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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
One-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy of pyridine: Determination of accurate ionization energy and cationic structure.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Ionization energies and cationic structures of pyridine were intensively investigated utilizing one-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing in Kr. The present one-photon high-resolution MATI spectrum of pyridine demonstrated a much finer and richer vibrational structure than that of the previously reported two-photon MATI spectrum. From the MATI spectrum and photoionization efficiency curve, the accurate ionization energy of the ionic ground state of pyridine was confidently determined to be 73?570 ± 6 cm(-1) (9.1215 ± 0.0007 eV). The observed spectrum was almost completely assigned by utilizing Franck-Condon factors and vibrational frequencies calculated through adjustments of the geometrical parameters of cationic pyridine at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. A unique feature unveiled through rigorous analysis was the prominent progression of the 10 vibrational mode, which corresponds to in-plane ring bending, and the combination of other totally symmetric fundamentals with the ring bending overtones, which contribute to the geometrical change upon ionization. Notably, the remaining peaks originate from the upper electronic state ((2)A2), as predicted by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies and symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction calculations. Based on the quantitatively good agreement between the experimental and calculated results, it was concluded that upon ionization the pyridine cation in the ground electronic state should have a planar structure of C2v symmetry through the C-N axis.
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Needs for end-of-life care by home care nurses among non-cancer patients in Korea and Japan.
Int J Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of each stage of the end-of-life process and the home care nursing needs of non-cancer patients. The total number of eligible patients was 117 in Korea and 121 in Japan, aged ??40, receiving continuous home care nursing throughout the beginning, stable, and at final death stages and ultimately dying at home. The need for the 'management of physical symptoms' increased as patients progressed through the end-of-life stages to death. In both countries, the needs for 'loss and grief care' and 'coordination among care team members' were significantly higher in the stable stage than in the beginning or final death stages. Further research is needed to develop tailored nursing care programmes that meet the specific needs of patients in each stage of the end-of-life care at home.
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Fluorinated polyimide gate dielectrics for the advancing the electrical stability of organic field-effect transistors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that operated with good electrical stability were prepared by synthesizing fluorinated polyimide (PI) gate dielectrics based on 6FDA-PDA-PDA PI and 6FDA-CF3Bz-PDA PI. 6FDA-PDA-PDA PI and 6FDA-CF3Bz-PDA PI contain 6 and 18 fluorine atoms per repeat unit, respectively. These fluorinated polymers provided smooth surface topographies and surface energies that decreased as the number of fluorine atoms in the polymer backbone increased. These properties led to a better crystalline morphology in the semiconductor film grown over their surfaces. The number of fluorine atoms in the PI backbone increased, the field-effect mobility improved, and the threshold voltage shifted toward positive values (from -0.38 to +2.21 V) in the OFETs with pentacene and triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene. In addition, the highly fluorinated polyimide dielectric showed negligible hysteresis and a notable gate bias stability under both a N2 environment and ambient air.
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Cordycepin-enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris inhibits ADP-induced [Ca(2+)] i mobilization and fibrinogen binding via phosphorylation of IP 3R and VASP.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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In this study, we investigated the effect of cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris on ADP (20 µM)-stimulated platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 18.5 ?g/mL. CE-WIB801C decreased TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of COX-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXAS) in ADP-activated platelets, which suggests that the inhibition of TXA2 production by CE-WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. CE-WIB801C inhibited ATP release and [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and increased cAMP level and IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation in ADP-activated platelets. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased CE-WIB801C-inhibited [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-increased IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation. CE-WIB801C elevated the phosphorylation of VASP (Ser(157)), an A-kinase substrate, but inhibited fibrinogen binding to ?IIb/?3. These results suggest that CE-WIB801C-elevated cAMP involved in IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation to inhibit [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and, VASP (Ser(157)) phosphorylation to inhibit ?IIb/?3 activation. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C may have a preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.
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Fracture characteristics of ceramic Nd:YAG.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The fracture of laser material in a ceramic Nd:YAG laser pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode was analyzed. The fracture of the laser material was found to occur when the critical temperature difference between the center of the material and the surface exceeded 355°C. To quantitatively analyze the material fracture, the heat-generation length and heat-generation radius of the laser material were calculated and the critical pump power per unit volume was examined. Under lasing and non-lasing conditions, the fracture of laser material occurred at 24.41 kW/cm(3) and 19.53 kW/cm(3), respectively, for 2 at.% ceramic Nd:YAG and 25.57 kW/cm(3) and 20.47 kW/cm(3), respectively, for 4 at.% ceramic Nd:YAG.
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High-performance organic complementary inverters using monolayer graphene electrodes.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene has been an attractive electrode material for organic electronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), because it is highly conductive and provides good oxidation and thermal stability properties. However, it still remains a challenge to demonstrate organic complementary circuits using graphene electrodes because of the relatively poor performance of n-type OFETs. Here, we report the development of high-performance organic complementary inverters using graphene as source/drain electrodes and N, N'-ditridecyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C13) and pentacene as n- and p-type organic semiconductors, respectively. Graphene electrodes were n-doped via the formation of NH2-terminated self-assembled monolayers that lowered the work function and the electron injection barrier between the graphene and PTCDI-C13. Thermal annealing improved the molecular packing among PTCDI-C13 groups on the graphene surface, thereby increasing the crystallinity and grain size. The thermally annealed PTCDI-C13 OFETs prepared using n-doped graphene electrodes exhibited a good field-effect mobility of up to 0.43 cm2/(V s), which was comparable to the values obtained from other p-type pentacene OFETs. By integrating p- and n-type OFETs, we successfully fabricated organic complementary inverters that exhibited highly symmetric operation with an excellent voltage gain of up to 124 and good noise margin.
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Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminate thin film encapsulation for organic thin film transistors via plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Organic electronic devices require a passivation layer that protects the active layers from moisture and oxygen because most organic materials are very sensitive to such gases. Passivation films for the encapsulation of organic electronic devices need excellent stability and mechanical properties. Although Al2O3 films obtained with plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) have been tested as passivation layers because of their excellent gas barrier properties, amorphous Al2O3 films are significantly corroded by water. In this study, we examined the deformation of PEALD Al2O3 films when immersed in water and attempted to fabricate a corrosion-resistant passivation film by using a PEALD-based Al2O3/TiO2 nanolamination (NL) technique. Our Al2O3/TiO2 NL films were found to exhibit excellent water anticorrosion and low gas permeation and require only low-temperature processing (<100 °C). Organic thin film transistors with excellent air-stability (52 days under high humidity (a relative humidity of 90% and a temperature of 38 °C)) were fabricated.
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Genomic profile analysis of diffuse-type gastric cancers.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Stomach cancer is the third deadliest among all cancers worldwide. Although incidence of the intestinal-type gastric cancer has decreased, the incidence of diffuse-type is still increasing and its progression is notoriously aggressive. There is insufficient information on genome variations of diffuse-type gastric cancer because its cells are usually mixed with normal cells, and this low cellularity has made it difficult to analyze the genome.
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Cordycepin-Enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris Inhibits Collagen-Induced [Ca(2+)]i Mobilization via cAMP-Dependent Phosphorylation of Inositol 1, 4, 5-Trisphosphate Receptor in Human Platelets.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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In this study, we prepared cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha, and investigated the effect of CE-WIB801C on collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 175 ?g/ml. CE-WIB801C increased cAMP level more than cGMP level, but inhibited collagen-elevated [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased the CE-WIB801C-downregulated [Ca(2+)]i level in a dose dependent manner, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-induced inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation. These results suggest that the inhibition of [Ca(2+)]i mobilization by CE-WIB801C is resulted from the cAMP/A-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IP3R. CE-WIB801C suppressed TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and TXA2 synthase (TXAS). These results suggest that the inhibition of TXA2 production by WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. In this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C with cAMP-dependent Ca(2+)-antagonistic antiplatelet effects may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.
