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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Low-Temperature Roll-to-Roll Atmospheric Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Thin Films.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The Al2O3 thin films deposition through conventional ALD systems is a well-established process. The process under low temperatures has been studied by few research groups. In this paper, we report on the detailed study of low-temperature Al2O3 thin films deposited via a unique in-house built system of roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-AALD) using a multiple-slit gas source head. Al2O3 thin films have been grown on polyethylene terephthalate substrates under a very low-temperature zone of room temperature to 50 °C and working pressure of 750 Torr, which is very near to atmospheric pressure (760 Torr). Al2O3 thin films with superior properties were achieved in the temperature range of the ALD window. An appreciable growth rate of 0.97 Å/cycle was observed for the films deposited at 40 °C. The films have good morphological features with a very low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 0.90 nm. The films also showed good chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics. It was observed that the film characteristics improve with the increase in deposition temperature to the range of the ALD window. The fabrication of Al2O3 films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis with the appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74, 119, and 531 eV, respectively. The chemical composition was also supported by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fabricated Al2O3 films demonstrate good insulating properties and optical transmittance of more than 85% in the visible region. The results state that Al2O3 thin films can be effectively fabricated through the R2R-AALD system at temperatures as low as 40 °C.
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Association between occupational dust exposure and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A Korean national survey.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Background:Previous studies have investigated the relationship between occupational and environmental agents and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there have been few studies regarding the prognosis of IPF patients, according to patient occupation. Objective:We investigated whether occupational dust exposure was associated with clinically decreased lung function and poor prognosis. Design:The Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Research Group conducted a national survey to evaluate the clinical, physiological, radiological, and survival characteristics of IPF patients. A total of 1,311 IPF patients were stratified into five groups, according to their occupation: (1) unemployed or homemakers (n = 628); (2) farmers, fishers, or ranchers (n = 230); (3) sales or service personnel (n = 131); (4) clerical or professional personnel (n = 151); (5) specific dust-exposed workers (n = 171). Results:The mean age of subjects, at diagnosis, was 67.5 ± 9.7 years. Current smokers were 336 patients, 435 were ex-smokers, and 456 were never smokers. Dust-exposed workers showed early onset of IPF (61.3 ± 8.6 years, p < 0.001) and a longer duration of symptoms at diagnosis (17.0 ± 28.2 months, p = 0.004). Aging (p = 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 1.034; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.014-1.054), forced vital capacity (% of predicted) at diagnosis (p = 0.004; HR, 0.984; 95% CI, 0.974-0.995), and dust-exposure occupation (p = 0.033; HR, 1.813; 95% CI, 1.049-3.133) were associated with mortality. Conclusion:These findings indicate that occupational dust may be an aggravating factor associated with a poor prognosis in IPF.
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Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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A uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. A significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with ?d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol, resveratrol 3-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-glucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-diglucoside, and resveratrol 3,5,4?-O-?-d-triglucoside. The conversion rates and number of products formed were found to vary with the other NDP-sugar donors. Resveratrol 3-O-?-d-2-deoxyglucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-?-d-di-2-deoxyglucoside were found to be produced while using TDP-2-deoxyglucose as donor, however, monoglycosides resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-galactoside, resveratrol 4?-O-?-d-viosaminoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-rhamnoside, resveratrol 3-O-?-l-fucoside were produced from respective sugar donors. Altogether ten diverse glycoside derivatives of medicinally important resveratrol were generated; demonstrating the capacity for YjiC to produce structurally diverse resveratrol glycosides.
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Effect of recovery from muscle strength imbalance in lower limb using four point weight bearing reduction system.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This study was performed to assess the improvement of muscle strength imbalance in the lower limbs using a four point weight bearing reduction system with a two-belt treadmill. Participants, each having differences in muscle function of the left and right legs of over 20%, were divided into two groups of ten. The participants were involved in experiments progressing 40 minutes per day, 3 days per week, during a period of 4 weeks. The maximal peak torque and average power were measured for testing joint torque in the hip, knee and ankle. The results showed the improvement of muscle imbalance as assessed by the maximal muscle strength was the most effective in the hip joint, while the improvement of muscular reaction was the most effective in the knee joint. We suggest that the method of weight bearing reduction could be sufficient to reduce muscle imbalance in the lower limbs.
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Glycosylation and subsequent malonylation of isoflavonoids in E. coli: strain development, production and insights into future metabolic perspectives.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Genistin and daidzein exhibit a protective effect on DNA damage and inhibit cell proliferation. Glycosylation and malonylation of the compounds increase water solubility and stability. Constructed pET15b-GmIF7GT and pET28a-GmIF7MAT were used for the transformation of Escherichia coli and bioconversion of genistein and daidzein. To increase the availability of malonyl-CoA, a critical precursor of GmIF7MAT, genes for the acyl-CoA carboxylase ? and ? subunits (nfa9890 and nfa9940), biotin ligase (nfa9950), and acetyl-CoA synthetase (nfa3550) from Nocardia farcinia were also introduced. Thus, the isoflavonoids were glycosylated at position 7 by 7-O-glycosyltranferase and were further malonylated at position 6(?) of glucose by malonyl-CoA: isoflavone 7-O-glucoside-6(?)-O-malonyltransferase both from Glycine max. Engineered E. coli produced 175.7 µM (75.90 mg/L) of genistin and 14.2 µM (7.37 mg/L) genistin 6?-O-malonate. Similar conditions produced 162.2 µM (67.65 mg/L) daidzin and 12.4 µM (6.23 mg/L) daidzin 6?-O-malonate when 200 µM of each substrate was supplemented in the culture. Based on our findings, we speculate that isoflavonoids and their glycosides may prove useful as anticancer drugs with added advantage of increased solubility, stability and bioavailability.
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Activation of cryptic hop genes from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 involved in hopanoid biosynthesis.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Genes encoding enzymes with sequence similarity to hopanoids biosynthetic enzymes of other organisms were cloned from hopanoid (hop) gene cluster of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 and transformed into the Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028. The cloned fragments contained four genes, all transcribed in one direction. These genes encode polypeptides that resemble polyprenyl diphosphate synthase (hopD), squalene-phytoene synthases (hopAB) and squalene-hopene cyclase (hopE). These enzymes are sufficient for the formation of the pentacyclic triterpenoid lipid, hopene. The formation of hopene was verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
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The associations between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: findings from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing rapidly worldwide. The functions of zinc may have a potential association with metabolic syndrome, but such associations have not been investigated extensively. Therefore, we examined the relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors among South Korean adults ? 20 years of age. The analysis used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted from January to December 2010. A total of 1,926 participants were analyzed in this study. Serum zinc levels in men were negatively associated with elevated fasting glucose (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.93) and positively associated with elevated triglycerides (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.13). A difference in serum zinc levels was detected in women, depending on the number of metabolic syndrome components (p = 0.002). Furthermore, serum zinc levels showed a decreasing trend with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components in women with metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that serum zinc levels might be associated with metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors. Further gender-specific studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dietary or supplemental zinc intake on metabolic syndrome.
