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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Does vitamin D mediate the protective effects of time outdoors on myopia? Findings from a prospective birth cohort.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Purpose: More time outdoors is associated with a lesser risk of myopia but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) mediates the protective effects of time outdoors against myopia. Methods: We analyzed data for children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population-based birth cohort: Non-cycloplegic autorefraction at age 7 to 15 years; maternal report of time outdoors at age 8 years and serum vitamin D2 and D3 at age 10 years. A survival analysis hazard ratio (HR) for incident myopia was calculated for children spending a high vs. low time outdoors, before and after controlling for vitamin D level (N=3,677). Results: Total vitamin D and D3, but not D2, levels were higher in children who spent more time outdoors [mean (95% CI) vitamin D in nmol/l: Total, 60.0 (59.4 to 60.6) vs. 56.9 (55.0 to 58.8), P=0.001; D3, 55.4 (54.9 to 56.0) vs. 53.0 (51.3 to 54.9), P=0.014; D2, 5.7 (5.5 to 5.8) vs. 5.4 (5.1 to 5.8), P=0.23]. In models including both time outdoors and sunlight-exposure-related vitamin D, there was no independent association between vitamin D and incident myopia [Total, HR=0.83 (0.66 to 1.04), P=0.11; D3, HR=0.89 (0.72 to 1.10), P=0.30], whilst time outdoors retained the same strong negative association with incident myopia as in unadjusted models [HR=0.69 (0.55 to 0.86), P=0.001]. Conclusions: Total vitamin D and vitamin D3 were biomarkers for time spent outdoors, however there was no evidence they were independently associated with future myopia.
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Fosbretabulin for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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ABSTRACT? Fosbretabulin tromethamine is a vascular disrupting agent, which is a type of drug that is designed to damage the vasculature (blood vessels) of cancer tumors, causing central necrosis. This drug showed activity against anaplastic thyroid cancer that was demonstrated in orthotopic xenograft models as well as in Phase I/II trials with or without carboplatin and paclitaxel combination therapy. In all of these studies, fosbretabulin was well tolerated.
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Long-Acting Intranasal Insulin Detemir Improves Cognition for Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Previous trials have shown promising effects of intranasally administered insulin for adults with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These trials used regular insulin, which has a shorter half-life compared to long-lasting insulin analogues such as insulin detemir. The current trial examined whether intranasal insulin detemir improves cognition or daily functioning for adults with MCI or AD. Sixty adults diagnosed with MCI or mild to moderate AD received placebo (n = 20), 20 IU of insulin detemir (n = 21), or 40 IU of insulin detemir (n = 19) for 21 days, administered with a nasal drug delivery device. Results revealed a treatment effect for the memory composite for the 40 IU group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). This effect was moderated by APOE status (p < 0.05), reflecting improvement for APOE-?4 carriers (p < 0.02), and worsening for non-carriers (p < 0.02). Higher insulin resistance at baseline predicted greater improvement with the 40 IU dose (r = 0.54, p < 0.02). Significant treatment effects were also apparent for verbal working memory (p < 0.03) and visuospatial working memory (p < 0.04), reflecting improvement for subjects who received the high dose of intranasal insulin detemir. No significant differences were found for daily functioning or executive functioning. In conclusion, daily treatment with 40 IU insulin detemir modulated cognition for adults with AD or MCI, with APOE-related differences in treatment response for the primary memory composite. Future research is needed to examine the mechanistic basis of APOE-related treatment differences, and to further assess the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir.
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Alcohol Use Longitudinally Predicts Adjustment and Impairment in College Students With ADHD: The Role of Executive Functions.