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[Clinical usefulness of bile cytology obtained from biliary drainage tube for diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Biliary drainage is performed in many patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) to relieve obstructive jaundice. For those who have undergone biliary drainage, bile cytology can be easily performed since the access is already achieved. This study aims to determine the clinical usefulness of bile cytology for the diagnosis of CCA and to evaluate factors affecting its diagnostic yield.
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Sculpting carbon bonds for allotropic transformation through solid-state re-engineering of -sp2 carbon.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Carbon forms one of nature's strongest chemical bonds; its allotropes having provided some of the most exciting scientific discoveries in recent times. The possibility of inter-allotropic transformations/hybridization of carbon is hence a topic of immense fundamental and technological interest. Such modifications usually require extreme conditions (high temperature, pressure and/or high-energy irradiations), and are usually not well controlled. Here we demonstrate inter-allotropic transformations/hybridizations of specific types that appear uniformly across large-area carbon networks, using moderate alternating voltage pulses. By controlling the pulse magnitude, small-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes can be transformed predominantly into larger-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes of different morphologies, multi-layered graphene nanoribbons or structures with sp(3) bonds. This re-engineering of carbon bonds evolves via a coalescence-induced reconfiguration of sp(2) hybridization, terminates with negligible introduction of defects and demonstrates remarkable reproducibility. This reflects a potential step forward for large-scale engineering of nanocarbon allotropes and their junctions.
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Flexible power fabrics made of carbon nanotubes for harvesting thermoelectricity.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Thermoelectric energy conversion is very effective in capturing low-grade waste heat to supply electricity particularly to small devices such as sensors, wireless communication units, and wearable electronics. Conventional thermoelectric materials, however, are often inadequately brittle, expensive, toxic, and heavy. We developed both p- and n-type fabric-like flexible lightweight materials by functionalizing the large surfaces and junctions in carbon nanotube (CNT) mats. The poor thermopower and only p-type characteristics of typical CNTs have been converted into both p- and n-type with high thermopower. The changes in the electronic band diagrams of the CNTs were experimentally investigated, elucidating the carrier type and relatively large thermopower values. With our optimized device design to maximally utilize temperature gradients, an electrochromic glucose sensor was successfully operated without batteries or external power supplies, demonstrating self-powering capability. While our fundamental study provides a method of tailoring electronic transport properties, our device-level integration shows the feasibility of harvesting electrical energy by attaching the device to even curved surfaces like human bodies.
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Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
, Anubha Mahajan, Min Jin Go, Weihua Zhang, Jennifer E Below, Kyle J Gaulton, Teresa Ferreira, Momoko Horikoshi, Andrew D Johnson, Maggie C Y Ng, Inga Prokopenko, Danish Saleheen, Xu Wang, Eleftheria Zeggini, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Linda S Adair, Peter Almgren, Mustafa Atalay, Tin Aung, Damiano Baldassarre, Beverley Balkau, Yuqian Bao, Anthony H Barnett, Inês Barroso, Abdul Basit, Latonya F Been, John Beilby, Graeme I Bell, Rafn Benediktsson, Richard N Bergman, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Noel Burtt, Qiuyin Cai, Harry Campbell, Jason Carey, Stéphane Cauchi, Mark Caulfield, Juliana C N Chan, Li-Ching Chang, Tien-Jyun Chang, Yi-Cheng Chang, Guillaume Charpentier, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Han Chen, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Kee-Seng Chia, Manickam Chidambaram, Peter S Chines, Nam H Cho, Young Min Cho, Lee-Ming Chuang, Francis S Collins, Marylin C Cornelis, David J Couper, Andrew T Crenshaw, Rob M Van Dam, John Danesh, Debashish Das, Ulf de Faire, George Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Antigone S Dimas, Christian Dina, Alex S Doney, Peter J Donnelly, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Cornelia van Duijn, Josée Dupuis, Sarah Edkins, Paul Elliott, Valur Emilsson, Raimund Erbel, Johan G Eriksson, Jorge Escobedo, Tonu Esko, Elodie Eury, Jose C Florez, Pierre Fontanillas, Nita G Forouhi, Tom Forsén, Caroline Fox, Ross M Fraser, Timothy M Frayling, Philippe Froguel, Philippe Frossard, Yutang Gao, Karl Gertow, Christian Gieger, Bruna Gigante, Harald Grallert, George B Grant, Leif C Grrop, Chrisropher J Groves, Elin Grundberg, Candace Guiducci, Anders Hamsten, Bok-Ghee Han, Kazuo Hara, Neelam Hassanali, Andrew T Hattersley, Caroline Hayward, Asa K Hedman, Christian Herder, Albert Hofman, Oddgeir L Holmen, Kees Hovingh, Astradur B Hreidarsson, Cheng Hu, Frank B Hu, Jennie Hui, Steve E Humphries, Sarah E Hunt, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Zafar I Hydrie, Hiroshi Ikegami, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Muhammed Islam, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Tazeen Jafar, Alan James, Weiping Jia, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anna Jonsson, Jeremy B M Jowett, Takashi Kadowaki, Hyun Min Kang, Stavroula Kanoni, Wen Hong L Kao, Sekar Kathiresan, Norihiro Kato, Prasad Katulanda, Kirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Ann M Kelly, Hassan Khan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Hyung-Lae Kim, Sangsoo Kim, Young Jin Kim, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Augustine Kong, Eeva Korpi-Hyövälti, Sudhir Kowlessur, Peter Kraft, Jasmina Kravic, Malene M Kristensen, S Krithika, Ashish Kumar, Jesus Kumate, Johanna Kuusisto, Soo Heon Kwak, Markku Laakso, Vasiliki Lagou, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Cordelia Langford, Robert Lawrence, Karin Leander, Jen-Mai Lee, Nanette R Lee, Man Li, Xinzhong Li, Yun Li, Junbin Liang, Samuel Liju, Wei-Yen Lim, Lars Lind, Cecilia M Lindgren, Eero Lindholm, Ching-Ti Liu, Jian Jun Liu, Stéphane Lobbens, Jirong Long, Ruth J F Loos, Wei Lu, Jian'an Luan, Valeriya Lyssenko, Ronald C W Ma, Shiro Maeda, Reedik Mägi, Satu Mannisto, David R Matthews, James B Meigs, Olle Melander, Andres Metspalu, Julia Meyer, Ghazala Mirza, Evelin Mihailov, Susanne Moebus, Viswanathan Mohan, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew D Morris, Thomas W Mühleisen, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Bill Musk, Jiro Nakamura, Eitaro Nakashima, Pau Navarro, Peng-Keat Ng, Alexandra C Nica, Peter M Nilsson, Inger Njølstad, Markus M Nöthen, Keizo Ohnaka, Twee Hee Ong, Katharine R Owen, Colin N A Palmer, James S Pankow, Kyong Soo Park, Melissa Parkin, Sonali Pechlivanis, Nancy L Pedersen, Leena Peltonen, John R B Perry, Annette Peters, Janini M Pinidiyapathirage, Carl G Platou, Simon Potter, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Venkatesan Radha, Loukianos Rallidis, Asif Rasheed, Wolfgang Rathman, Rainer Rauramaa, Soumya Raychaudhuri, N William Rayner, Simon D Rees, Emil Rehnberg, Samuli Ripatti, Neil Robertson, Michael Roden, Elizabeth J Rossin, Igor Rudan, Denis Rybin, Timo E Saaristo, Veikko Salomaa, Juha Saltevo, Maria Samuel, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jouko Saramies, James Scott, Laura J Scott, Robert A Scott, Ayellet V Segrè, Joban Sehmi, Bengt Sennblad, Nabi Shah, Sonia Shah, A Samad Shera, Xiao Ou Shu, Alan R Shuldiner, Gunnar Sigurđsson, Eric Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Xueling Sim, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Kerrin S Small, Wing Yee So, Alena Stančáková, Kari Stefansson, Gerald Steinbach, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Kathleen Stirrups, Rona J Strawbridge, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Chen Suo, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Wan Ting Tay, Tanya M Teslovich, Barbara Thorand, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Emmi Tikkanen, Joseph Trakalo, Elena Tremoli, Mieke D Trip, Fuu Jen Tsai, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G Uitterlinden, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Sailaja Vedantam, Fabrizio Veglia, Benjamin F Voight, Congrong Wang, Nicholas J Wareham, Roman Wennauer, Ananda R Wickremasinghe, Tom Wilsgaard, James F Wilson, Steven Wiltshire, Wendy Winckler, Tien Yin Wong, Andrew R Wood, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Ying Wu, Ken Yamamoto, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Mingyu Yang, Loïc Yengo, Mitsuhiro Yokota, Robin Young, Delilah Zabaneh, Fan Zhang, Rong Zhang, Wei Zheng, Paul Z Zimmet, David Altshuler, Donald W Bowden, Yoon Shin Cho, Nancy J Cox, Miguel Cruz, Craig L Hanis, Jaspal Kooner, Jong-Young Lee, Mark Seielstad, Yik Ying Teo, Michael Boehnke, Esteban J Parra, Jonh C Chambers, E Shyong Tai, Mark I McCarthy, Andrew P Morris.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
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Clinical utility of cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay and blood cytomegalovirus DNA PCR for cytomegaloviral colitis patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Clinical usefulness of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay and blood CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) needs to be evaluated.