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Recent advances in biochemistry and biotechnological synthesis of avermectins and their derivatives.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Avermectins (AVMs), produced by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (or ATCC 31267, NRRL 8165, NCBIM 12804), are 16-member macrocylic lactones that play very important functions as bactericidal and antiparasitic agents against nematodes and anthropods, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Since its discovery in 1975, use of AVM has been widely spreading around the globe. To date, the whole genome sequence of S. avermitilis K139 has been acquired, in which the AVM biosynthetic gene cluster was the most highly investigated to mine the genes responsible for functional as well as regulatory roles. Therefore, significant progress has been achieved for understanding and manipulating the biosynthesis, improved production, regulation mechanism, side effects, as well as the resistance of AVMs and their derivatives. These findings will facilitate further strain improvement and biosynthesis of novel derivatives bearing stable and improved biological activities, as well as overcoming the resistance mechanism to open up a bright period for these compounds. In this review, we have summarized and analyzed the update in advanced progress in biochemistry and biotechnological approaches used for the production of AVMs and their derivatives.
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Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects Associated with Down Syndrome in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Congenital heart defect (CHD) is common in infants with Down syndrome (DS), which is the principle cause of mortality. However, there is no data available for the frequency and types of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. We investigated the frequency of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was conducted throughout the country, the prevalence of CHD in DS in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was conducted based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of total births in Korea was 888,263 in 2005-2006; of them, 25,975 cases of birth defects were identified. The prevalence of DS was 4.4 per 10,000 total births, accounting for 1.5% of all birth defects. Of the 394 infants with DS, 224 (56.9%) had a CHD. Atrial septal defect was the most common defect accounting for 30.5% of DS followed by ventricular septal defect (19.3%), patent duct arteriosus (17.5%), and atrioventricular septal defect (9.4%). Our study will be helpful to demonstrate the current status of DS and to identify the distribution of CHD in infants with DS in Korea.
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Influenza vaccination and associated factors among Korean cancer survivors : a cross-sectional analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Influenza vaccination is important for cancer survivors, a population with impaired immunity. This study was designed to assess influenza vaccination patterns among Korean cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires from 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We identified the adjusted influenza vaccination rates and assessed factors associated with influenza vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted influenza vaccination rate than the general population. The rates for influenza vaccination in specific cancer types such as stomach, hepatic, colon, and lung cancers were significantly higher than non-cancer survivors. Among all cancer survivors, those with chronic diseases, elderly subjects, and rural dwellers were more likely to receive influenza vaccination; those with cervical cancer were less likely to receive influenza vaccination. Cancer survivors were more likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-cancer survivors, but this was not true for particular groups, especially younger cancer survivors. Cancer survivors represent a sharply growing population; therefore, immunization against influenza among cancer survivors should be concerned as their significant preventative healthcare services.
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Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.
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Identification of the rare compound heterozygous variants in the NEB gene in a Korean family with intellectual disability, epilepsy and early-childhood-onset generalized muscle weakness.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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We examined a Korean family with complex phenotypes characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy and early-childhood-onset generalized muscle weakness. Since we did not find any abnormality using several conventional genetic tests for detection of chromosomal aberrations, gene copy number variations and mitochondrial gene mutations, we aimed to identify disease-causing genetic alteration(s) in this family. We conducted whole-exome sequencing (WES) in this family. After filtering the WES data, we compared five exome sequences of two affected siblings, one unaffected sibling and the unaffected parents, and we determined the allele frequency of the identified variants in an Asian population. Finally, we selected one candidate variant pair which is unique in the patients and corresponds to an autosomal recessive genetic model. The two affected siblings had the same compound heterozygous variation in the NEB gene encoding nebulin, which was composed of two different missense variants: c.2603T>C (p.L868P) in exon 27 and c.21340C>T (p.R7114W) in exon 143. We confirmed these variations by Sanger sequencing. On the basis of the fundamental role of nebulin in the brain and skeletal muscles, we concluded that this compound heterozygous NEB variation may be a sound candidate for the disease-causing mutation in this family. Since the patients are characterized by generalized muscle weakness together with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, it is suggested that NEB mutations could manifest more diverse phenotypes than those previously described.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 9 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.87.
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Prioritization of the introduction of new vaccines to the national immunization program in the Republic of Korea.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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This study was performed to determine the priority of vaccine introduction for five vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), pneumococcus (Spn), hepatitis A virus (HepA), rotavirus (RV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) to the future Korean National Immunization Program (NIP) and to suggest framework programs to assist decision makers on implementation of the NIP.
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Proteome-wide remodeling of protein location and function by stress.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Protein location and function can change dynamically depending on many factors, including environmental stress, disease state, age, developmental stage, and cell type. Here, we describe an integrative computational framework, called the conditional function predictor (CoFP; http://nbm.ajou.ac.kr/cofp/), for predicting changes in subcellular location and function on a proteome-wide scale. The essence of the CoFP approach is to cross-reference general knowledge about a protein and its known network of physical interactions, which typically pool measurements from diverse environments, against gene expression profiles that have been measured under specific conditions of interest. Using CoFP, we predict condition-specific subcellular locations, biological processes, and molecular functions of the yeast proteome under 18 specified conditions. In addition to highly accurate retrieval of previously known gold standard protein locations and functions, CoFP predicts previously unidentified condition-dependent locations and functions for nearly all yeast proteins. Many of these predictions can be confirmed using high-resolution cellular imaging. We show that, under DNA-damaging conditions, Tsr1, Caf120, Dip5, Skg6, Lte1, and Nnf2 change subcellular location and RNA polymerase I subunit A43, Ino2, and Ids2 show changes in DNA binding. Beyond specific predictions, this work reveals a global landscape of changing protein location and function, highlighting a surprising number of proteins that translocate from the mitochondria to the nucleus or from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus under stress.
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Characteristic analysis of the lower limb muscular strength training system applied with MR dampers.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A new training system that can adjust training intensity and indicate the center pressure of a subject was proposed by applying controlled electric current to the Magneto-Rheological damper. The experimental studying on the muscular activities were performed in lower extremities during maintaining and moving exercises, which were processed on an unstable platform with Magneto rheological dampers and recorded in a monitor. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the eight muscles in lower extremities were recorded and analyzed in certain time and frequency domain. Muscles researched in this paper were rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), vastuslateralis (VL), vastusmedialis (VM), gastrocnemius (Ga), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (So). Differences of muscular activities during four moving exercises were studied in our experimental results. The rate of the increment of the muscular activities was affected by the condition of the unstable platform with MR dampers, which suggested the difference of moving exercises could selectively train each muscle with varying intensities. Furthermore, these findings also proposed that this training system can improve the ability of postural balance.
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Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics.
