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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The transmission of Fasciola spp. to cattle and contamination of grazing areas with Fasciola eggs in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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At four times during November 2010, cattle with infections of Fasciola spp., in two communes of northern Vietnam, were allocated to two equivalent groups. Cattle in one group were treated with triclabendazole. Faecal samples collected monthly from both groups were tested for Fasciola copro-antigens and the presence of Fasciola eggs. Re-infection of treated cattle occurred from early March to late November, coinciding with high weekly totals of rainfall. Contamination of grazing areas by untreated cattle was high and relatively constant throughout the year. However, contamination was reduced to undetectable amounts for 8 to 12 weeks after treatment and even at 20 weeks was only 50% or less of the pre-treatment amounts. Therefore, treatments given in mid-September and again in early April, at the start of the wet season, may be sufficient to prevent contamination of grazing areas and reduce the prevalence and severity of Fasciola infections in cattle.
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Reinfection of dogs with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in northern Vietnam following a single treatment with praziquantel.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) infections including liver- and minute intestinal flukes are common in Southeast Asia in both humans and domestic animals eating raw fish and since 2010, the liver flukes are recognised as neglected tropical diseases by WHO. Mass drug treatment with praziquantel is advised for humans, but no recommendations for control of the FZT in the reservoir hosts exist.
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Evaluation of four coproscopic techniques for detection of small trematode eggs in dog faeces.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The study was conducted to evaluate copro-diagnostic techniques for detection of small trematode eggs in dogs. FLOTAC, a novel flotation technique, and DBL, a sieving and sedimentation technique developed at the former Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory (DBL), were compared using 53 subsamples from four copro-positive dogs. Moreover, a modified version of the DBL technique and the Kato-Katz (KK) thick smear were later compared using faecal samples from 21 dogs. The four techniques were pair-wise compared regarding sensitivity, infection intensity and practical applicability. For the former two techniques, egg recovery subsequent to storage and reproducibility were also compared. The DBL technique detected all 53 subsamples positive for small trematode eggs. Based on 17 subsamples, mean infection intensity of 47±49 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was detected by the technique. Due to large amount of sediment, examination of a single subsample required an average of 3 hours. The FLOTAC technique was found less sensitive (82%) than the DBL technique and recovered significantly less eggs (4±6 EPG). Both sensitivity and intensity were further reduced following storage. As the FLOTAC technique requires specialised equipment, safety disposal and personal protective equipment, it was found less suited than the DBL technique for a basic laboratory. Additionally, poor reproducibilities were found for both the DBL and FLOTAC techniques (30±15% and 38±33%, respectively). Based on the 21 faecal samples, the modified version of the DBL technique was found more sensitive (85%) than the KK technique (68%), whereas egg counts were significantly higher for the latter (23±26 EPG vs. 482±909 EPG). By modifying the DBL technique, it was possible to diminish the retained sediment and examination time to a maximum of an hour, which was also the time required by the KK technique, although the latter was faster and more easily processed. Based on the results obtained in this study, none of the techniques evaluated were found applicable in their current form for detection of small trematode eggs in faeces from dogs in Vietnam.
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Prevalence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Vietnam: a multicenter study.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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The prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) was determined for a cross-section of individuals (n=8654) in five centers across Vietnam (Hanoi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa, and Can Tho) between 2008 and 2009. Following serological screening for HIV infection, HIV-1 viral load was determined, using an in-house real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Samples with quantifiable viral loads [all either commercial sex workers (CSW) or intravenous drug users (IDU)] underwent DRM analysis. Sequences were obtained for 92 treatment-naive individuals, the majority of whom were infected with HIV-1 CRF01_AE (99%), with one instance of subtype A1 also detected. DRMs were detected in seven treatment-naive individuals (7.6%). The most common DRMs observed were M184V, V75A/M, M41L, and K65R (NRTI) and K103N, G190A, and Y181C (NNRTI). Overall, the data from this first multicenter survey of DRMs in Vietnam indicate that the problem of transmitted drug resistance is of major concern in the highest-risk groups of IDU and CSW.
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Field trial of praziquantel for control of fishborne zoonotic trematodes in reservoir hosts in Vietnam.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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This field trial was conducted to determine whether 40 or 75 mg/kg of praziquantel is suitable for treatment of fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) in naturally infected dogs (n=10) and cats (n=11). Three days after treatment all animals at either dose were negative for small trematode eggs. In two cats and one dog treated with 75 mg/kg, however, a few damaged eggs were found 3 days post-treatment; no small trematode eggs were seen in these animals at day 14 post-treatment. In addition, at the 75 mg dose, two cats and two dogs experienced vomiting or diminished appetite. Therefore a praziquantel dose of 40 mg/kg is suggested for treatment of FZT in dogs and cats.