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Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age ?=?24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels and personality traits may have a beneficial effect for the managing of dyslipidemia.
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Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea.
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High-performance H(2)S detection by redox reactions in semiconducting carbon nanotube-based devices.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Here we report the highly effective detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas by redox reactions based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) functionalized with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as a catalyst and we also discuss the important role of water vapor in the electrical conductivity of SWCNTs during the sensing of H2S molecules. To explore the H2S sensing mechanism, we investigate the adsorption properties of H2S on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the effects of the TEMPO functionalization using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and we summarize current changes of devices resulting from the redox reactions in the presence of H2S. The semiconducting-SWCNT (s-SWCNT) device functionalized with TEMPO shows a very high sensitivity of 420% at 60% humidity, which is 17 times higher than a bare s-SWCNT device under dry conditions. Our results offer promising prospects for personal safety and real-time monitoring of H2S gases with the highest sensitivity and low power consumption and potentially at a low cost.
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Cortical source localization of mouse extracranial electroencephalogram using the fieldtrip toolbox.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Neuronal source estimation is a general tool for analyzing spatiotemporal dynamics in human EEG. Despite rapidly-evolving interest in human brain, there are few EEG based source estimation tools in rodent brain. Therefore, we implemented source estimation tool in a mouse model, using the FieldTrip open-source software. High resolution EEGs with a known cortical source were recorded with a recently developed 40-channel polyimide-based microelectrode under optical stimulation on optogenetially engineered mice. To obtain realistic mouse head models, the volume conduction model was extracted from in vitro mouse brain MRIs. Segmented compartments (skin and outer/inner skull) were used to form triangular meshes and then applied to the boundary element method. The high-resolution EEGs recorded during various optogenetic stimulation of the mouse brain were inversely source reconstructed using minimum-norm estimate. Estimated source locations and strengths were reconstructed, and their error was calculated to evaluate FieldTrip-based source localization algorithm. In summary, source localization imaging of the mouse brain was successfully achieved, using freely-available open source software. This will be useful to investigate the functional dynamics of mouse brain in noninvasive measure.
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Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from strongly disagreeable to strongly agreeable. Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (? = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.
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Synthesis and transistor properties of asymmetric oligothiophenes: relationship between molecular structure and device performance.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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A series of three thiophene-naphthalene-based asymmetric oligomers-5-decyl-2,2:5,2:5,2-quaterthiophene (DtT), 5-decyl-5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2:5,2-terthiophene (D3TN), and 5-(4-decylphenyl)-5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2-bithiophene (DP2TN)-was synthesized by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. The long alkyl side chains improved both the solubility of the oligomers in solvents and their tendency to self-assemble. UV/Vis absorption measurements suggested that DtT, D3TN, and DP2TN form H-type aggregates with a face-to-face packing structure. In addition, the three oligomers were found to adopt vertically aligned crystalline structures in films deposited on substrates, as revealed by grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. These oligomers were used as the active layers of p-type organic field-effect transistors, and the resulting devices showed field-effect mobilities of 3.3×10(-3) ?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) for DtT, 1.6×10(-2) ?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) for D3TN, and 3.7×10(-2) ?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) for DP2TN. The differences in transistor performances were attributed to the degree of ? overlap and the morphological differences determined by the molecular structures.
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SET binding factor 1 (SBF1) mutation causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B3.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To identify the genetic cause of an autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B (CMT4B) family.
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Distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release for moderate to severe hallux valgus decided using intraoperative varus stress radiographs.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release for moderate to severe hallux valgus. The patients were selected using criteria that included the degree of lateral soft tissue contracture and metatarsocuneiform joint flexibility. The contracture and flexibility were determined from intraoperative varus stress radiographs. From April 2007 to May 2009, 56 feet in 51 consecutive patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus had undergone distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release. This was done when the lateral soft tissue contracture was not so severe that passive correction of the hallux valgus deformity was not possible and when the metatarsocuneiform joint was flexible enough to permit additional correction of the first intermetatarsal angle after lateral soft tissue release. The mean patient age was 45.2 (range 23 to 54) years, and the duration of follow-up was 27.5 (range 24 to 46) months. The mean hallux abductus angle decreased from 33.5° ± 3.1° to 11.6° ± 3.3°, and the first intermetatarsal angle decreased from 16.4° ± 2.7° to 9.7° ± 2.1°. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-interphalangeal scores increased from 66.6° ± 10.7° to 92.6° ± 9.4° points, and 46 of the 51 patients (90%) were either very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. No recurrence of deformity or osteonecrosis of the metatarsal head occurred. When lateral soft tissue contracture is not severe and when the metatarsocuneiform joint is flexible enough, distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release can be a useful and effective choice for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity.
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Genome-wide association study of the five-factor model of personality in young Korean women.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Personality is a determinant of behavior and lifestyle associated with health and human diseases. Although personality is known to be a heritable trait, its polygenic nature has made the identification of genetic variants elusive. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1089 Korean women aged 18-40 years whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the five-factor model of personality. To reduce environmental factors that may influence personality traits, this study was restricted to young adult women. In the discovery phase, we identified variants of PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D) that associated this gene with the Openness domain. Other genes that were previously reported to be associated with neurological phenotypes were also associated with personality traits. In particular, DRD1 and ORIA2 were linked to Neuroticism, NKAIN2 with Extraversion, HTR5A with Openness and DRD3 with Agreeableness. Data from our replication study of 2090 subjects confirmed the association between ORIA2 and Neuroticism. We first identified and confirmed a novel region on ORIA2 associated with Neuroticism. Candidate genes for psychiatric disorders were also enriched. These findings contribute to our understanding of the genetic architecture of personality traits and provide critical clues to the neurobiological mechanisms that influence them.
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A genome-wide association study of a coronary artery disease risk variant.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Although over 30 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified to be independently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genetic risk variants reported to date explain only a small fraction of heritability. To identify novel susceptibility variants for CAD and confirm those previously identified in European population, GWAS and a replication study were performed in the Koreans and Japanese. In the discovery stage, we genotyped 2123 cases and 3591 controls with 521 786 SNPs using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 chips in Korean. In the replication, direct genotyping was performed using 3052 cases and 4976 controls from the KItaNagoya Genome study of Japan with 14 selected SNPs. To maximize the coverage of the genome, imputation was performed based on 1000 Genome JPT+CHB and 5.1 million SNPs were retained. CAD association was replicated for three GWAS-identified loci (1p13.3/SORT1 (rs599839), 9p21.3/CDKN2A/2B (rs4977574), and 11q22.3/ PDGFD (rs974819)) in Koreans. From GWAS and a replication, SNP rs3782889 showed a strong association (combined P=3.95 × 10(-14)), although the association of SNP rs3782889 doesnt remain statistically significant after adjusting for SNP rs11066015 (proxy SNP with BRAP (r(2)=1)). But new possible CAD-associated variant was observed for rs9508025 (FLT1), even though its statistical significance did marginally reach at the genome-wide a significance level (combined P=6.07 × 10(-7)). This study shows that three CAD susceptibility loci, which were previously identified in European can be directly replicated in Koreans and also provides additional evidences implicating suggestive loci as risk variants for CAD in East Asian.