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Metabolic Engineering of Rational Screened Saccharopolyspora spinosa for the Enhancement of Spinosyns A and D Production.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Spinosyns A and D are potent ingredient for insect control with exceptional safety to non-target organisms. It consists of a 21-carbon tetracyclic lactone with forosamine and tri-O-methylated rhamnose which are derived from S-adenosylmethionine. Although previous studies have revealed the involvement of metK1 (S-adenosylmethionine synthetase), rmbA (glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase), and rmbB (TDP-D-glucose-4, 6-dehydratase) in the biosynthesis of spinosad, expression of these genes into rational screened Saccharopolyspora spinosa (S. spinosa MUV) has not been elucidated till date. In the present study, S. spinosa MUV was developed to utilize for metabolic engineering. The yield of spinosyns A and D in S. spinosa MUV was 244 mg L(-1) and 129 mg L(-1), which was 4.88-fold and 4.77-fold higher than that in the wild-type (50 mg L(-1) and 27 mg L(-1)), respectively. To achieve the better production; positive regulator metK1-sp, rmbA and rmbB genes from Streptomyces peucetius, were expressed and co-expressed in S. spinosa MUV under the control of strong ermE* promoter, using an integration vector pSET152 and expression vector pIBR25, respectively. Herewith, the genetically engineered strain of S. spinosa MUV, produce spinosyns A and D up to 372/217 mg L(-1) that is 7.44/8.03-fold greater than that of wild type. This result demonstrates the use of metabolic engineering on rationally developed high producing natural variants for the production.
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Efficient enzymatic systems for synthesis of novel ?-mangostin glycosides exhibiting antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Two enzymatic systems were developed for the efficient synthesis of glycoside products of ?-mangostin, a natural xanthonoid exhibiting anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In these systems, one-pot reactions for the synthesis of UDP-?-D-glucose and UDP-?-D-2-deoxyglucose were modified and combined with a glycosyltransferase (GT) from Bacillus licheniformis DSM-13 to afford C-3 and C-6 position modified glucose and 2-deoxyglucose conjugated novel ?-mangostin derivatives. ?-Mangostin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, and ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside were successfully produced in practical quantities and characterized by high-resolution quadruple time-of-flight electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF ESI/MS), (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. In excess of the substrate, the maximum productions of three ?-mangostin glucopyranosides (4.8 mg/mL, 86.5 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) and three ?-mangostin 2-deoxyglucopyronosides (4.0 mg/mL, 79 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) were achieved at 4-h incubation period. All the ?-mangostin glycosides exhibited improved water solubility, and their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus was drastically enhanced by the glucosylation at C-3 position. In this study, diverse glycosylated ?-mangostin were produced in significant quantities by using inexpensive starting materials and recycling co-factors within a reaction vessel without use of expensive NDP-sugars in the glycosylation reactions.
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The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea: study design and baseline results.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea.
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Spin current generated by thermally driven ultrafast demagnetization.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Spin current is the key element for nanoscale spintronic devices. For ultrafast operation of such nano-devices, generation of spin current in picoseconds, a timescale that is difficult to achieve using electrical circuits, is highly desired. Here we show thermally driven ultrafast demagnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnet leads to spin accumulation in a normal metal and spin transfer torque in an in-plane ferromagnet. The data are well described by models of spin generation and transport based on differences and gradients of thermodynamic parameters. The temperature difference between electrons and magnons is the driving force for spin current generation by ultrafast demagnetization. On longer timescales, a few picoseconds following laser excitation, we also observe a small contribution to spin current by a temperature gradient and the spin-dependent Seebeck effect.
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Association between Dyslipidemia and the Prevalence of Colon Polyps Based on a Health Evaluation of Subjects at a Hospital.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Colonic neoplasm is associated with western diet intake and physical inactivity. These life styles are also risk factors for dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dyslipidemia and the prevalence of colon polyps including colon adenoma as a precancerous lesion of colonic neoplasms.
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The 7th Japan-Korea chemical biology symposium: chemical biology of natural bioactive molecules.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Natural bioactive molecules possess supreme chemical diversity and drug-like properties and are an important source for drug lead compounds. At the seventh Japan-Korea Chemical Biology Symposium at Jeju Island, Korea, chemical biologists from Korea and Japan highlighted the remarkable features of natural products and their significance.
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Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Medical Intensive Care Unit: A Multicenter Observational Study in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (MICU) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE); and prophylaxis is recommended. However, the actual range and frequency of VTE prophylaxis administered to MICU patients are not well defined. Patients over 40 yr of age and expected MICU stay of more than 48 hr were eligible for this observational cohort study of 23 MICUs in Korea. Patients already on anticoagulation therapy or those requiring anticoagulation for reasons other than VTE were excluded. Among 830 patients, VTE prophylaxis was given to 560 (67.5%) patients. Among 560 patients, 323 (38.9%) received pharmacoprophylaxis, 318 (38.4%) received mechanical prophylaxis and 81 (9.8%) received both forms of prophylaxis. About 74% of patients in the pharmacoprophylaxis group received low molecular weight heparin and 53% of the patients in the mechanical prophylaxis group used intermittent pneumatic compression. Most of the patients (90%) had more than one risk factor for VTE and the most common risk factor was old age, followed by heart and respiratory failure. In this observational cohort study of 23 MICUs in Korea, 67.5% of patients received thromboprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to clarify the role and efficacy of VTE prophylaxis in Korean critically ill patients.
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Switching antibiotics production on and off in actinomycetes by an IclR family transcriptional regulator from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Doxorubicin, produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, is tightly regulated by dnrO, dnrN, and dnrI regulators. Genome mining of S. peucetius revealed the presence of the IclR (doxR) type family of transcription regulator mediating the signal-dependent expression of operons at the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Overexpression of doxR in native strain strongly repressed the drug production. Furthermore, it also had a negative effect on the regulatory system of doxorubicin, wherein the transcript of dnrI was reduced to the maximum level in comparision with the other two. Interestingly, the overexpression of the same gene also had strong inhibitory effects on the production of actinorhodin (blue pigment) and undecylprodigiosin (red pigment) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, herboxidiene production in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982, and spinosyn production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, respectively. Moreover, DoxR exhibited pleiotropic effects on the production of blue and red pigments in S. coelicolor when grown in different agar media, wherein the production of blue pigment was inhibited in R2YE medium and the red pigment was inhibited in YEME medium. However, the production of both blue and red pigments from S. coelicolor harboring doxR was halted in ISP2 medium, whereas S. coelicolor produced both pigmented antibiotics in the same plate. These consequences demonstrate that the on and off production of these antibiotics was not due to salt stress or media compositions, but was selectively controlled in actinomycetes.
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Enzymatic glycosylation of the topical antibiotic mupirocin.
Glycoconj. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Mupirocin is a commercially available antibiotic that acts on bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and preventing bacterial infection. An in vitro glycosylation approach was applied to synthesize glycoside derivatives of mupirocin using different NDP-sugars and glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis. Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-photo diode array analyses of the reaction mixtures revealed the generation of product peak(s). The results were further supported by high-resolution quadruple time of flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analyses. The product purified from the reaction mixture with UDP-D-glucose was subjected to NMR analysis, and the structure was determined to be mupirocin 6-O-?-D-glucoside. Other glycoside analogs of mupirocin were determined based on high-resolution mass analyses. Antibacterial activity assays against Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated complete loss of antibacterial activity after glucosylation of mupirocin at the 6-hydroxyl position.
