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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Polyoxometalate based open-frameworks (POM-OFs).
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Polyoxometalate-based open frameworks (POM-OFs) are extended architectures incorporating metal-oxide cluster units and comprise an emergent family of materials with a large diversity of topologies, structural flexibility and functionality at the nanoscale. Not only do POM-OFs present a wide range of configurable structures, but also a have a vast array of physical properties which reflect the properties of the various 'modular' molecular inputs. Here we describe the methodologies that can be used to construct POM-OF materials with important catalytic, electronic, and structural properties and discuss the advantages compared to the metal organic framework analogues. We also show that it is possible to construct POM-OF materials and design and/or fine tune their functionality by manipulating the initially generated building block libraries as well as by controlling the self-assembly towards the specific intermediate (POM) species which is the chemical and structural "information" carrier of the targeted POM-OF material.
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Design and fabrication of memory devices based on nanoscale polyoxometalate clusters.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Flash memory devices-that is, non-volatile computer storage media that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed-are vital for portable electronics, but the scaling down of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) flash memory to sizes of below ten nanometres per data cell presents challenges. Molecules have been proposed to replace MOS flash memory, but they suffer from low electrical conductivity, high resistance, low device yield, and finite thermal stability, limiting their integration into current MOS technologies. Although great advances have been made in the pursuit of molecule-based flash memory, there are a number of significant barriers to the realization of devices using conventional MOS technologies. Here we show that core-shell polyoxometalate (POM) molecules can act as candidate storage nodes for MOS flash memory. Realistic, industry-standard device simulations validate our approach at the nanometre scale, where the device performance is determined mainly by the number of molecules in the storage media and not by their position. To exploit the nature of the core-shell POM clusters, we show, at both the molecular and device level, that embedding [(Se(iv)O3)2](4-) as an oxidizable dopant in the cluster core allows the oxidation of the molecule to a [Se(v)2O6](2-) moiety containing a {Se(v)-Se(v)} bond (where curly brackets indicate a moiety, not a molecule) and reveals a new 5+ oxidation state for selenium. This new oxidation state can be observed at the device level, resulting in a new type of memory, which we call 'write-once-erase'. Taken together, these results show that POMs have the potential to be used as a realistic nanoscale flash memory. Also, the configuration of the doped POM core may lead to new types of electrical behaviour. This work suggests a route to the practical integration of configurable molecules in MOS technologies as the lithographic scales approach the molecular limit.
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Formation, self-assembly and transformation of a transient selenotungstate building block into clusters, chains and macrocycles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The one-pot syntheses of a series of dimeric and trimeric selenotungstates based on the [Se2W12O46](12-) unit are presented alongside the structure of the tetrameric [Se8W48O176](32-) wheel. Mass spectrometry has probed the stability of these clusters whilst their electronic structure has been contrasted to their known phosphotungstate analogues.
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Towards polyoxometalate-cluster-based nano-electronics.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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We explore the concept that the incorporation of polyoxometalates (POMs) into complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies could offer a fundamentally better way to design and engineer new types of data storage devices, due to the enhanced electronic complementarity with SiO2 , high redox potentials, and multiple redox states accessible to polyoxometalate clusters. To explore this we constructed a custom-built simulation domain bridge. Connecting DFT, for the quantum mechanical modelling part, and mesoscopic device modelling, confirms the theoretical basis for the proposed advantages of POMs in non-volatile molecular memories (NVMM) or flash-RAM.
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Exploring the rotational isomerism in non-classical Wells-Dawson anions {W18X}: a combined theoretical and mass spectrometry study.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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We present a combined theoretical and mass spectrometry study of the rotational isomerism of the non-classical Wells-Dawson anions. The structure is larger than the Keggin anion and six geometric isomers are predicted (?, ?, ?, ?*, ?*, ?*) on the basis of structural arguments. This work explores the geometrical differences between the isomers and evaluates the stability of these unusual clusters based upon the inclusion of the different heteroatoms. We connect the theoretical results with experimental studies by exploring the fragmentation of the parent clusters by electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Both approaches show a general stability trend that can be postulated as follows: ?* > ?* > ?* > ? ? ? > ? where the isomers ?*, ?* and ? are the only anions of this type known to have been synthesised.