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Fixation of a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus using a three-portal posterior arthroscopic technique.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Fixation of a large osteochondral fragment on the posteromedial talus can be performed using medial malleolar osteotomy or an arthroscopic technique with a transmalleolar portal. However, osteotomy can be associated with some morbidity, such as longstanding pain and tenderness at the osteotomy site. Also, it requires longer immobilization. However, the transmalleolar portal damages the tibial articular cartilage, which can later cause pain. In young patients, it can injure the epiphyseal plate. We describe a posterior arthroscopic technique using 3 posterior portals that allow access to a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus and fixation of the osteochondral fragment without malleolar osteotomy or transmalleolar drilling.
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Dipole source localization of mouse electroencephalogram using the fieldtrip toolbox.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The mouse model is an important research tool in neurosciences to examine brain function and diseases with genetic perturbation in different brain regions. However, the limited techniques to map activated brain regions under specific experimental manipulations has been a drawback of the mouse model compared to human functional brain mapping. Here, we present a functional brain mapping method for fast and robust in vivo brain mapping of the mouse brain. The method is based on the acquisition of high density electroencephalography (EEG) with a microarray and EEG source estimation to localize the electrophysiological origins. We adapted the Fieldtrip toolbox for the source estimation, taking advantage of its software openness and flexibility in modeling the EEG volume conduction. Three source estimation techniques were compared: Distribution source modeling with minimum-norm estimation (MNE), scanning with multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and single-dipole fitting. Known sources to evaluate the performance of the localization methods were provided using optogenetic tools. The accuracy was quantified based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The mean detection accuracy was high, with a false positive rate less than 1.3% and 7% at the sensitivity of 90% plotted with the MNE and MUSIC algorithms, respectively. The mean center-to-center distance was less than 1.2 mm in single dipole fitting algorithm. Mouse microarray EEG source localization using microarray allows a reliable method for functional brain mapping in awake mouse opening an access to cross-species study with human brain.
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Large-scale genome-wide association studies in East Asians identify new genetic loci influencing metabolic traits.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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To identify the genetic bases for nine metabolic traits, we conducted a meta-analysis combining Korean genome-wide association results from the KARE project (n = 8,842) and the HEXA shared control study (n = 3,703). We verified the associations of the loci selected from the discovery meta-analysis in the replication stage (30,395 individuals from the BioBank Japan genome-wide association study and individuals comprising the Health2 and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Diabetes cohorts). We identified ten genome-wide significant signals newly associated with traits from an overall meta-analysis. The most compelling associations involved 12q24.11 (near MYL2) and 12q24.13 (in C12orf51) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 2p21 (near SIX2-SIX3) for fasting plasma glucose, 19q13.33 (in RPS11) and 6q22.33 (in RSPO3) for renal traits, and 12q24.11 (near MYL2), 12q24.13 (in C12orf51 and near OAS1), 4q31.22 (in ZNF827) and 7q11.23 (near TBL2-BCL7B) for hepatic traits. These findings highlight previously unknown biological pathways for metabolic traits investigated in this study.
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Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.
, Georg B Ehret, Patricia B Munroe, Kenneth M Rice, Murielle Bochud, Andrew D Johnson, Daniel I Chasman, Albert V Smith, Martin D Tobin, Germaine C Verwoert, Shih-Jen Hwang, Vasyl Pihur, Peter Vollenweider, Paul F O'Reilly, Najaf Amin, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Alexander Teumer, Nicole L Glazer, Lenore Launer, Jing Hua Zhao, Yurii Aulchenko, Simon Heath, Siim Sõber, Afshin Parsa, Jian'an Luan, Pankaj Arora, Abbas Dehghan, Feng Zhang, Gavin Lucas, Andrew A Hicks, Anne U Jackson, John F Peden, Toshiko Tanaka, Sarah H Wild, Igor Rudan, Wilmar Igl, Yuri Milaneschi, Alex N Parker, Cristiano Fava, John C Chambers, Ervin R Fox, Meena Kumari, Min Jin Go, Pim van der Harst, Wen Hong Linda Kao, Marketa Sjögren, D G Vinay, Myriam Alexander, Yasuharu Tabara, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Peter H Whincup, Yongmei Liu, Gang Shi, Johanna Kuusisto, Bamidele Tayo, Mark Seielstad, Xueling Sim, Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, Terho Lehtimäki, Giuseppe Matullo, Ying Wu, Tom R Gaunt, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Matthew N Cooper, Carl G P Platou, Elin Org, Rebecca Hardy, Santosh Dahgam, Jutta Palmen, Veronique Vitart, Peter S Braund, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Adebowale Adeyemo, Walter Palmas, Harry Campbell, Barbara Ludwig, Maciej Tomaszewski, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Nicholette D Palmer, Thor Aspelund, Melissa Garcia, Yen-Pei C Chang, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Nanette I Steinle, Diederick E Grobbee, Dan E Arking, Sharon L Kardia, Alanna C Morrison, Dena Hernandez, Samer Najjar, Wendy L McArdle, David Hadley, Morris J Brown, John M Connell, Aroon D Hingorani, Ian N M Day, Debbie A Lawlor, John P Beilby, Robert W Lawrence, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, Halit Ongen, Albert W Dreisbach, Yali Li, J Hunter Young, Joshua C Bis, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Linda S Adair, Nanette R Lee, Ming-Huei Chen, Matthias Olden, Cristian Pattaro, Judith A Hoffman Bolton, Anna Köttgen, Sven Bergmann, Vincent Mooser, Nish Chaturvedi, Timothy M Frayling, Muhammad Islam, Tazeen H Jafar, Jeanette Erdmann, Smita R Kulkarni, Stefan R Bornstein, Jürgen Gräßler, Leif Groop, Benjamin F Voight, Johannes Kettunen, Philip Howard, Andrew Taylor, Simonetta Guarrera, Fulvio Ricceri, Valur Emilsson, Andrew Plump, Inês Barroso, Kay-Tee Khaw, Alan B Weder, Steven C Hunt, Yan V Sun, Richard N Bergman, Francis S Collins, Lori L Bonnycastle, Laura J Scott, Heather M Stringham, Leena Peltonen, Markus Perola, Erkki Vartiainen, Stefan-Martin Brand, Jan A Staessen, Thomas J Wang, Paul R Burton, María Soler Artigas, Yanbin Dong, Harold Snieder, Xiaoling Wang, Haidong Zhu, Kurt K Lohman, Megan E Rudock, Susan R Heckbert, Nicholas L Smith, Kerri L Wiggins, Ayo Doumatey, Daniel Shriner, Gudrun Veldre, Margus Viigimaa, Sanjay Kinra, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Vikal Tripathy, Carl D Langefeld, Annika Rosengren, Dag S Thelle, Anna Maria Corsi, Andrew Singleton, Terrence Forrester, Gina Hilton, Colin A McKenzie, Tunde Salako, Naoharu Iwai, Yoshikuni Kita, Toshio Ogihara, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Tomonori Okamura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Satoshi Umemura, Susana Eyheramendy, Thomas Meitinger, H-Erich Wichmann, Yoon Shin Cho, Hyung-Lae Kim, Jong-Young Lee, James Scott, Joban S Sehmi, Weihua Zhang, Bo Hedblad, Peter Nilsson, George Davey Smith, Andrew Wong, Narisu Narisu, Alena Stančáková, Leslie J Raffel, Jie Yao, Sekar Kathiresan, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen M Schwartz, M Arfan Ikram, W T Longstreth, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Nick R G Shrine, Louise V Wain, Mario A Morken, Amy J Swift, Jaana Laitinen, Inga Prokopenko, Paavo Zitting, Jackie A Cooper, Steve E Humphries, John Danesh, Asif Rasheed, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Hugh Watkins, Stephan J L Bakker, Wiek H van Gilst, Charles S Janipalli, K Radha Mani, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Albert Hofman, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Ben A Oostra, Ayse Demirkan, Aaron Isaacs, Fernando Rivadeneira, Edward G Lakatta, Marco Orrù, Angelo Scuteri, Mika Ala-Korpela, Antti J Kangas, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Pasi Soininen, Taru Tukiainen, Peter Würtz, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Marcus Dörr, Heyo K Kroemer, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Pilar Galán, Serge Hercberg, Mark Lathrop, Diana Zelenika, Panos Deloukas, Massimo Mangino, Tim D Spector, Guangju Zhai, James F Meschia, Michael A Nalls, Pankaj Sharma, Janos Terzic, M V Kranthi Kumar, Matthew Denniff, Ewa Zukowska-Szczechowska, Lynne E Wagenknecht, F Gerald R Fowkes, Fadi J Charchar, Peter E H Schwarz, Caroline Hayward, Xiuqing Guo, Charles Rotimi, Michiel L Bots, Eva Brand, Nilesh J Samani, Ozren Polašek, Philippa J Talmud, Fredrik Nyberg, Diana Kuh, Maris Laan, Kristian Hveem, Lyle J Palmer, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Juan P Casas, Karen L Mohlke, Paolo Vineis, Olli Raitakari, Santhi K Ganesh, Tien Y Wong, E Shyong Tai, Richard S Cooper, Markku Laakso, Dabeeru C Rao, Tamara B Harris, Richard W Morris, Anna F Dominiczak, Mika Kivimäki, Michael G Marmot, Tetsuro Miki, Danish Saleheen, Giriraj R Chandak, Josef Coresh, Gerjan Navis, Veikko Salomaa, Bok-Ghee Han, Xiaofeng Zhu, Jaspal S Kooner, Olle Melander, Paul M Ridker, Stefania Bandinelli, Ulf B Gyllensten, Alan F Wright, James F Wilson, Luigi Ferrucci, Martin Farrall, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Peter P Pramstaller, Roberto Elosua, Nicole Soranzo, Eric J G Sijbrands, David Altshuler, Ruth J F Loos, Alan R Shuldiner, Christian Gieger, Pierre Meneton, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jerome I Rotter, Rainer Rettig, Manuela Uda, David P Strachan, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Jacques S Beckmann, Eric Boerwinkle, Ramachandran S Vasan, Michael Boehnke, Martin G Larson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Bruce M Psaty, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Aravinda Chakravarti, Paul Elliott, Cornelia M van Duijn, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Daniel Levy, Mark J Caulfield, Toby Johnson.