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Public Acceptance and Willingness to Hepatitis A Vaccination in Children Aged 7-18 Years in Republic of Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Hepatitis A can cause serious illness among adolescents and adults with low vaccination coverage. Even though hepatitis A vaccine is one of the strong candidates for Korean national immunization program, adolescents aged older than 12 yr would not benefit. Our purpose was to assess the willingness and analyze the correlates of Korean mothers for hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination to develop strategies for HepA vaccination. A national telephone survey on 800 mothers with children aged 7-18 yr was conducted with random-digit dialing method. Sixty-two percent and 92% of the mothers reported that they were willing to HepA vaccination at current cost and at half of the current cost, respectively. However, at current cost, only 79% wished to vaccinate their child in an epidemic and 32% wished to vaccinate promptly. Having two or more children, not having future plans to send the child overseas, and low family income were significantly associated with not willing to HepA vaccination. Low perception of the susceptibility for hepatitis A and perception of the current cost as barrier increased the odds of unwillingness to vaccination at current cost and to prompt vaccination. The mothers' willingness to HepA vaccination for the children aged 7-18 yr in Korea was not very high at current cost and associated socioeconomic status and health-belief. Targeted intervention or strategies are needed to increase the HepA vaccination rate among children in Korea.
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New Reference Data on Bone Mineral Density and the Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Korean Adults Aged 50 Years or Older: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ?20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ?50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ?50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.
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Ionic ?-helical polypeptides toward nonviral gene delivery.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The advent of polymeric materials has significantly promoted the development and rapid growth of various technologies in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering and controlled drug and gene delivery. Water-soluble polypeptides bearing functional side chains and adopting stable secondary structures are a new class of functional polymeric materials of potentially broad applications in medicine and biotechnology. In this article, we summarize our recent effort on the design and synthesis of the water-soluble ?-helical ionic polypeptides originally developed in our laboratory and highlight their applications in cell membrane penetration and nonviral gene/small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
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Varicella and varicella vaccination in South Korea.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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With continuing occurrence of varicella despite increasing vaccine coverage for the past 20 years, a case-based study, a case-control study, and an immunogenicity and safety study were conducted to address the impact of varicella vaccination in South Korea. Varicella patients under the age of 16 years were enrolled for the case-based study. For the case-control study, varicella patients between 12 months and 15 years of age were enrolled with one control matched for each patient. For the immunogenicity and safety study, otherwise healthy children from 12 to 24 months old were immunized with Suduvax (Green Cross, South Korea). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody was measured before and 6 weeks after immunization. In the case-based study, the median age of the patients was 4 years. Among 152 patients between 1 and 15 years of age, 139 children received varicella vaccine and all had breakthrough infections. Clinical courses were not ameliorated in vaccinated patients, but more vaccinated patients received outpatient rather than inpatient care. In the case-control study, the adjusted overall effectiveness of varicella vaccination was 54%. In the immunogenicity and safety study, the seroconversion rate and geometric mean titer for FAMA antibody were 76.67% and 5.31. Even with increasing varicella vaccine uptake, we illustrate no upward age shift in the peak incidence, a high proportion of breakthrough disease, almost no amelioration in disease presentation by vaccination, and insufficient immunogenicity of domestic varicella vaccine. There is need to improve the varicella vaccine used in South Korea.
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Correlation between the Activities of Daily Living of Stroke Patients in a Community Setting and Their Quality of Life.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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[Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the correlation between the activities of daily living and the quality of life (QOL) of patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 68 patients with stroke. Three questionnaires were distributed by visiting the subjects. [Results] All the items and total scores of the functional independence measure (FIM) showed a high correlation with the QOL total score. The relationship between the activities of daily living and the total QOL score showed a significant positive correlation. Among the FIM items, mobility and social cognition showed the most significant effects. The modified r(2) value was 0.67, mobility and social cognition explained approximately 67% of the change in the QOL. [Conclusion] The activities of daily living of the patients with chronic stroke and their QOL showed a high correlation. Among the FIM items, mobility (transfers) and social cognition had the largest effects on the total QOL score.
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Angular and temperature dependence of current induced spin-orbit effective fields in Ta/CoFeB/MgO nanowires.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Current induced spin-orbit effective magnetic fields in metal/ferromagnet/oxide trilayers provide a new way to manipulate the magnetization, which is an alternative to the conventional current induced spin transfer torque arising from noncollinear magnetization. Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures are expected to be useful for non-volatile memories and logic devices due to its perpendicular anisotropy and large current induced spin-orbit effective fields. However many aspects such as the angular and temperature dependent phenomena of the effective fields are little understood. Here, we evaluate the angular and temperature dependence of the current-induced spin-orbit effective fields considering contributions from both the anomalous and planar Hall effects. The longitudinal and transverse components of effective fields are found to have strong angular dependence on the magnetization direction at 300?K. The transverse field decreases significantly with decreasing temperature, whereas the longitudinal field shows weaker temperature dependence. Our results reveal important features and provide an opportunity for a more comprehensive understanding of current induced spin-orbit effective fields.
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Methylation and subsequent glycosylation of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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An O-methyltransferase SpOMT2884, originating from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, was cloned, expressed, and applied for the production of target metabolite from Escherichia coli. Biochemical characterization of the 25kDa recombinant protein by in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that SpOMT2884 was an S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase. SpOMT2884 catalyzed O-methylation of different classes of flavonoids such as flavones (7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), luteolin), flavonols (quercetin, rutin), flavanone (naringenin), and isoflavonoids (daidzein, formononetin). Biotransformation of 7,8-DHF, a preferred substrate of SpOMT2884, in a grown-induced culture of E. coli BL21 (DE3) harboring the recombinant pET-28a-SpOMT2884 stoichiometrically converted 7,8-DHF into 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone, which was confirmed by liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses. In order to improve the biotransformation substrate, time and media parameters were optimized and the production was scaled up using a 3-L fermentor. The maximum yield of 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone was 192?M (52.57mg/L), representing almost 96% bioconversion within 12h, when 200?M of 7,8-DHF was supplemented in the culture. Further, the 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone was purified in large scale and was used as a substrate separately for in vitro glycosylation to produce glucose, galactose and 2-deoxyglucose conjugated at 7th hydroxyl position of 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone. Biological activity showed that 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone had long term cytoprotective and antioxidant effects compared to 7,8-DHF suggesting that methylation enhances the stability of substrate and glycosylation has proved to increase the water solubility.
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Characterization of age signatures of DNA methylation in normal and cancer tissues from multiple studies.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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DNA methylation (DNAm) levels can be used to predict the chronological age of tissues; however, the characteristics of DNAm age signatures in normal and cancer tissues are not well studied using multiple studies.
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Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.