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Connecting theory with experiment to understand the initial nucleation steps of heteropolyoxometalate clusters.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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A complimentary combination of Density Functional Theory (DFT) methodology and Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been utilized to increase our limited understanding of the first nucleation steps in the formation of the [XM(12)O(40)](n-) Keggin polyoxometalates (POMs) (where addenda metal atom M = W or Mo, and the heteroatom X = P or As). We postulate that the first key steps of nucleation into discrete, high nuclearity heteropolyanions proceed via the formation of isodinuclear species (e.g. [M(2)O(7)](2-)), which undergo successive steps of protonation and water condensation to form a heterotrinuclear fragment, which acts as a template for the constituent parts required for subsequent aggregation and formation of the plenary Keggin heteropolyanion. The stability of calculated structures of the numerous postulated intermediates has been analysed and discussed in detail, and these results complemented using experimental mass spectrometry, using an assembly (reaction solution analysis) and disassembly (fragmentation of single crystals) approach. Overall, no significant differences between the Keggin POMs were found when changing the addenda metal atom (W or Mo) or the heteroatom (P or As); although small differences among the lowest-energy structures were detected.
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Combined theoretical and mass spectrometry study of the formation-fragmentation of small polyoxomolybdates.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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We investigate the assembly of small polyoxomolybdates using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations which show that there is an expansion of the coordination sphere of the Mo center from four to six in molybdate anions when the acidity of the solution is increased. With the help of complementary static density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry experiments, we are able to postulate tentative mechanisms, with energy-cascade profiles, for the formation of the Lindqvist [Mo(6)O(19)](2-) anion. Similar to the family of isopolytungstates, it can be proposed that the [Mo(6)O(19)](2-) is formed by the aggregation of one molybdenum unit at a time; however, significant differences with respect to isopolytungstates are also found. The different behavior of chromates with respect to molybdates and tungstates is also considered.
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Assembly of titanium embedded polyoxometalates with unprecedented structural features.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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Two titanium embedded polyoxometalates with unprecedented structural features are presented: a monotitanium containing tungstoantimonate Na(13)H(3)[TiO(SbW(9)O(33))(2)]·33 H(2)O featuring a {Ti=O}(2+) moiety (1) and a hexatitanium containing tungstoarsenate K(6)[Ti(4)(H(2)O)(10)(AsTiW(8)O(33))(2)]·30 H(2)O containing a {Ti(4)(H(2)O)(10)}(16+) moiety (2). Both compounds have been fully characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR and TGA. 1 is constructed from two ?-B-{Sb(III)W(9)O(33)} fragments linked by five sodium cations and an unprecedented square pyramidal Ti(O)O(4) group with a terminal Ti=O bond, and 2 exhibits a Krebs-type structure composed of two {AsTiW(8)O(33)} fragments, where one W(VI) centre has been substituted for a Ti(IV) centre in each, fused together via a belt of four additional Ti(IV) centres. This system represents the tungsten Ti-incorporated polyoxoanion with one of the highest Ti:W ratios so far reported. Additionally, 2 could also be isolated as an n-tetrabutylammonium salt and has been further characterised by electrochemistry and electrospray ionisation (ESI) MS studies. Due to the unique nature of these systems, both have been fully investigated using DFT calculations yielding highly interesting results. Structure 1 has been optimised with five sodium atoms in the belt position, which in addition to reducing the high charge of the cluster influence a stabilisation of the antimony lone pairs. Electrostatic potential calculations highlight the high electronegativity of the terminal oxygen on the titanium centre, enhancing real potentiality as a reactive site for catalysis.
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Reduction of liver fructokinase expression and improved hepatic inflammation and metabolism in liquid fructose-fed rats after atorvastatin treatment.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Consumption of beverages that contain fructose favors the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome alterations in humans, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the only effective treatment for NAFLD is caloric restriction and weight loss, existing data show that atorvastatin, a hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, can be used safely in patients with NAFLD and improves hepatic histology. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of atorvastatins therapeutic effect on NAFLD, we used an experimental model that mimics human consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages. Control, fructose (10% w/v solution) and fructose+atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day) Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed after 14 days. Plasma and liver tissue samples were obtained to determine plasma analytes, liver histology, and the expression of liver proteins that are related to fatty acid synthesis and catabolism, and inflammatory processes. Fructose supplementation induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperleptinemia, hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation, increased the expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid ?-oxidation activity. Atorvastatin treatment completely abolished histological signs of necroinflammation, reducing the hepatic expression of metallothionein-1 and nuclear factor kappa B binding. Furthermore, atorvastatin reduced plasma (x 0.74) and liver triglyceride (x 0.62) concentrations, decreased the liver expression of carbohydrate response element binding protein transcription factor (x 0.45) and its target genes, and increased the hepatic activity of the fatty acid ?-oxidation system (x 1.15). These effects may be related to the fact that atorvastatin decreased the expression of fructokinase (x 0.6) in livers of fructose-supplemented rats, reducing the metabolic burden on the liver that is imposed by continuous fructose ingestion.