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (?140?mm?Hg systolic blood pressure or? ?90?mm?Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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Genome-wide scan of granular corneal dystrophy, type II: confirmation of chromosome 5q31 and identification of new co-segregated loci on chromosome 3q26.3.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Granular corneal dystrophy, type II (CGD2; Avellino corneal dystrophy) is the most common corneal dystrophy among Koreans, but its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Many reports showed that even though the causative mutation is the same TGFBI R124H mutation, there are severe and mild phenotypes of the corneal dystrophy. We also observed the phenotype differences in our samples. For this reason, we focused our effort on the identification of unknown genetic factor related to phenotype variation. A total 551 individuals from 59 families were genotyped with SNP chip and used in genome-wide linkage analysis. From single-point linkage analyses, we confirmed the known 5q31 region for TGFBI gene, and selected novel nine candidate loci for CGD2. In simulation analysis, the only 3q26.3 region including neuroligin 1 gene (NLGN1) was supported by empirical statistic significance. To investigate the effect of genetic heterogeneity in linkage analysis, we classified CGD2 families into two subgroups. Although we could not find a significant evidence for correlation between the 3q26.3 region and CGD2 phenotypes, this first genome-wide analysis with CGD2 families in Korea has a very important value for offering insights in genetics of CGD2. In addition, the co-segregating loci with CGD2 including 3q26.3 would be a good target for further study to understand the pathophysiology of CGD2.
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Highly organized two- and three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube-polymer hybrid architectures.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network architectures combined with flexible mediums (especially polymers) are strong candidates for functional flexible devices and composite structures requiring the combination of unique electronic, optical, and/or mechanical properties of SWCNTs and polymer materials. However, to build functional flexible devices with SWCNTs, it is required to have abilities to assemble and incorporate SWCNTs in desired locations, orientations, and dimensions on/inside polymer substrates. Here, we present unique two- and three-dimensional SWCNT network-polymer hybrid architectures by combining unprecedented control over growth, assembly, and transfer processes of SWCNTs. Several SWCNT architectures have been built on polymer materials ranging from two-dimensional suspended SWCNT microlines on PDMS microchannels to three-dimensional "PDMS-vertically aligned SWCNTs-PDMS" sandwich structures. Also a combined lateral SWCNT microline and vertically aligned SWCNT flexible device was demonstrated with good electrical conductivity and low junction resistance. The results reported here open the pathway for the development of SWCNT-based functional systems in various flexible device applications.
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Accelerated reliability testing of highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotube networks subjected to DC electrical stressing.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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We investigate the electrical reliability of nanoscale lines of highly aligned, networked, metallic/semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) fabricated through a template-based fluidic assembly process. We find that these SWCNT networks can withstand DC current densities larger than 10 MA cm(-2) for several hours and, in some cases, several days. We develop test methods that show that the degradation rate, failure predictability and total device lifetime can be linked to the initial resistance. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy suggest that fabrication variability plays a critical role in the rate of degradation, and we offer an empirical method of quickly determining the long-term performance of a network. We find that well-fabricated lines subject to constant electrical stress show a linear accumulation of damage reminiscent of electromigration in metallic interconnects, and we explore the underlying physical mechanisms that could cause such behavior.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings, derived from an east Asian population, provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D.
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Comparison of target coverage and dose to organs at risk between simultaneous integrated-boost whole-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy and junctioned intensity-modulated radiation therapy with a conventional radiotherapy field in treatment of na
Radiol Phys Technol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2011
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We have retrospectively investigated 15 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated at our institution between March 2007 and August 2009. We used simultaneous integrated-boost whole field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIB WF-IMRT) to treat the entire planning target volume in the head and neck cancer. All of the SIB WF-IMRT plans were replanned by use of the junctioned intensity modulated radiation therapy (J-IMRT) technique for comparison. The effect on target coverage and sparing of organs at risk, including laryngeal sparing in the optimal SIB WF-IMRT plan was compared with that achieved with use of the J-IMRT technique. The mean larynx dose and standard deviation was 25.2 ± 5.8 Gy for SIB WF-IMRT and 19.8 ± 16.8 Gy for J-IMRT. A comparison between SIB WF-IMRT and the J-IMRT technique demonstrated that the larynx dose was increased in SIB WF-IMRT. However, when the strong dose constraint was applied to the larynx and the pseudo-volume was used for a steep dose fall-off immediately outside the target, the SIB WF-IMRT technique would have led to a larynx dose comparable to that achieved with J-IMRT. Therefore, in our current practice we use the SIB WF-IMRT technique, which does not have the problem of setup error at the match line for treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Development of a predictive model for type 2 diabetes mellitus using genetic and clinical data.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Recent genetic association studies have provided convincing evidence that several novel loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aims of this study were: 1) to develop a predictive model of T2DM using genetic and clinical data; and 2) to compare misclassification rates of different models.
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Spectrum of rhodopsin mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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To determine the spectrum and frequency of rhodopsin gene (RHO) mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to characterize genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with mutations.
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[Effects of a Taegyo program on parent-fetal attachment and parenthood in first pregnancy couples].
J Korean Acad Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a Taegyo program on parents-fetal attachment and parenthood in first pregnancy couples (mothers and spouses).
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Cotyloplasty in cementless total hip arthroplasty for an insufficient acetabulum.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Cotyloplasty is a technique that involves making a perforation of the medial wall of a shallow acetabulum and then inserting an acetabular cup with the medial aspect of its dome beyond the Kohler line. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) using cotyloplasty with focusing on the amount of medial cup protrusion.