Psychol Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether alcohol consumption longitudinally predicts the adjustment, overall functioning, and grade point average (GPA) of college students with ADHD and to determine whether self-report of executive functioning (EF) mediates these relationships. Sixty-two college students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD completed ratings at the beginning and end of the school year. Regression analyses revealed that alcohol consumption rated at the beginning of the year significantly predicted self-report of adjustment and overall impairment at the end of the year, above and beyond ADHD symptoms and baseline levels of adjustment/impairment but did not predict GPA. Exploratory multiple mediator analyses suggest that alcohol use impacts impairment primarily through EF deficits in self-motivation. EF deficits in the motivation to refrain from pursuing immediately rewarding behaviors in order to work toward long-term goals appear to be particularly important in understanding why college students with ADHD who consume alcohol have a higher likelihood of experiencing significant negative outcomes. The implications of these findings for the prevention of the negative functional outcomes often experienced by college students with ADHD are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Gendered-peer relationships in educational contexts.
Adv Child Dev Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The goals of this chapter are to discuss the theories and evidence concerning the roles of gendered-peer interactions and relationships in children's lives at school. We begin by discussing the tendency of boys and girls to separate into same-sex peer groups and consider the theories and evidence concerning how gender segregation occurs and how peers influence children's learning and development. We then turn to the important and understudied question of why some children have more exposure to same-sex peers than others. We consider factors that contribute to variability in children's experiences with gender segregation such as the types of schools children attend and the kinds of classroom experiences they have with teachers. Finally, we review new evidence concerning the cognitive and affective factors that illustrate that children are actively involved in constructing the social world that surrounds them.
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Increased adrenergic signaling is responsible for decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the chronically hyperinsulinemic ovine fetus.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Insulin may stimulate its own insulin secretion and is a potent growth factor for the pancreatic ?-cell. Complications of pregnancy such as diabetes and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with changes in fetal insulin concentrations, secretion and ?-cell mass. However, glucose concentrations are also abnormal in these conditions. The direct effect of chronic fetal hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia on fetal insulin secretion and ?-cell mass has not been tested. We hypothesized that chronic fetal hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia would increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and ?-cell mass in the ovine fetus. Singleton ovine fetuses were infused with intravenous insulin to produce high physiological insulin concentrations, or saline for 7-10 days. The hyperinsulinemic animals also received a direct glucose infusion to maintain euglycemia. GSIS, measured at 133±1 days gestation, was significantly attenuated in the hyperinsulinemic fetuses (P<0.05). There was no change in ?-cell mass. The hyperinsulinemic fetuses also had decreased oxygen (P<0.05) and higher norepinephrine (1160±438 vs. 522±106 pg/ml, P<0.005). Acute pharmacologic adrenergic blockade restored GSIS in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic fetuses, demonstrating that increased adrenergic signaling mediates decreased GSIS in these fetuses.
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Oral prevalence and clearance of oncogenic human papilloma virus in a rehabilitation community for substance abusers in Italy: a case of behavioral correction?
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Human papilloma virus oral infection can be related to several factors including HIV infection, cigarette smoking, marijuana consumption and number of sexual partners. We conducted a study on oral HPV prevalence and clearance among the hosts of the San Patrignano community, a population considered at "high-risk" for HPV due to their previous habits.
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Cross-sectional survey of workers exposed to aliphatic diisocyanates using detailed respiratory medical history and questions regarding accidental skin and respiratory exposures.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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To identify possible cases of occupational asthma and assess accidental skin and inhalation exposures to aliphatic diisocyanates.
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Norms, Athletic Identity, and Concussion Symptom Under-Reporting Among Male Collegiate Ice Hockey Players: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Many athletes fail to report concussion symptoms to coaches or medical personnel, putting them at risk for potentially catastrophic neurologic consequences if additional brain trauma is sustained prior to full recovery.
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Socioeconomic differences in childhood length/height trajectories in a middle-income country: a cohort study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with shorter adult stature. Few studies have examined socioeconomic differences in stature from birth to childhood and the mechanisms involved, particularly in middle-income former Soviet settings.