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Glucosylation of isoflavonoids in engineered escherichia coli.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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A glycosyltransferase, YjiC, from Bacillus licheniformis has been used for the modification of the commercially available isoflavonoids genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin. The in vitro glycosylation reaction, using UDP-?-D-glucose as a donor for the glucose moiety and aforementioned four acceptor molecules, showed the prominent glycosylation at 4' and 7 hydroxyl groups, but not at the 5(th) hydroxyl group of the A-ring, resulting in the production of genistein 4'-O-?-D-glucoside, genistein 7-O-?-D-glucoside (genistin), genistein 4',7-O-?-D-diglucoside, biochanin A-7-O-?-D-glucoside (sissotrin), daidzein 4'-O-?-D-glucoside, daidzein 7-O-?-D-glucoside (daidzin), daidzein 4', 7-O-?-D-diglucoside, and formononetin 7-O-?-D-glucoside (ononin). The structures of all the products were elucidated using high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array and high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR QTOFESI/MS) analysis, and were compared with commercially available standard compounds. Significantly higher bioconversion rates of all four isoflavonoids was observed in both in vitro as well as in vivo bioconversion reactions. The in vivo fermentation of the isoflavonoids by applying engineered E. coli BL21(DE3)/?pgi?zwf?ushA overexpressing phosphoglucomutase (pgm) and glucose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase (galU), along with YjiC, found more than 60% average conversion of 200 ?M of supplemented isoflavonoids, without any additional UDP-?-D-glucose added in fermentation medium, which could be very beneficial to large scale industrial production of isoflavonoid glucosides.
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A study on dispersion and rate of fat infiltration in the lumbar spine of patients with herniated nucleus polpusus.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) and fat infiltration of muscles around the spine by measuring body mass index (BMI) and fat infiltration of the muscles around the spine. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 82 people, both men and women they were divided into two groups, a normal group and a patient group who were suffering from serious HNP between L4 and L5. Of the anthropometric measurement, and fat infiltration muscles by measuring the cross-sectional area from the center of the disc to the muscle around the spine and the cross-sectional area of fat infiltration. [Results] Fat infiltration rate of each lumbar layer in the normal group was different L34-L45 and L45-L5S1, but not between L23-L34. Fat infiltration in the muscle between the normal group and patients with HNP was different in the layers and the difference was greatest in the L5-S1 layer. [Conclusion] We performed correlation analysis of BMI and the total fat infiltration rate in each group to find the relationship between obesity and fat infiltration in the lumbar spine. Fat infiltration increased, and normal people or patients with chronic back pain are considered to be exposed to other diseases as fat infiltration in the lumbar spine increases.
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Assessing acceptor substrate promiscuity of YjiC-mediated glycosylation toward flavonoids.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The acceptor substrate promiscuity of YjiC, a UDP-glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis, was explored with seven different classes (flavonols, flavanols, flavones, flavanones, chalcone, stilbene, and isoflavonoids) of 23 flavonoid acceptors. For most of the polyphenols used in the reactions, the enzymatic bioconversion was significantly higher with the production of multiple glucosylated derivatives. This study highlights the highly flexible non-regiospecific glycosylation ability of YjiC toward polyphenolic compounds. The catalytic potential of YjiC could be useful to generate a library of natural product glucosides.
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Protective effect of resveratrol derivatives on high-fat diet induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with inhibited AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). AMPK phosphorylation inhibits SREBP-1, a major transcription factor of de novo lipogenesis, by inhibiting the liver X receptor (LXR) or by direct phosphorylation. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has regulatory effects on hepatic lipid metabolism as a potent AMPK activator. In this study, we evaluated the anti-steatogenic effects of resveratrol and its derivatives and identified the molecular mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Resveratrol and its derivatives decreased lipid accumulation by free fatty acids (FFA mixture; 0.5 mM, oleic acid:palmitic acid = 2: 1) in H4IIEC3 cells. Synthesized derivatives of resveratrol had lower cytotoxicity than the parental molecule with similar potency. SY-102 suppressed SREBP-1 maturation by T0901317, an LXR agonist, and decreased SRE luciferase activity and the mRNA levels of lipogenic genes. Inhibition of AMPK by pre-treatment with compound C completely blocked the effects of SY-102. To evaluate their efficacy in vivo, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 days, and resveratrol or SY-102 was administered orally for the last 2 days. Oral administration of the SY-102 increased AMPK phosphorylation, followed by reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation to a similar extent as resveratrol. These data demonstrate that SY-102, a synthesized derivative of resveratrol, might provide a promising therapeutic effect against fatty liver disease.
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Risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients: a multicenter study in Korea.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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We performed a case-control study to identify risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) as an increasing cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The study included critically ill adult patients with HAP whose microbial etiology was identified at eight tertiary centers in Korea between June 2008 and December 2009. Eighty two patients with 86 isolates of CRGNB (62 Acinetobacter baumannii, 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were included in the case group, and 122 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria were included in the control group. Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-6.38), radiologic score ?5 (aOR 4.56, 95% CI 2.36-8.81), prior fluoroquinolone (aOR 2.39. 95% CI = 1.07-5.35), or carbapenem usage (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.75-17.83) were found to be independent risk factors. Fluoroquinolone and carbapenem should be cautiously used to avoid HAP caused by CRGNB.
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Heterologous production of spectinomycin in Streptomyces venezuelae by exploiting the dTDP-D-desosamine pathway.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Spectinomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic composed of actinamine and actinospectose, which are fused together by a putative glycosyltransferase, SpcG, during spectinomycin biosynthesis. Although previous studies have revealed the involvement of SpcA (myo-inositol monophosphatase), SpcB (dehydrogenase), SpcS2 (aminotransferase), and SpcM (methyltransferase) in the biosynthesis of actinamine, heterologous biosynthesis of spectinomycin via actinospectose has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, Streptomyces venezuelae was utilized as a source of dTDP-actinospectose from the pikromycin biosynthetic desosamine sugar pathway, and a recombinant vector, pSM5, carrying spcA, spcB, spcS2, spcM, and spcG was inserted into S. venezuelae. The formation of dTDP-spectinose was suspected through the use of dehydrogenase in the S. venezuelae chromosome. Herewith, the genetically engineered strain, S. venezuelae SM5, effectively produced up to 89.2mg/L in optimized medium. However, pSM5 in S. venezuelae YJ003, a dTDP-actinospectose-deficient strain, did not produce spectinomycin. This result demonstrates the use of a dTDP-actinospectose precursor produced in the desosamine pathway for heterologous production of spectinomycin in S. venezuelae.
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Transcription-related element gene expression pattern differs between microglia and macrophages during inflammation.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Microglia and macrophages play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Although the resident location of these cells is different, their functions during the polarization response due to various stimuli are very similar. The present study aimed to analyze differences in microglial and macrophage gene expression during inflammation.
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Quantifying interface and bulk contributions to spin-orbit torque in magnetic bilayers.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Spin-orbit interaction-driven phenomena such as the spin Hall and Rashba effect in ferromagnetic/heavy metal bilayers enables efficient manipulation of the magnetization via electric current. However, the underlying mechanism for the spin-orbit interaction-driven phenomena remains unsettled. Here we develop a sensitive spin-orbit torque magnetometer based on the magneto-optic Kerr effect that measures the spin-orbit torque vectors for cobalt iron boron/platinum bilayers over a wide thickness range. We observe that the Slonczewski-like torque inversely scales with the ferromagnet thickness, and the field-like torque has a threshold effect that appears only when the ferromagnetic layer is thinner than 1?nm. Through a thickness-dependence study with an additional copper insertion layer at the interface, we conclude that the dominant mechanism for the spin-orbit interaction-driven phenomena in this system is the spin Hall effect. However, there is also a distinct interface contribution, which may be because of the Rashba effect.