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Poultry as reservoir hosts for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in Vietnamese fish farms.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are widespread in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. It is now recognized that the risk of being infected from eating raw fish dishes applies not only to humans, but also to domestic animals (e.g., cats, dogs, and pigs) and fish-eating birds. The role of ducks and chicken, commonly raised on fish farms, as reservoir hosts, however, has not been adequately investigated. To study this question, chickens and ducks from integrated poultry-fish farms in Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu communes, Nam Dinh province, Vietnam were surveyed for FZT infections. A total of 50 ducks and 50 chickens from each commune were examined. Results revealed that 12% of chickens and 30% of ducks were infected with various species of trematodes, including two zoonotic species, Centrocestus formosanus and Echinostoma cinetorchis. Both occurred in chickens whereas only E. cinetorchis was found in ducks. Prevalence of these zoonotic species was 12% and 7% in ducks and chickens, respectively. Among other trematodes, Hypoderaeum conoideum, also a zoonotic fluke, was the most prevalent (20-30%). The feeding of snails and fish remains to poultry, either intentionally or by discharge of waste from the slaughter of ducks and chickens into the ponds, was identified as risk factors for trematode infection. The FZT species and low prevalence found in poultry in these communes indicate their role as reservoir hosts is minor.
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Prevalence and risks for fishborne zoonotic trematode infections in domestic animals in a highly endemic area of North Vietnam.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are endemic in humans and cultured fish in Vietnam but little is known about FZT in domestic animals. A study was designed to determine FZT prevalence and species diversity, and risk factors for infection, in dogs, cats and pigs. Faecal samples from 186 dogs, 94 cats and 168 pigs belonging to 132 households in Nghia Hung district, Nam Dinh province, were examined for small trematode eggs; those were trematode eggs with length less than 50 microm. Prevalence of FZT varied significantly between cats (70.2%), dogs (56.9%) and pigs (7.7%). Forty-nine of the egg-positive animals (25 dogs, 20 cats and 4 pigs) were necropsied to obtain adult trematodes for identification. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, and 11 species of intestinal flukes including Haplorchis, Stellantchasmus, Stictodora and Centrocestus were recovered from the infected animals. The practice of feeding raw fish to the animals was a significant risk factor for infection; this risk was reduced if the animals were periodically treated with anthelmintics. Based on the high prevalence of FZT and certain risky husbandry practices, domestic animals are likely to be major contributors of FZT eggs to the environment. Therefore, education of farmers to avoid feeding raw fish and to perform regular anthelmintic treatment of dogs, cats and pigs is needed in integrated FZT control programs.
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Animal reservoir hosts and fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections on fish farms, Vietnam.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) pose a risk to human food safety and health and may cause substantial economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In Nghe An Province, Vietnam, low prevalence of FZT for fish farmers but high prevalence for fish indicate that reservoir hosts other than humans may play a role in sustaining transmission. To determine whether domestic animals may be reservoir hosts, we assessed prevalence and species composition of FZT infections in dogs, cats, and pigs in a fish-farming community in Vietnam. Feces from 35 cats, 80 dogs, and 114 pigs contained small trematode eggs at 48.6%, 35.0%, and 14.4%, respectively; 7 species of adult FZT were recovered from these hosts. These results, combined with data from previous investigations in this community, imply that domestic animals serve as reservoir hosts for FZT and therefore must be included in any control programs to prevent FZT infection in humans.
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Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs.
Vet. Parasitol.
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Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection by sectioning of the small intestine and caecum into four parts. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs. The worm establishment ranged from 15 to 121 flukes (3-24%, mean 12%). Faecal egg excretion was measured in all eight infected dogs but no more than two eggs per g faeces (epg) were found at any time. Infections lasted for at least two months as documented by the presence of adult flukes in all three dogs necropsied on day 58 post infection. The predilection site of the flukes was identified as the lower part of jejunum (93% of total worm burden). The results of the haematological tests did not differ between the infected and uninfected group. Further, no clinical symptoms were observed in the infected group and no macroscopic pathological changes could be assigned to the trematode infections, neither did histopathological examination of the intestine reveal any differences between the infected and the control dogs. This study provides the first basic knowledge on the establishment, duration and location of H. pumilio infection in dogs. However, before any control measures can be recommended, knowledge regarding infection dynamics, epidemiology, health impact and control is needed.
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Prevention and control of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in fish nurseries, Vietnam.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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Worldwide, >18 million persons were infected with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in 2002. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for reducing prevalence and intensity of fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections in juvenile fish, we compared transmission rates at nurseries in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Rates were significantly lower for nurseries that reduced snail populations and trematode egg contamination in ponds than for nurseries that did not. These interventions can be used in the development of programs for sustained control of zoonotic trematodes in farmed fish.
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Hepatitis C virus in Vietnam: high prevalence of infection in dialysis and multi-transfused patients involving diverse and novel virus variants.