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Robustness of the linear mixed effects model to error distribution assumptions and the consequences for genome-wide association studies.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have been successful in uncovering novel genetic variants that are associated with disease status or cross-sectional phenotypic traits. Researchers are beginning to investigate how genes play a role in the development of a trait over time. Linear mixed effects models (LMM) are commonly used to model longitudinal data; however, it is unclear if the failure to meet the models distributional assumptions will affect the conclusions when conducting a genome-wide association study. In an extensive simulation study, we compare coverage probabilities, bias, type 1 error rates and statistical power when the error of the LMM is either heteroscedastic or has a non-Gaussian distribution. We conclude that the model is robust to misspecification if the same function of age is included in the fixed and random effects. However, type 1 error of the genetic effect over time is inflated, regardless of the model misspecification, if the polynomial function for age in the fixed and random effects differs. In situations where the model will not converge with a high order polynomial function in the random effects, a reduced function can be used but a robust standard error needs to be calculated to avoid inflation of the type 1 error. As an illustration, a LMM was applied to longitudinal body mass index (BMI) data over childhood in the ALSPAC cohort; the results emphasised the need for the robust standard error to ensure correct inference of associations of longitudinal BMI with chromosome 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms.
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Relationship between phylogeny and immunity suggests older Caribbean coral lineages are more resistant to disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Diseases affect coral species fitness and contribute significantly to the deterioration of coral reefs. The increase in frequency and severity of disease outbreaks has made evaluating and determining coral resistance a priority. Phylogenetic patterns in immunity and disease can provide important insight to how corals may respond to current and future environmental and/or biologically induced diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if immunity, number of diseases and disease prevalence show a phylogenetic signal among Caribbean corals. We characterized the constitutive levels of six distinct innate immune traits in 14 Caribbean coral species and tested for the presence of a phylogenetic signal on each trait. Results indicate that constitutive levels of some individual immune related processes (i.e. melanin concentration, peroxidase and inhibition of bacterial growth), as well as their combination show a phylogenetic signal. Additionally, both the number of diseases affecting each species and disease prevalence (as measures of disease burden) show a significant phylogenetic signal. The phylogenetic signal of immune related processes, combined with estimates of species divergence times, indicates that among the studied species, those belonging to older lineages tend to resist/fight infections better than more recently diverged coral lineages. This result, combined with the increasing stressful conditions on corals in the Caribbean, suggest that future reefs in the region will likely be dominated by older lineages while modern species may face local population declines and/or geographic extinction.
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Why the bully/victim relationship is so pernicious: a gendered perspective on power and animosity among bullies and their victims.
Dev. Psychopathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The bully/victim relationship was studied in a sample of elementary school children (N = 1,289 in first, third, and fifth grades). Three questions were tested. Does bullying involve a power differential between bully and victim? Are bully/victim dyads participants in a relationship, whether mutual liking or disliking? Does the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad moderate power differential and relational context patterns? Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze predictors of the reputational strength of bully/victim ties. The findings revealed that the bully/victim dyads most frequently nominated by peers were characterized by asymmetries in social status, where bullies were increasingly more popular than their victims, and by asymmetries in aggression, where bullies were increasingly less aggressive than their victims. Bullies and victims were likely to select one another as among the children that they least like. Most effects with respect to aggression, popularity, and relationships were moderated by the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad. Implications for a developmental psychopathology perspective on peer bullying and victimization are highlighted.
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Rapid increases in infant adiposity and overweight/obesity in childhood are associated with higher central and brachial blood pressure in early adulthood.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Small size at birth and greater BMI in childhood are associated with greater brachial blood pressure (BP) in later life. Aortic (central) BP differs from brachial BP and is more predictive of organ damage and cardiovascular events; the relationship between BMI in childhood and central BP is not known.
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Childhood social disadvantage, cardiometabolic risk, and chronic disease in adulthood.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959-1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005-2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates.
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A physiological increase in insulin suppresses muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase gene activation in fetal sheep with sustained hypoglycemia.
Physiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Decreased glucose transfer to the fetus is characteristic of pregnancies complicated by maternal under nutrition and placental insufficiency. Chronic experimental restriction of glucose transfer to the sheep fetus for the final 40% of gestation with a maternal insulin infusion (HG fetuses) results in fetal hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and decreased rates of fetal growth and protein accretion compared to controls (CON). Lower rates of fetal protein accretion are due to increased fetal protein breakdown and not decreased protein synthesis. However, the specific skeletal muscle pathways responsible for increased protein breakdown have not been determined. Nor has it been determined if low fetal glucose or insulin concentrations are more important for regulating these skeletal muscle protein breakdown pathways. We tested whether chronic restriction of glucose transfer to the fetus increased the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway or autophagy-lysosome pathway in fetal sheep skeletal muscle and found no evidence for an increase in the autophagy-lysosome pathway. However, HG fetuses had increase mRNA expression of MaFBx1 (twofold, P < 0.01) and a trend for increased mRNA expression of MuRF1 (P = 0.08) compared to CON. A subset of chronically hypoglycemic fetuses received an isoglycemic insulin infusion for the final 7 days of the maternal insulin infusion (HG + INS fetuses) and had MaFBx1 and MuRF1 mRNA concentrations similar to CON fetuses. These results demonstrate that fetuses exposed to sustained hypoglycemia have decreased protein accretion due to activation of the skeletal muscle ubiquitin-proteosome pathway and that a fetal hyperinsulinemic clamp can suppress this pathway even in the context of continued hypoglycemia.
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With Whom and Where You Play: Preschoolers' Social Context Predicts Peer Victimization.
Soc Dev
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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This short-term longitudinal study assessed the relations between the social context of children's play (play-group size, play-group gender composition, and play setting) in the fall and peer victimization in the spring for low-income, minority, preschool girls and boys. Gender differences in these associations, as well as the moderating effect of children's individual problem behavior, were considered. Using a multiple-brief observation procedure, preschoolers' (N = 255, 49% girls) naturally occurring play in each type of social context was recorded throughout the fall semester. Observers also rated children's victimization and problem behaviors in the fall, and teachers rated children's victimization at the end of the school year. Findings suggested that social context variables predicted spring victimization above and beyond fall victimization and individual levels of problem behavior and that these associations varied for boys and girls. The findings signify the importance of the social context on changes in peer victimization.
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Playing with Others: Head Start Children's Peer Play and Relations with Kindergarten School Competence.
Early Child Res Q
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Time-sampled observations of Head Start preschoolers' (N = 264; 51.5% boys; 76% Mexican American; M = 53.11 and SD = 6.15 months of age) peer play in the classroom were gathered during fall and spring semesters. One year later, kindergarten teachers rated these children's school competence. Latent growth models indicated that, on average, children's peer play was moderately frequent and increased over time during preschool. Children with higher initial levels or with higher slopes of peer play in Head Start had higher levels of kindergarten school competence. Results suggest that Head Start children's engagement with peers may foster development of skills that help their transition into formal schooling. These findings highlight the importance of peer play, and suggest that peer play in Head Start classrooms contributes to children's adaptation to the demands of formal schooling.
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Social stressors and air pollution across New York City communities: a spatial approach for assessing correlations among multiple exposures.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Recent toxicological and epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic psychosocial stress may modify pollution effects on health. Thus, there is increasing interest in refined methods for assessing and incorporating non-chemical exposures, including social stressors, into environmental health research, towards identifying whether and how psychosocial stress interacts with chemical exposures to influence health and health disparities. We present a flexible, GIS-based approach for examining spatial patterns within and among a range of social stressors, and their spatial relationships with air pollution, across New York City, towards understanding their combined effects on health.
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Taking the tension out of hypertension: a prospective study of psychological well being and hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Previous studies have shown that psychological well being is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether well being might be specifically associated with reduced risk of hypertension has not been rigorously investigated in prospective studies.
