide evidence of the important role of S. aureus extracellular vesicles in antibiotic resistance, which allows the polymicrobial community to continue to evolve and prosper against antibiotics.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.