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Kinematic analysis of upper extremity movement during drinking in hemiplegic subjects.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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It is necessary to analyze the kinematic properties of a paralyzed extremity to quantitatively determine the degree of impairment of hemiplegic people during functional activities of daily living (ADL) such as a drinking task. This study aimed to identify the kinematic differences between 16 hemiplegic and 32 able-bodied participants in relation to the task phases when drinking with a cup and the kinematic strategy used during motion with respect to the gravity direction.
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The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk.
Front Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24?years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.
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Assessment of predictive markers for placental inflammatory response in preterm births.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Placental inflammatory response (PIR) is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes such as sepsis, cerebral palsy, low birth weight, preterm birth, and neonatal mortality. However, there is an urgent need for noninvasive and sensitive biomarkers for prediction of PIR. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of maternal serum inflammatory markers for prediction of PIR in women with impending preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 483 patients who delivered preterm neonates. Serum levels of leukocyte differential counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were compared between women with no placental inflammation and women with PIR. The mean neutrophil counts, CRP levels, and NLR in both the patients with histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) alone and those with HCA with funisitis were significantly higher than those in women with no placental inflammation. Compared to leukocyte subset or CRP, NLR in women with funisitis was significantly higher than in women with HCA alone and showed higher predictive accuracy, along with 71.4% sensitivity, 77.9% specificity, 80.7% positive predictive value, and 67.8% negative predictive value for prediction of PIR. On Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, women with both an elevated level of CRP and a high NLR had a shorter admission-to-delivery interval compared to women with either an elevated level of CRP or a high NLR alone. NLR may be a predictive marker of PIR and could be used as a cost-effective parameter for identifying women at risk of PIR.
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Enzymatic synthesis of epothilone A glycosides.
AMB Express
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epothilones are extremely cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents with epoxide, thiazole, and ketone groups that share equipotent kinetic similarity with taxol. The in vitro glycosylation catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (YjiC) from Bacillus licheniformis generated six novel epothilone A glycoside analouges including epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-D-galactoside, epothilone A 3,7-O-?-D-digalactoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucoside, epothilone A 7-O-?-L-rhamnoside, and epothilone A 7-O-?-L-fucoside. Epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside was structurally elucidated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) conjugated with high resolution quantitative time-of-flight-electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-QTOF ESI-MS/MS) supported by one-and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies whereas other epothilone A glycosides were characterized by UPLC-PDA and HR-QTOF ESI-MS/MS analyses. The time dependent conversion study of epothilone A to epothilone A 7-O-?-D-glucoside found to be maximum (~26%) between 3 h to 5 h incubation.
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Fabrication of nanostructured copper indium diselenide (CIS) thin films by electrohydrodynamic atomization technique.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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In this article, we report a non-vacuum electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique for deposition of CulnSe2 (CIS) thin films. The CIS ink has been prepared with three different concentrations (7.5 wt.%, 12.5 wt.% and 15 wt.%) by using suitable solvent mixture (ethanol:terpineol as 1:1 molar ratio) with surfactant to achieve a stable dispersions. The important physical parameters for achieving homogeneous with non-agglomerated CIS layers through EHDA technique are investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the crystalline structure of CIS layers oriented in the chalcopyrite phase. The film uniformity has been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Different thickness of CIS layers has been achieved by varying the concentration of CIS particles in the precursor ink solution. The optical properties of CIS layers show the two optical band gaps in UV-visible and near infra-red (NIR) region with band gap of about 2.67-2.49 eV and 1.34-1.29 eV respectively. The energy band gap of CIS thin films have been decreased with the increase of film thickness. The X-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed presence of binding energy corresponding to CulnSe2. The electrical study observed the sheet resistivity 76-33 Omega cm with respect to film thickness.
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Optimization of experimental parameters to determine the jetting regimes in electrohydrodynamic printing.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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The harmony of ink and printing method is of importance in producing on-demand droplets and jets of ink. Many factors including the material properties, the processing conditions, and the nozzle geometry affect the printing quality. In electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing where droplets or jets are generated by the electrostatic force, the physical as well as the electrical properties of the fluid should be taken into account to achieve the desired performance. In this study, a systematic approach was suggested for finding the processing windows of the EHD printing. Six dimensionless parameters were organized and applied to the printing system of ethanol/terpineol mixtures. On the basis of the correlation of the dimensionless voltage and the charge relaxation length, the jet diameter of cone-jet mode was characterized, and the semicone angle was compared with the theoretical Taylor angle. In addition, the ratio of electric normal force and electric tangential force on the charged surface of the Taylor cone was recommended as a parameter that determines the degree of cone-jet stability. The cone-jet became more stable as this ratio got smaller. This approach was a systematic and effective way of obtaining the Taylor cone of the cone-jet mode and evaluating the jetting stability. The control of the inks with optimized experimental parameters by this method will improve the jetting performance in EHD inkjet printing.
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Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: data from a national community health survey.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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This study investigated factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening using data from a nationwide community survey. A nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 253 administrative districts of Korea. The breast and cervical cancer screening rate was negatively associated with the obesity (? = -2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.73 to -1.03; ? = -1.93, 95% CI = -3.43 to -0.43), positively associated with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions scale (? =2.53, 95% CI = 0.24 to 4.81; ? = 2.51, 95% CI = 0.68 to 4.34). Moreover, higher alcohol consumption rate was negatively related to screening rates for breast cancer, while areas with higher proportion of diabetes were found to have higher screening rates. Area with higher rate of osteoarthritis had a lower screening rate for cervical cancer. This study showed breast and cervical cancer screening was associated with particular area characteristics. This ecological approach is thought to be a major complement to measures of health attributes.
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Asthma and severity of the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza: a case-control study.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Abstract Objective: Previous studies reported that the most common chronic condition found among hospitalized patients due to the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza was asthma. However, these studies did not include a concurrent control group. Thus, we investigated the association of asthma status and severity of H1N1 influenza in adults. Methods: The study was designed as a multi-site case-control study. Cases were patients who had positive PCR for H1N1 influenza and were admitted to the ICU or general ward with a diagnosis of H1N1 influenza from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009. Controls were patients who had positive PCR for H1N1 influenza, but were not admitted to hospitals. Results: There were 91 H1N1 cases admitted to either ICU (n?=?41) or general hospital ward (n?=?50), and 56 controls who met the matching criteria were available. Of the 91 cases, the mean age was 47.3 years, 59% were female, and 38% had comorbid conditions. Of the 91 cases, 12 (13%) had asthma. Stratified analysis by comorbid conditions showed that among those without any comorbid conditions, 8 of 56 cases (14%) and 2 of 49 controls (4%) had asthma, (OR: 3.92, 95% CI: 0.79-19.42, p?=?0.095) whereas, among the 39 subjects with one or more comorbid conditions, one of 7 controls (14%) had asthma and 4 of 35 (11%) cases had asthma (p?=?0.83). Conclusions: Asthma may be associated with severity of H1N1 influenza among those without any non-asthma comorbid conditions. However, the limited sample size did not allow this study to fully establish statistical significance. We still recommend asthmatics as a priority group for influenza vaccination and treatment.