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Genome-wide DNA methylation in neonates exposed to maternal depression, anxiety, or SSRI medication during pregnancy.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Despite the high prevalence of depression, anxiety, and use of antidepressant medications during pregnancy, there is much uncertainty around the impact of high levels of distress or antidepressant medications on the developing fetus. These intrauterine exposures may lead to epigenetic alterations to the DNA during this vulnerable time of fetal development, which may have important lifetime health consequences. In this study we investigated patterns of genome-wide DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip in the umbilical cord blood of neonates exposed to non-medicated maternal depression or anxiety (n = 13), or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy (n = 22), relative to unexposed neonates (n = 23). We identified 42 CpG sites with significantly different DNA methylation levels in neonates exposed to non-medicated depression or anxiety relative to controls. CpG site methylation was not significantly different in neonates exposed to SSRIs relative to the controls, after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In neonates exposed either to non-medicated maternal depression or SSRIs, the vast majority of CpG sites displayed lower DNA methylation relative to the controls, but differences were very small. A gene ontology analysis suggests significant clustering of the top genes associated with non-medicated maternal depression/anxiety, related to regulation of transcription, translation, and cell division processes (e.g., negative regulation of translation in response to oxidative stress, regulation of mRNA export from the nucleus, regulation of stem cell division). While the functional consequences of these findings are yet to be determined, these small DNA methylation differences may suggest a possible role for epigenetic processes in the development of neonates exposed to non-medicated maternal depression/anxiety.
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Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life? Analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of Danish men.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early-onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO.
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Growth trajectories in the children of mothers with eating disorders: a longitudinal study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal patterns of growth trajectories in children of women with eating disorders (ED): anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN).
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Is interpregnancy interval associated with cardiovascular risk factors in later life? A cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Pregnancy represents a metabolic challenge to women; in a normal pregnancy, transient metabolic changes occur that support the needs of the growing fetus. It is possible that repeating this challenge within a relatively short amount of time may result in lasting damage to the woman's cardiovascular health. Conversely, it is also possible that a long interpregnancy interval (IPI) may reflect subfertility, which has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examine the associations of short and long IPI with measures of cardiovascular health.
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Prospective study of the association between dispositional optimism and incident heart failure.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Although higher optimism has been linked with an array of positive health behaviors, biological processes, and cardiovascular outcomes, the relationship between optimism and heart failure has not been examined. In the United States, 80% of heart failures occur in adults aged 65+ years. Therefore, we examined whether higher optimism was linked with a reduced incidence of heart failure among older adults.
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Race-related health disparities and biological aging: does rate of telomere shortening differ across blacks and whites?
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Recent work suggests that leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, is sensitive to effects of social stress and may also provide early indication of premature aging. Using data from a birth cohort with LTL information at birth and in middle adulthood we examined a potential source of race-based health disparity by testing the hypothesis that Blacks would demonstrate a faster rate of telomere shortening than Whites. Linear regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for pack years, BMI, education and social factors, diet, exercise, marital status, and age. At birth black individuals had LTLs that were longer, on average, than their White counterparts (b=3.85, p<0.01). However, rate of shortening was greater for Blacks, who showed a larger difference in length between birth and adulthood (b=5.10, p=0.01) as compared with Whites, resulting in smaller racial differences in absolute adult LTL.
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Weight trajectories through infancy and childhood and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence: the ALSPAC study.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Adiposity is a key risk factor for NAFLD. Few studies have examined prospective associations of infant and childhood adiposity with subsequent NAFLD risk. We examined associations of weight-for-height trajectories from birth to age 10 with liver outcomes in adolescence, and assessed the extent to which associations are mediated through fat mass at the time of outcome assessment.
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Activity of abiraterone in rechallenging two AR-expressing salivary gland adenocarcinomas, resistant to androgen-deprivation therapy.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been reported to be active in androgen receptor (AR)-expressing, relapsed/metastatic (RM), salivary gland cancers (SGCs). Abiraterone, an inhibitor of androgen synthesis, has recently been approved as a second-line treatment in hormone-resistant (HR) prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Two patients with AR-positive HR-RM adenocarcinoma, NOS of the salivary glands have been treated with abiraterone. This is the first time that this agent has been reported to be active in tumors other than HRPCa. Immunohistochemical analysis showed overexpression of EGFR, HER2, and HER3 in both untreated primary tumors. Sequencing analysis revealed a TP53 non-functional mutation in one case and a PIK3CA-activating mutation in the other. In conclusion, second line activity of ADT in AR-expressing, adenocarcinoma, NOS of salivary glands further strengthens the pathogenic and therapeutic role of AR signaling in AR-positive SGCs.