PLoS ONE
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a genetically diverse pathogen infecting approximately 2-3% of the worlds population. Herein, we describe results of a large, multicentre serological and molecular epidemiological study cataloguing the prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in five regions of Vietnam; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. Individuals (n=8654) with varying risk factors for infection were analysed for the presence of HCV Ab/Ag and, in a subset of positive specimens, for HCV RNA levels (n=475) and genotype (n=282). In lower risk individuals, including voluntary blood donors, military recruits and pregnant women, the prevalence of infection was 0.5% (n=26/5250). Prevalence rates were significantly higher (p<0.001) in intravenous drug users (IDUs; 55.6%, n=556/1000), dialysis patients (26.6%, n=153/575) commercial sex workers (CSWs; 8.7%, n=87/1000), and recipients of multiple blood transfusions (6.0%, n=32/529). The prevalence of HCV in dialysis patients varied but remained high in all regions (11-43%) and was associated with the receipt of blood transfusions [OR: 2.08 (1.85-2.34), p=0.001], time from first transfusion [OR: 1.07 (1.01-1.13), p=0.023], duration of dialysis [OR: 1.31 (1.19-1.43), p<0.001] and male gender [OR: 1.60 (1.06-2.41), p=0.026]. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high genetic diversity, particularly amongst dialysis and multi-transfused patients, identifying subtypes 1a (33%), 1b (27%), 2a (0.4%), 3a (0.7%), 3b (1.1%), 6a (18.8%), 6e (6.0%), 6h (4.6%), 6l (6.4%) and 2 clusters of novel genotype 6 variants (2.1%). HCV genotype 1 predominated in Vietnam (60%, n=169/282) but the proportion of infections attributable to genotype 1 varied between regions and risk groups and, in the Southern part of Vietnam, genotype 6 viruses dominated in dialysis and multi-transfused patients (73.9%). This study confirms a high prevalence of HCV infection in Vietnamese IDUs and, notably, reveals high levels of HCV infection associated with dialysis and blood transfusion.
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A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.
PLoS ONE
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Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001). Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174) and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99). HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49) and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40). Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318) of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187) showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001). In the immunodominant a region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.
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Evaluation of the role of rats as reservoir hosts for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in two endemic northern Vietnam fish farms.
Parasitol. Res.
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Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) pose a food safety risk for the aquaculture industry in Vietnam. The risk of being infected from eating raw fish applies not only to humans but also to domestic animals which can serve as reservoir hosts in fish farms. The role of rodents, commonly found in fish farms, as reservoir hosts has not been adequately evaluated. To study this question, commensal and rice field rats were collected from fish farms in Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu communes, Nam Dinh province, Vietnam and examined for FZT infection. A total of 250 rats (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus argentiventer, and Bandicota indica) were collected and examined; the rats were trapped in the farm households (commensal) and in rice fields adjoining the fish ponds (field). The total prevalence of all parasites was 52.8 %: nematodes, 42.4 %; trematodes 18.0 %; and cestodes, (3.6 %), including two zoonotic cestode species, Raillietina celebenisis and Hymenolepis diminuta. Although overall prevalence and intensity of parasite infection did not differ significantly among rat species or between the two communes, the intensity of nematode infection was significantly higher in commensal rats (p < 0.05). The only FZTs recovered were the intestinal flukes Echinostoma cinetorchis and Centrocestus formosanus, both at low prevalence. Because the most common FZTs found in fish from these communes are Haplorchis pumilio and Haplorchis taichui, neither of which were found in the rats, we conclude that rats are not significant reservoir hosts for FZT in these Vietnamese fish farms.
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HIV type 1 coreceptor tropism, CCR5 genotype, and integrase inhibitor resistance profiles in Vietnam: implications for the introduction of new antiretroviral regimens.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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In Vietnam, where an estimated 280,000 people will be HIV-positive by 2012, recommended antiretroviral regimens do not include more recently developed therapeutics, such as Integrase inhibitors (INI) and coreceptor antagonists. This study examined HIV-1 coreceptor tropism and INI drug resistance profiles, in parallel with CCR5 genotypes, in a cohort of 60 HIV-positive individuals from different regions of Vietnam. No evidence of INI resistance was detected. Some 40% of individuals had X4-tropic HIV-1, making them unsuitable for treatment with CCR5 antagonists. We identified a novel CCR5 variant-S272P-along with other, previously reported variants: G106R, C178R, W153C, R223Q, and S336I. Interestingly, CCR5 variants known to affect HIV-1 infectivity were observed only in individuals harboring X4-tropic virus. Together, this study presents valuable baseline information on HIV-1 INI resistance, coreceptor tropism, and CCR5 variants in HIV-positive individuals in Vietnam. This should help inform policy on the future use of novel antiretrovirals in Vietnam.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.