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Prevalence of and factors associated with osteoporosis among Korean cancer survivors: a cross-sectional analysis of the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Identifying and managing osteoporosis among cancer survivors is an important issue, yet little is known about the bone health of cancer survivors in Korea. This study was designed to measure the prevalence of osteoporosis and to assess related factors among Korean cancer survivors.
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Both extracellular chitinase and a new cyclic lipopeptide, chromobactomycin, contribute to the biocontrol activity of Chromobacterium sp. C61.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Chromobacterium sp. strain C61 displays antifungal activities in?vitro and has been used successfully for the biocontrol of plant diseases under field conditions. In this study, the roles of extracellular chitinase and an antifungal compound produced by strain C61 were investigated to elucidate their contributions to biological control activity. The bacterium possessed a locus chi54 encoding an extracellular chitinase, and mutation of chi54 eliminated chitinase production. Production of the extracellular enzyme and expression of the chi54 transcript were increased in the wild-type strain when chitin was added to the culture medium. In?vitro assays showed that purified chitinase inhibited spore germination of multiple pathogens. However, the in?planta biocontrol activity of filtrates of cultures grown in the presence of chitin was lower than that of filtrates grown without chitin, indicating that correlation between chitinase and biocontrol activity was lacking. The analysis of C61 culture filtrates revealed an antifungal cyclic lipopeptide, chromobactomycin, whose structure contained a unique nonameric peptide ring. The purified chromobactomycin inhibited the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi in?vitro, and plant application significantly reduced disease severity for several pathogens. Furthermore, the production of chromobactomycin was reduced in cultures amended with chitin. These data suggest that the production of both the extracellular chitinase Chi54 and the newly identified antibiotic chromobactomycin can contribute, in an interconnected way, to the suppression of plant disease by Chromobacterium sp. strain C61.
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Probing 3-hydroxyflavone for in vitro glycorandomization of flavonols by YjiC.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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The glycosylation of five different flavonols, fisetin, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and 3-hydroxyflavone, was achieved by applying YjiC. 3-Hydroxyflavone was selected as a probe for in vitro glycorandomization of all flavonols using diverse nucleotide diphosphate-d/l-sugars. This study unlocked the possibilities of the glycodiversification of flavonols and the generation of novel compounds as future therapeutics.
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Modified opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing assays to measure potentially protective antibodies against pneumococcal surface protein A.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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The standard opsonophagocytosis killing assay (OPKA) for antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide was modified to permit an evaluation of the protection-mediating antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). We found that by increasing the incubation time with the complement and phagocytes from 45 min to 75 min, the protective activity was readily detected. In another modification, we used a capsule type 2 target strain that expressed PspA but not pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC). With these modifications separately or in combination, rabbit antisera to the recombinant ?-helical or proline-rich domains of PspA mediated >50% killing of the target strain. The ability of normal human sera to mediate the killing of pneumococci in this modified OPKA correlated with their levels of antibodies to PspA and their ability to protect mice against fatal infection with a type 3 strain. Passive protection of mice against pneumococci and killing in the modified OPKA were lost when normal human sera were adsorbed with recombinant PspA (rPspA) on Sepharose, thus supporting the potential utility of the modified OPKA to detect protective antibodies to PspA. In the standard OPKA, monoclonal antibodies to PspA were strongly protective in the presence of subprotective amounts of anti-capsule. Thus, the currently established high-throughput OPKA for antibodies to capsule could be modified in one of two ways to permit an evaluation of the opsonic efficacy of antibodies to PspA.
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Structural and electrical properties of Ag grid/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) coatings for diode application through advanced printing technology.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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This paper is focused on printed techniques for the fabrication of hybrid structure of silver (Ag) grid/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) as a flexible substrate. Ag grid has been printed on PET substrate by using gravure offset printing process, followed by PEDOT:PSS thin film deposition on Ag grid through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The important parameters for achieving uniform hybrid structure of Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS through printed techniques have been clearly discussed. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies revealed the uniformity of printed Ag grid with homogeneous deposition of PEDOT:PSS on Ag grid. The optical properties of Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS were measured by UV-visible spectroscopy, which showed nearly 80-82% of transparency in the visible region and it was nearly same as PEDOT:PSS thin film on PET substrate. Current-voltage (I-V) analysis of fabricated hybrid device by using printed Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS as a bottom electrode showed good rectifying behavior with possible interfacial mechanisms. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) analysis was carried over different frequencies. These results suggest that fabrication of hybrid structure through printed techniques will play a significant role in mass production of printed electronic devices for commercial application by using flexible substrate.
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Low bone mineral density is associated with dyslipidemia in South Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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This study examined the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and dyslipidemia in South Korean men. Data from 6,300 men who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed, including serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) after 8 hours of fasting and mean BMD measured at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN). Dyslipidemia was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Other parameters of dyslipidemia were also calculated, such as TG/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, non-HDL-C (NHDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C. Men with dyslipidemia and high levels of TG, TG/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, NHDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C had lower BMD than men without dyslipidemia at the LS, TH, and FN after adjustment for age and body mass index (all p<0.01). On multivariable regression analysis, all odds ratios for high levels of TG, TG/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, NHDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C with an increase in BMD (per standard deviation) were <1 at all 3 sites after adjustment for age and body mass index (model 1). After adjustment for all covariates, only odds ratios for high levels of TG, TG/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and NHDL-C were <1 at all 3 sites (model 2), but an increase in BMD was not associated with high LDL-C levels in models 1 and 2. In conclusion, BMD was inversely correlated with parameters of atherogenic dyslipidemia in South Korean men.
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Chirality from interfacial spin-orbit coupling effects in magnetic bilayers.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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As nanomagnetic devices scale to smaller sizes, spin-orbit coupling due to the broken structural inversion symmetry at interfaces becomes increasingly important. Here, we study interfacial spin-orbit coupling effects in magnetic bilayers using a simple Rashba model. The spin-orbit coupling introduces chirality into the behavior of the electrons and through them into the energetics of the magnetization. In the derived form of the magnetization dynamics, all of the contributions that are linear in the spin-orbit coupling follow from this chirality, considerably simplifying the analysis. For these systems, an important consequence is a correlation between the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the spin-orbit torque. We use this correlation to analyze recent experiments.
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Recent biotechnological progress in enzymatic synthesis of glycosides.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Glycosylation is one of the most important post-modification processes of small molecules and enables the parent molecule to have increased solubility, stability, and bioactivity. Enzyme-based glycosylation has achieved significant progress due to advances in protein engineering, DNA recombinant techniques, exploitation of biosynthetic gene clusters of natural products, and computer-based modeling programs. Our report summarizes glycosylation data that have been published within the past five years to provide an overall review of current progress. We also present the future trends and perspectives for glycosylation.