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Genetic variants that affect length/height in infancy/early childhood in Vietnamese-Korean families.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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To identify genetic factors that influence height in infancy/early childhood, a family-based genome-wide association study was conducted using 269,888 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 165 families composed of a Korean father, a Vietnamese mother and Vietnamese-Korean offspring in the International Marriage-based Immigrant Cohort in Korea. In a single-SNP-based analysis, the six SNPs in or near genes MAF, MAGI2, BMP4 and PTPN7 showed consistent suggestive associations at all height standard deviation scores using Korean, World Health Organization and Vietnamese growth references. Analyzing the haplotypes for the genes, haplotype blocks were found to be significantly associated with height. Similar to the results of a contiguous haplotype analysis using tag SNPs as above, noncontiguous haplotypes of variable length also showed a significant association near the suspected loci. Our result suggests that height during infancy/early childhood may be regulated by genetic variations that differ from those of adults.
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Copy number variation at leptin receptor gene locus associated with metabolic traits and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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Recent efforts have been made to link complex human traits and disease susceptibility to DNA copy numbers. The leptin receptor (LEPR) has been implicated in obesity and diabetes. Mutations and genetic variations of LEPR gene have been discovered in rodents and humans. However, the association of DNA copy number variations at the LEPR gene locus with human complex diseases has not been reported. In an attempt to study DNA copy number variations associated with metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we targeted the LEPR gene locus in DNA copy number analyses.
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Gene flow between the Korean peninsula and its neighboring countries.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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SNP markers provide the primary data for population structure analysis. In this study, we employed whole-genome autosomal SNPs as a marker set (54,836 SNP markers) and tested their possible effects on genetic ancestry using 320 subjects covering 24 regional groups including Northern (=16) and Southern (=3) Asians, Amerindians (=1), and four HapMap populations (YRI, CEU, JPT, and CHB). Additionally, we evaluated the effectiveness and robustness of 50K autosomal SNPs with various clustering methods, along with their dependencies on recombination hotspots (RH), linkage disequilibrium (LD), missing calls and regional specific markers. The RH- and LD-free multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) method showed a broad picture of human migration from Africa to North-East Asia on our genome map, supporting results from previous haploid DNA studies. Of the Asian groups, the East Asian group showed greater differentiation than the Northern and Southern Asian groups with respect to Fst statistics. By extension, the analysis of monomorphic markers implied that nine out of ten historical regions in South Korea, and Tokyo in Japan, showed signs of genetic drift caused by the later settlement of East Asia (South Korea, Japan and China), while Gyeongju in South East Korea showed signs of the earliest settlement in East Asia. In the genome map, the gene flow to the Korean Peninsula from its neighboring countries indicated that some genetic signals from Northern populations such as the Siberians and Mongolians still remain in the South East and West regions, while few signals remain from the early Southern lineages.
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Identification of new genetic risk variants for type 2 diabetes.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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Although more than 20 genetic susceptibility loci have been reported for type 2 diabetes (T2D), most reported variants have small to moderate effects and account for only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D, suggesting that the majority of inter-person genetic variation in this disease remains to be determined. We conducted a multistage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) within the Asian Consortium of Diabetes to search for T2D susceptibility markers. From 590,887 SNPs genotyped in 1,019 T2D cases and 1,710 controls selected from Chinese women in Shanghai, we selected the top 2,100 SNPs that were not in linkage disequilibrium (r(2)<0.2) with known T2D loci for in silico replication in three T2D GWAS conducted among European Americans, Koreans, and Singapore Chinese. The 5 most promising SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of 1,645 cases and 1,649 controls from Shanghai, and 4 of them were further genotyped in 1,487 cases and 3,316 controls from 2 additional Chinese studies. Consistent associations across all studies were found for rs1359790 (13q31.1), rs10906115 (10p13), and rs1436955 (15q22.2) with P-values (per allele OR, 95%CI) of 6.49 × 10(-9) (1.15, 1.10-1.20), 1.45 × 10(-8) (1.13, 1.08-1.18), and 7.14 × 10(-7) (1.13, 1.08-1.19), respectively, in combined analyses of 9,794 cases and 14,615 controls. Our study provides strong evidence for a novel T2D susceptibility locus at 13q31.1 and the presence of new independent risk variants near regions (10p13 and 15q22.2) reported by previous GWAS.
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Interaction between cigarette smoking and iodine intake and their impact on thyroid function.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
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Several population-based studies in iodine-deficient areas have shown an association between smoking and thyroid function. There are no population-based studies about the effects of smoking in iodine-sufficient areas. We examined the effect of smoking on thyroid function and the association with iodine intake in Korea, an area with sufficient iodine intake, much more than recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).
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Photodissociation dynamics of propargyl alcohol at 212 nm: the OH production channel.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Photodissociation dynamics of propargyl alcohol (HC identical withC-CH(2)OH) at 212 nm in the gas phase was investigated by measuring rotationally resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectra of OH ((2)Pi) radicals exclusively produced in the ground electronic state. From the spectra, internal energies of OH and translational energy releases to products were determined. The electronic transition at 212 nm responsible for the OH dissociation was assigned as the pi(C[triple bond]C) --> pi*(C[triple bond]C) transition by time-dependent density functional theory calculations. In addition, an energy barrier at the exit channel along the reaction coordinate on the excited electronic potential energy surface was identified by ab initio calculations. The observed energy partitioning among the fragments was successfully modeled by the so-called "barrier-impulsive model".
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CT evidence for subchondral trabecular injury of the femoral head in transient osteoporosis of the hip: a case report.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2009
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A 28-yr-old woman presented with both hip pain that started sequentially during the peripartum period. Diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) was made based on typical findings of plain radiographs and magnetic resonance images. The subchondral trabeculae of the femoral head were evaluated on serially taken coronal multiplanar reformation computerized tomogram images. At 4 weeks after pain onset, marked decrease in the sclerotic density with irregular discontinuation was observed in the primary compression trabeculae. At 12 weeks, a focal area of irregular thickening of trabeculae was observed. At 20 weeks, sclerotic density of trabeculae recovered markedly and the focal area of irregular trabecular thickening disappeared. At 1 yr, subchondral trabeculae recovered almost completely. The evidence of subchondral trabecular injury was observed in the femoral heads of TOH.
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Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Asia harbors substantial cultural and linguistic diversity, but the geographic structure of genetic variation across the continent remains enigmatic. Here we report a large-scale survey of autosomal variation from a broad geographic sample of Asian human populations. Our results show that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Most populations show relatedness within ethnic/linguistic groups, despite prevalent gene flow among populations. More than 90% of East Asian (EA) haplotypes could be found in either Southeast Asian (SEA) or Central-South Asian (CSA) populations and show clinal structure with haplotype diversity decreasing from south to north. Furthermore, 50% of EA haplotypes were found in SEA only and 5% were found in CSA only, indicating that SEA was a major geographic source of EA populations.
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Anti-cancer Activities of Ginseng Extract Fermented with Phellinus linteus.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2009
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In the present study, the anti-cancer effects of ginseng fermented with Phellinus linteus (GFPL) extract were examined through in vitro and in vivo assays. GFPL was produced by co-cultivating ginseng and Phellinus linteus together. Ginsenoside Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2 are important mediators of anti-angiogenesis and their levels in GFPL were enriched 24, 19 and 16 times, respectively, more than that of ginseng itself through the fermentation. GFPL exhibited distinct anti-cancer effects, including growth inhibition of the human lung carcinoma cell line A549, and promotion of immune activation by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) production in Raw 264.7 cells. Further evidence supporting anti-cancer effects of GFPL was its significant prolongment of the survival of B16F10 cancer cell-implanted mice. These results suggest that the GFPL may be a candidate for cancer prevention and treatment through immune activation and anti-angiogenic effects by enriching Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2.