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Burns in Sierra Leone: A population-based assessment.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Burns remain disproportionately prevalent in developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of burns in Sierra Leone to serve as a baseline for future programs.
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The weight of traumatic stress: a prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and weight status in women.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicates a chronic stress reaction in response to trauma. This prevalent condition has been identified as a possible risk factor for obesity. Whether PTSD symptoms alter the trajectory of weight gain or constitute a comorbid condition has not been established.
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The Burden of Musculoskeletal Disease in Sierra Leone.
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Musculoskeletal disease is a major cause of disability in the global burden of disease, yet data regarding the magnitude of this burden in developing countries are lacking. The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey was designed to measure the incidence and prevalence of surgically treatable conditions, including musculoskeletal conditions, in patients in low- and middle-income countries, and was administered in the West African nation of Sierra Leone in 2012.
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Treatment of advanced thyroid cancer with axitinib: Phase 2 study with pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and quality-of-life assessments.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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In a previous phase 2 trial, axitinib was active and well tolerated in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. In this second phase 2 trial, the efficacy and safety of axitinib were evaluated further in this population, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships and patient-reported outcomes were assessed.
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Divergent associations of antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation strategies with midlife cardiovascular disease risk.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk.
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Short-term improvement in insomnia symptoms predicts long-term improvements in sleep, pain, and fatigue in older adults with comorbid osteoarthritis and insomnia.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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In a primary care population of 367 older adults (aged ?60 years) with osteoarthritis (OA) pain and insomnia, we examined the relationship between short-term improvement in sleep and long-term sleep, pain, and fatigue outcomes through secondary analyses of randomized controlled trial data. Study participants, regardless of experimental treatment received, were classified either as improvers (?30% baseline to 2-month reduction on the Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) or as nonimprovers. After controlling for treatment arm and potential confounders, improvers showed significant, sustained improvements across 18 months compared with nonimprovers in pain severity (P<0.001, adjusted mean difference=-0.51 [95% CI: -0.80, -0.21), arthritis symptoms (P<0.001, 0.63 [0.26, 1.00]), and fear avoidance (P=0.009, -2.27 [-3.95, -0.58]) but not in catastrophizing or depression. Improvers also showed significant, sustained improvements in ISI (P<0.001, -3.03 [-3.74, -2.32]), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Total (P<0.001, -1.45 [-1.97, -0.93]) and general sleep quality (P<0.001, -0.28 [-0.39, -0.16]) scores, Flinders Fatigue Scale (P<0.001, -1.99 [-3.01, -0.98]), and Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep Scale (P=0.037, -2.44 [-4.74, -0.15]), but no improvements on the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire or the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. We conclude that short-term (2-month) improvements in sleep predicted long-term (9- and 18-month) improvements for multiple measures of sleep, chronic pain, and fatigue. These improvements were not attributable to nonspecific benefits for psychological well-being, such as reduced depression. These findings are consistent with benefits of improved sleep for chronic pain and fatigue among older persons with osteoarthritis pain and comorbid insomnia if robust improvements in sleep are achieved and sustained.
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Genome-wide polygenic scoring for a 14-year long-term average depression phenotype.