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Liver AMP/ATP ratio and fructokinase expression are related to gender differences in AMPK activity and glucose intolerance in rats ingesting liquid fructose.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Women, but not men, show an association between fructose consumption and an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. As rats are considered a model for human fructose metabolism, we sought to determine whether such a gender-related difference is present in Sprague-Dawley rats and to analyze the molecular mechanism behind. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to water or to a 10% w/v fructose solution for 14 days. Plasma analytes, liver triglycerides and enzyme activities and the expression of enzymes and transcription factors related to fatty acid metabolism, insulin signaling and glucose tolerance were determined. Fructose-fed rats had hypertriglyceridemia, steatosis and reduced fatty acid oxidation activity, although the metabolic pattern of fructose-fed female rats was different to that observed for male rats. Fructose-fed female, but not male rats, showed no change in plasma leptin; they had hyperinsulinemia, an altered glucose tolerance test and less liver insulin receptor substrate-2. Further, only fructose-fed female rats had increased adenosine 5-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase activity, resulting in a decreased expression of hepatic nuclear factor 4 and sterol response element binding protein 1. These differences were related to the fact that liver expression of the enzyme fructokinase, controlling fructose metabolism, was markedly induced by fructose ingestion in female, but not in male rats, resulting in a significant increase in the AMP/adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) ratio and, thus, AMP-activated protein kinase activation, in female rats only. The difference in fructokinase induction could explain the higher metabolic burden produced by fructose ingestion in the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats.
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Metabolic alterations and increased liver mTOR expression precede the development of autoimmune disease in a murine model of lupus erythematosus.
PLoS ONE
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Although metabolic syndrome (MS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are often associated, a common link has not been identified. Using the BWF1 mouse, which develops MS and SLE, we sought a molecular connection to explain the prevalence of these two diseases in the same individuals. We determined SLE- markers (plasma anti-ds-DNA antibodies, splenic regulatory T cells (Tregs) and cytokines, proteinuria and renal histology) and MS-markers (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, insulin and leptin, liver triglycerides, visceral adipose tissue, liver and adipose tissue expression of 86 insulin signaling-related genes) in 8-, 16-, 24-, and 36-week old BWF1 and control New-Zealand-White female mice. Up to week 16, BWF1 mice showed MS-markers (hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, fatty liver and visceral adipose tissue) that disappeared at week 36, when plasma anti-dsDNA antibodies, lupus nephritis and a pro-autoimmune cytokine profile were detected. BWF1 mice had hyperleptinemia and high splenic Tregs till week 16, thereby pointing to leptin resistance, as confirmed by the lack of increased liver P-Tyr-STAT-3. Hyperinsulinemia was associated with a down-regulation of insulin related-genes only in adipose tissue, whereas expression of liver mammalian target of rapamicyn (mTOR) was increased. Although leptin resistance presented early in BWF1 mice can slow-down the progression of autoimmunity, our results suggest that sustained insulin stimulation of organs, such as liver and probably kidneys, facilitates the over-expression and activity of mTOR and the development of SLE.
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Adipose tissue overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
Diabetes
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During the expansion of fat mass in obesity, vascularization of adipose tissue is insufficient to maintain tissue normoxia. Local hypoxia develops and may result in altered adipokine expression, proinflammatory macrophage recruitment, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether an increase in adipose tissue angiogenesis could protect against obesity-induced hypoxia and, consequently, insulin resistance. Transgenic mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) were generated. Vessel formation, metabolism, and inflammation were studied in VEGF transgenic mice and wild-type littermates fed chow or a high-fat diet. Overexpression of VEGF resulted in increased blood vessel number and size in both WAT and BAT and protection against high-fat diet-induced hypoxia and obesity, with no differences in food intake. This was associated with increased thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Moreover, whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were improved. Transgenic mice presented increased macrophage infiltration, with a higher number of M2 anti-inflammatory and fewer M1 proinflammatory macrophages than wild-type littermates, thus maintaining an anti-inflammatory milieu that could avoid insulin resistance. These studies suggest that overexpression of VEGF in adipose tissue is a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.