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Highly aligned scalable platinum-decorated single-wall carbon nanotube arrays for nanoscale electrical interconnects.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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We present the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale electrical interconnect test structures constructed from aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes using a template-based fluidic assembly process. This CMOS-friendly process enables the formation of highly aligned parallel nanotube interconnect structures on SiO(2)/Si substrates of widths and lengths that are limited only by lithographical limits and, hence, can be easily integrated onto existing Si-based platforms. These structures can withstand current densities of approximately 10(7) A.cm(-2), comparable or better than copper at similar dimensions. Both the nanotube alignment and failure current density improve with decreasing structure width. In addition, we present a novel Pt nanocluster decoration method that drastically decreases the resistivity of the test structures. Ab initio density functional theory calculations indicate that the increase in conductivity of the nanotubes is caused by an increase in conduction channels close to their Fermi levels due to the platinum nanocluster decoration, with a possible conversion of the semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes into metallic ones. These results reflect a huge step toward the proposed replacement of copper-based interconnects with carbon nanotubes at gigascale integration levels.
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Analysis of genetic and non-genetic factors that affect the QTc interval in a Mongolian population: the GENDISCAN study.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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The QTc interval is a complex quantitative trait and a strong prognostic indicator of cardiovascular mortality in general, healthy people. The aim of this study was to identify non-genetic factors and quantitative trait loci that govern the QTc interval in an isolated Mongolian population. We used multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between the QTc interval and non-genetic factors including height, blood pressure, and the plasma lipid level. Whole genome linkage analyses were performed to reveal quantitative trait loci for the QTc interval with 349 microsatellite markers from 1,080 Mongolian subjects. Among many factors previously known for association with the QTc interval, age, sex, heart rate, QRS duration of electrocardiogram and systolic blood pressure were also found to have influence on the QTc interval. A genetic effect for the QTc interval was identified based on familial correlation with a heritability value of 0.31. In a whole genome linkage analysis, we identified the four potential linkage regions 7q31-34, 5q21, 4q28, and 2q36.
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Haplotype analysis of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene associated with advanced-stage endometriosis.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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To investigate whether the -1562C>T, R279Q, P574R, and R668Q polymorphisms of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene are related to endometriosis.
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Genetic associations of common deletion polymorphisms in families with Avellino corneal dystrophy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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Although the locations of many common deletion variants in the human genome are unknown, such deletions may be causative in rare disorders. Deletions can be mapped through the identification of Mendelian inconsistencies in pedigrees. Data for a total of 341,577 SNPs from an ACD family cohort (n=551) and 341,039 SNPs from a Korean-Vietnamese family cohort (n=554) were collected for a genome-wide association study using Illumina 370K-Duo Beadchips((R)). In the present study, a Mendelian inconsistency analysis of genotype data identified 1029 deletion variants in Korean and Korean-Vietnam family cohorts of 404 trios comprising 1105 individuals. Small-deletion copy number variations adjacent to 10 deletion variants were then validated by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expected copy numbers of each deletion variant were directly matched to its genotype cluster image. Deletion variants were also in strong linkage disequilibrium with nearby SNPs. To determine the overall contribution of the 1029 deletion variants, we analyzed case-control trio associations with the risk for Avellino corneal dystrophy. One SNP marker (rs885945) neighboring the gene encoding major histocompatibility complex class I F (HLA-F) was significantly associated with the risk of Avellino corneal dystrophy (P=0.0003). rs885945 showed high LD with SNPs within the HLA-F gene. Therefore, HLA-F may be a potential candidate gene for Avellino corneal dystrophy.
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Participatory action oriented training for hospital nurses (PAOTHN) program to prevent musculoskeletal disorders.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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The purpose of this study was to construct and test the feasibility and potential utility of a Participatory Action Oriented Training for Hospital Nurses (PAOTHN) program to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The PAOTHN program emphasized the active participation of nurses, resulting in practical and low-cost solutions for improving their work environment by reducing risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders.
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A comprehensive profile of DNA copy number variations in a Korean population: identification of copy number invariant regions among Koreans.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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To examine copy number variations among the Korean population, we compared individual genomes with the Korean reference genome assembly using the publicly available Korean HapMap SNP 50 k chip data from 90 individuals. Korean individuals exhibited 123 copy number variation regions (CNVRs) covering 27.2 mb, equivalent to 1.0% of the genome in the copy number variation (CNV) analysis using the combined criteria of P value (P<0.01) and standard deviation of copy numbers (SD>or= 0.25) among study subjects. In contrast, when compared to the Affymetrix reference genome assembly from multiple ethnic groups, considerably more CNVRs (n=643) were detected in larger proportions (5.0%) of the genome covering 135.1 mb even by more stringent criteria (P<0.001 and SD>or=0.25), reflecting ethnic diversity of structural variations between Korean and other populations. Some CNVRs were validated by the quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragment (QMPSF) method, and then copy number invariant regions were detected among the study subjects. These copy number invariant regions would be used as good internal controls for further CNV studies. Lastly, we demonstrated that the CNV information could stratify even a single ethnic population with a proper reference genome assembly from multiple heterogeneous populations.
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Surgical results of intradural extramedullary tumors.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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To report the treatment results of 12 patients who underwent a total excision of intradural extramedullary tumors.
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Development of an intervention to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders among hospital nurses based on the participatory approach.
Appl Ergon
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
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The participatory approach has been widely used to improve the work environment. The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders in hospital nurses using the participatory approach. Based on the Participatory Action Oriented Training (PAOT) approach, the multidisciplinary team conducted the trainer workshop to develop a comprehensive intervention protocol, which yielded several practical and low-cost solutions to reduce the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Structured tools that were focused on the hospital environment were developed. The developed action checklist consisted of 43 items that were focused on five areas of nursing tasks (i.e., patient care and treatment; safe handling of drugs, medical devices, and equipment; workstation design; physical environment; and welfare facilities and administration). The final intervention protocol consisted of a series of structured participant workshop, follow-up visits, and presentation of achievements.
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A large-scale genome-wide association study of Asian populations uncovers genetic factors influencing eight quantitative traits.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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To identify genetic factors influencing quantitative traits of biomedical importance, we conducted a genome-wide association study in 8,842 samples from population-based cohorts recruited in Korea. For height and body mass index, most variants detected overlapped those reported in European samples. For the other traits examined, replication of promising GWAS signals in 7,861 independent Korean samples identified six previously unknown loci. For pulse rate, signals reaching genome-wide significance mapped to chromosomes 1q32 (rs12731740, P = 2.9 x 10(-9)) and 6q22 (rs12110693, P = 1.6 x 10(-9)), with the latter approximately 400 kb from the coding sequence of GJA1. For systolic blood pressure, the most compelling association involved chromosome 12q21 and variants near the ATP2B1 gene (rs17249754, P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). For waist-hip ratio, variants on chromosome 12q24 (rs2074356, P = 7.8 x 10(-12)) showed convincing associations, although no regional transcript has strong biological candidacy. Finally, we identified two loci influencing bone mineral density at multiple sites. On chromosome 7q31, rs7776725 (within the FAM3C gene) was associated with bone density at the radius (P = 1.0 x 10(-11)), tibia (P = 1.6 x 10(-6)) and heel (P = 1.9 x 10(-10)). On chromosome 7p14, rs1721400 (mapping close to SFRP4, a frizzled protein gene) showed consistent associations at the same three sites (P = 2.2 x 10(-3), P = 1.4 x 10(-7) and P = 6.0 x 10(-4), respectively). This large-scale GWA analysis of well-characterized Korean population-based samples highlights previously unknown biological pathways.
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Analysis of hepatic gene expression during fatty liver change due to chronic ethanol administration in mice.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Chronic consumption of ethanol can cause cumulative liver damage that can ultimately lead to cirrhosis. To explore the mechanisms of alcoholic steatosis, we investigated the global intrahepatic gene expression profiles of livers from mice administered alcohol. Ethanol was administered by feeding the standard Lieber-DeCarli diet, of which 36% (high dose) and 3.6% (low dose) of the total calories were supplied from ethanol for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Histopathological evaluation of the liver samples revealed fatty changes and punctate necrosis in the high-dose group and ballooning degeneration in the low-dose group. In total, 292 genes were identified as ethanol responsive, and several of these differed significantly in expression compared to those of control mice (two-way ANOVA; p<0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of genes involved in hepatic lipid transport and metabolism were examined. An overall net increase in gene expression was observed for genes involved in (i) glucose transport and glycolysis, (ii) fatty acid influx and de novo synthesis, (iii) fatty acid esterification to triglycerides, and (iv) cholesterol transport, de novo cholesterol synthesis, and bile acid synthesis. Collectively, these data provide useful information concerning the global gene expression changes that occur due to alcohol intake and provide important insights into the comprehensive mechanisms of chronic alcoholic steatosis.