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Analysis of the canine brain transcriptome with an emphasis on the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The diversity of dog breeds make the domestic dog a valuable model for identifying genes responsible for many phenotypic and behavioral traits. The brain, in particular, is a region of interest for the analysis of molecular changes that are involved in dog-specific behavioral phenotypes. However, such studies are handicapped due to incomplete annotation of the dog genome. We present a high-coverage transcriptome of the dog brain using RNA-Seq. Two areas of the brain, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, were selected for their roles in cognition, emotion, and neuroendocrine functions. We detected many novel features of the dog transcriptome, including 13,799 novel exons, 51,357 exons with unique 5 or 3 modifications, and many novel alternative splicing events. We provide some examples of novel features in genes that are related to domestication, including ADCY8, SMOC2, and PRNP. We also found 247 novel protein-coding genes and 328 noncoding RNAs, including 57 long noncoding RNAs that represent the first empirical evidence for a large fraction of noncoding RNAs in the dog. In addition, we analyze both gene expression and alternative splicing differences between the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex and find that there is very little overlap between genes that are differentially alternatively spliced and genes that are differentially expressed. We thereby suggest that researchers who want to pinpoint the genetic causes for dog breed-specific traits and diseases should not confine their studies to gene expression alone, but should consider other factors such as alternative splicing and changes in untranslated regions.
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Enzymatic synthesis of apigenin glucosides by glucosyltransferase (YjiC) from Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Apigenin, a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids, has long been considered to have various biological activities. Its glucosides, in particular, have been reported to have higher water solubility, increased chemical stability, and enhanced biological activities. Here, the synthesis of apigenin glucosides by the in vitro glucosylation reaction was successfully performed using a UDP-glucosyltransferase YjiC, from Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13. The glucosylation has been confirmed at the phenolic groups of C-4 and C-7 positions ensuing apigenin 4-O-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and apigenin 4,7-O-diglucoside as the products leaving the C-5 position unglucosylated. The position of glucosylation and the chemical structures of glucosides were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The parameters such as pH, UDP glucose concentration and time of incubation were also analyzed during this study.
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Characterization of FK506 biosynthetic intermediates involved in post-PKS elaboration.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The post-PKS modification steps of FK506 biosynthesis include C9-oxidation and 31-O-methylation, but the sequence of these reactions and the exact route have remained unclear. This study details the post-PKS modification pathways in FK506 biosynthesis through the identification of all intermediates and in vitro enzymatic reactions of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylase FkbD and the methyltransferase FkbM. These results complete our understanding of post-PKS modification steps to FK506 showing the substrate flexibility of two enzymes involved and the existence of two parallel biosynthetic routes to FK506.
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Controlling the luminescence emission from palladium grafted graphene oxide thin films via reduction.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The role of palladium (Pd) in the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) thin films was investigated using a Pd assisted grafting technique. The structural and optical characteristics of these thin films were obtained from various spectroscopic analyses, which confirmed increased C[double bond, length as m-dash]C-C aromatic ring vibration and oxidation of Pd with Ar annealing. In Pd free GO, annealing of films resulted in restoration of sp(2) clusters; however, Pd grafting with non-annealed film enhanced the possibility of restoration and further annealing dramatically increased the restoration rate with enhanced blue photoluminescence (PL) emission. The blue PL emission originates from sp(2) cluster sites and the yellow-green PL from defect trapped states. As reduction of GO increased, yellow-green emission decreased and blue PL became the prominent emission. These experimental findings open up a new feasible pathway for controlling the luminescence emission from graphene oxide that furthers the technological advancement of graphene based optoelectronic devices.
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Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in korean cancer survivors.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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This study was designed to evaluate prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among cancer survivors compared to non-cancer controls from a population-based sample and to identify associated risk factors.
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Retropharyngeal spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma is an uncommon benign adipose tissue tumor most frequently arising from the subcutaneous tissue of the back, shoulder, head and neck, and extremities. The deep cervical spaces are the rarely affected locations. Herein we report on the imaging findings of spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma involving the retropharyngeal space in an elderly woman.
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Spin wave nonreciprocity for logic device applications.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The utilization of spin waves as eigenmodes of the magnetization dynamics for information processing and communication has been widely explored recently due to its high operational speed with low power consumption and possible applications for quantum computations. Previous proposals of spin wave Mach-Zehnder devices were based on the spin wave phase, a delicate entity which can be easily disrupted. Here, we propose a complete logic system based on the spin wave amplitude utilizing the nonreciprocal spin wave behavior excited by microstrip antennas. The experimental data reveal that the nonreciprocity of magnetostatic surface spin wave can be tuned by the bias magnetic field. Furthermore, engineering of the device structure could result in a high nonreciprocity factor for spin wave logic applications.
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Inhibitory effect of phloretin and biochanin A on IgE-mediated allergic responses in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Anti-allergic effects and action mechanism of phloretin (Phl) and biochanin A (BioA) on the IgE-antigen complex-mediated allergic responses in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells were investigated.
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Improvement of Regio-Specific Production of Myricetin-3-O-?-L-Rhamnoside in Engineered Escherichia coli.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Myricetin is an important flavonol whose medically important properties include activities as an antioxidant, anticarcinogen, and antimutagen. The solubility, stability, and other biological properties of the compounds can be enhanced by conjugating aglycon with sugar moieties. The type of sugar moiety also plays a significant role in the biological and physical properties of the natural product glycosides. Reconstructed Escherichia coli containing thymidine diphosphate-?-L-rhamnose sugar gene cassette and Arabidopsis-derived glycosyltransferase were used for rhamnosylation of myricetin. Myricetin (100 ?M) was exogenously supplemented to induced cultures of engineered E. coli. The formation of target product-myricetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnoside-was confirmed by chromatographic and NMR analyses. The yield of product was improved by using various mutants and methylated cyclodextrin as a molecular carrier for myricetin in combination with E. coli M3G3. The maximal yield of product is 55.6 ?M (3.31-fold higher than the control E. coli MG3) and shows 55.6 % bioconversion of substrate under optimized conditions.
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Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: the Korean Pediatric Society, 2013.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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This article contains the recommended immunization schedule by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society, updated in March 2013, when Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine is now included in the National Immunization Program in Korea. It also includes catch-up immunization schedule for children and adolescents who are behind the recommended schedule. These schedules are a minor revision of the corresponding parts of Immunization Guideline, 7th edition, of the Korean Pediatric Society, released in 2012. Pediatricians should be aware of these schedules to provide adequate immunization to Korean children and adolescents.
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Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Healthy Korean Children Younger than 5 Years Old: Focus on Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Even after pneumococcal vaccination introduction, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumoccocus) is still an important cause of respiratory and invasive severe infection. Pneumococcus is resided in nasal mucosa and local or systemic infection begins with the nasal mucosa damage. We studied the indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage rates, serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility between vaccinate and non-vaccinated children.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.