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Treatment of traumatic subtalar arthritis with interpositional arthroplasty with tensor fascia lata or fat.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of interpositional arthroplasty with tensor fascia lata or fat as a treatment for traumatic subtalar joint arthritis after a fracture of the calcaneus.
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Arthroscopy combined with hardware removal for chronic pain after ankle fracture.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arthroscopy combined with hardware removal for chronic pain after satisfactory healing of an ankle fracture. We hypothesized that combining hardware removal with arthroscopy for the intra-articular pathology would improve residual complaints more so than hardware removal alone.
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Carbon nanotube-nanocup hybrid structures for high power supercapacitor applications.
Nano Lett.
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Here, we design and develop high-power electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) using carbon-based three dimensional (3-D) hybrid nanostructured electrodes. 3-D hybrid nanostructured electrodes consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on highly porous carbon nanocups (CNCs) were synthesized by a combination of anodization and chemical vapor deposition techniques. A 3-D electrode-based supercapacitor showed enhanced areal capacitance by accommodating more charges in a given footprint area than that of a conventional CNC-based device.
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Association between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene polymorphisms and advanced-stage endometriosis in Korean women.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
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To characterize the genetic variation across the MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene with the risk of advanced-stage endometriosis.
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Genome-wide association study identifies GYS2 as a novel genetic factor for polycystic ovary syndrome through obesity-related condition.
J. Hum. Genet.
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To investigate the role of genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in relation to obesity, we performed a genome-wide association study of PCOS in Koreans (n=1741). PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrinal disorder of uncertain etiology. Obesity is one of the well-known risk factors for PCOS. Genome-wide association study. Women with or without PCOS. A total of 1881 samples were genotyped using Illumina HumanOmni1 Quad v1 and processed by R packages. The PCOS patients were divided into two subgroups according to PCOS diagnostic criteria (Rotterdam and National Institutes of Health (NIH)). For PCOS-associated loci in the two definitions, we successfully confirmed significant associations of GYS2 for body mass index in the discovery stage. We further replicated pleiotropic associations of GYS2 in a childhood obesity study (n=482) and in a gestational diabetes study (n=1710), respectively. Our study provides a preliminary framework upon diverse genetic effects underlying PCOS in Korean women. A newly identified GYS2 gene as a predisposing factor of PCOS might expand understanding of the biological pathways in metabolic and endocrine regulation.
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Radiobiological model-based bio-anatomical quality assurance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
J. Radiat. Res.
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A bio-anatomical quality assurance (QA) method employing tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is described that can integrate radiobiological effects into intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We evaluated the variations in the radiobiological effects caused by random errors (r-errors) and systematic errors (s-errors) by evaluating TCP and NTCP in two groups: patients with an intact prostate (G(intact)) and those who have undergone prostatectomy (G(tectomy)). The r-errors were generated using an isocenter shift of ±1 mm to simulate a misaligned patient set-up. The s-errors were generated using individual leaves that were displaced inwardly and outwardly by 1 mm on multileaf collimator field files. Subvolume-based TCP and NTCP were visualized on computed tomography (CT) images to determine the radiobiological effects on the principal structures. The bio-anatomical QA using the TCP and NTCP maps differentiated the critical radiobiological effects on specific volumes, particularly at the anterior rectal walls and planning target volumes. The s-errors showed a TCP variation of -40-25% in G(tectomy) and -30-10% in G(intact), while the r-errors were less than 1.5% in both groups. The r-errors for the rectum and bladder showed higher NTCP variations at ±20% and ±10%, respectively, and the s-errors were greater than ±65% for both. This bio-anatomical method, as a patient-specific IMRT QA, can provide distinct indications of clinically significant radiobiological effects beyond the minimization of probable physical dose errors in phantoms.
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Thermally Evaporated SiO Thin Films As a Versatile Interlayer for Plasma-Based OLED Passivation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
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Silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films were introduced as an efficient interlayer for achieving plasma-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) surface passivation. The SiO thin films could be consecutively formed via thermal evaporation, without breaking the vacuum, after deposition of the OLED cathode. The plasma resistivity and UV-blocking characteristics of the SiO interlayer protected the OLED devices against electrical and optical degradation during the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) passivation processes. In addition, the nonconformal deposition and hydroxyl group-rich surface characteristics of the SiO thin films yielded enhanced surface pinhole coverage and a higher initial film density in the subsequently deposited PEALD-based Al2O3 barrier film. As a result, the OLEDs with a SiO/Al2O3 bilayer passivation layer displayed a remarkably increased device shelf life compared to devices prepared using Al2O3-only passivation. A MOCON test showed that the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the SiO/Al2O3 bilayer film was 0.0033 g/(m(2) day), 2.3 times lower than the rate of a single Al2O3 barrier film. The results of our study demonstrated the multipurpose role of a SiO interlayer in plasma-based OLED passivation. The layer acted as a damage-free protective layer for the underlying OLED devices and an assistant layer to improve the upper barrier film performance.
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Closed antegrade intramedullary pinning for reduction and fixation of metatarsal fractures.
J Foot Ankle Surg
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The purpose of this study was to present the results of the metatarsal fractures treated with a closed antegrade intramedullary pinning technique. The records of 35 consecutive patients with metatarsal fractures operated on from August 2005 to June 2010 by the authors were retrospectively reviewed. Four patients were not contactable and 1 patient refused to participate. Accordingly, the study cohort was composed of 30 patients (24 male, 6 female) with 46 metatarsal head, neck, or shaft fractures. Inclusion criteria were metatarsal head, neck, or shaft fractures with a displacement of more than 3 to 4 mm or an angulation of more than 10° in the sagittal plane. Fractures combined with Lisfranc injury or metatarsal base fractures were excluded, as were bicortical comminuted fractures or long oblique fractures. Times to bone union, limitations of motion at affected metatarsophalangeal joints, and residual pain were evaluated at 6 weeks after surgery and at final follow-up. American Orthropedic Foot and Ankle Society scale was evaluated at final follow-up. Fracture union was obtained at an average of 7.1 (range 6 to 10) weeks. Two patients had moderate limitation of metatarsophalangeal joint at 6 weeks but recovered to full range at final follow-up. Average American Orthropedic Foot and Ankle Society score at final follow-up was 96.7 (range 83 to 100) points. Closed antegrade intramedullary pinning was found to be a useful method for treating displaced metatarsal fractures and to allow immediate joint motion and partial weightbearing in a stiff-soled shoe.
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A genome-wide association study identifies a breast cancer risk variant in ERBB4 at 2q34: results from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study.
Breast Cancer Res.
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Although approximately 25 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified to be independently associated with breast cancer risk through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the genetic risk variants reported to date only explain a small fraction of the heritability of breast cancer. Furthermore, GWAS-identified loci were primarily identified in women of European descent.
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Determination of precise pyrimidine cationic structure by vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
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The vibrational spectrum of a pyrimidine cation in the ground electronic state was obtained using vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization (VUV-MATI) spectroscopy. Accurate ionization energy of pyrimidine was determined from the 0-0 band position in the VUV-MATI spectrum and was measured by varying the PFI field to the zero field limit, which is 75?258 ± 7 cm(-1) (9.3308 eV). The spectrum displayed a large number of vibrational peaks, which could be nearly completely assigned through Franck-Condon analysis performed with variations of geometrical parameters at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. Based on the excellent agreement between experimental and calculated results, the definite geometry of the pyrimidine cation in the ground electronic state was determined to be a planar structure with C2v symmetry with a decreased N-N distance in the ring.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.