Brain Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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BackgroundDespite moderate heritability estimates for depression-related phenotypes, few robust genetic predictors have been identified. Potential explanations for this discrepancy include the use of phenotypic measures taken from a single time point, rather than integrating information over longer time periods via multiple assessments, and the possibility that genetic risk is shaped by multiple loci with small effects. MethodsWe developed a 14-year long-term average depression measure based on 14 years of follow-up in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; N = 6989 women). We estimated polygenic scores (PS) with internal whole-genome scoring (NHS-GWAS-PS). We also constructed PS by applying two external PS weighting algorithms from independent samples, one previously shown to predict depression (GAIN-MDD-PS) and another from the largest genome-wide analysis currently available (PGC-MDD-PS). We assessed the association of all three PS with our long-term average depression phenotype using linear, logistic, and quantile regressions. ResultsIn this study, the three PS approaches explained at most 0.2% of variance in the long-term average phenotype. Quantile regressions indicated PS had larger impacts at higher quantiles of depressive symptoms. Quantile regression coefficients at the 75th percentile were at least 40% larger than at the 25th percentile in all three polygenic scoring algorithms. The interquartile range comparison suggested the effects of PS significantly differed at the 25th and 75th percentiles of the long-term depressive phenotype for the PGC-MDD-PS (P = 0.03), and this difference also reached borderline statistical significance for the GAIN-MDD-PS (P = 0.05). ConclusionsIntegrating multiple phenotype assessments spanning 14 years and applying different polygenic scoring approaches did not substantially improve genetic prediction of depression. Quantile regressions suggested the effects of PS may be largest at high quantiles of depressive symptom scores, presumably among people with additional, unobserved sources of vulnerability to depression.
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Who benefits from CBT for insomnia in primary care? Important patient selection and trial design lessons from longitudinal results of the Lifestyles trial.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Evaluate long-term effects of group interventions on sleep and pain outcomes in a primary care population of older adults with osteoarthritis pain and sleep disturbance.
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To assess whether associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation are due to intrauterine mechanisms.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis, and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence: a cross-sectional study of 1874 general population adolescents.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The impact of adolescent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on health, independent of fat mass, is unclear.
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Is the Trauma Mortality Prediction Model (TMPM-ICD-9) a valid predictor of mortality in pediatric trauma patients?
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Researchers are constantly challenged to identify optimal mortality risk adjustment methodologies that perform accurately in pediatric trauma patients. This study evaluated the new Trauma Mortality Prediction Model (TMPM-ICD-9) in pediatric trauma patients.
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Insulin resistance predicts brain amyloid deposition in late middle-aged adults.
Alzheimers Dement
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) increases Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. IR is related to greater amyloid burden post-mortem and increased deposition within areas affected by early AD. No studies have examined if IR is associated with an in vivo index of amyloid in the human brain in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD.
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Team-level approaches to addressing disordered eating: a qualitative study of two female collegiate cross country running teams.
Eat Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The objective of this study was to consider strategies used by two similarly competitive female collegiate cross country running teams to address teammate eating behaviors perceived to be unhealthy and problematic. Data were obtained through semi-structured individual interviews with team members (n?=?35). Teams differed in how they addressed problematic eating behaviors: members of one team described a collaborative, positive, team-focused and direct approach, while the most commonly described strategy for the other team was to do nothing. Possible contextual and compositional reasons for between-team differences and implications for prevention and detection of disordered eating among female athletes are discussed.
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Pessimistic orientation in relation to telomere length in older men: the VA normative aging study.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Recent research suggests pessimistic orientation is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). However, this is the first study to look not only at effects of pessimistic orientation on average LTL at multiple time points, but also at effects on the rate of change in LTL over time.
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The link between immunity and life history traits in scleractinian corals.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Immunity is an important biological trait that influences the survival of individuals and the fitness of a species. Immune defenses are costly and likely compete for energy with other life-history traits, such as reproduction and growth, affecting the overall fitness of a species. Competition among these traits in scleractinian corals could influence the dynamics and structural integrity of coral reef communities. Due to variability in biological traits within populations and across species, it is likely that coral colonies within population/species adjust their immune system to the available resources. In corals, the innate immune system is composed of various pathways. The immune system components can be assessed in the absence (constitutive levels) and/or presence of stressors/pathogens (immune response). Comparisons of the constitutive levels of three immune pathways (melanin synthesis, antioxidant and antimicrobial) of closely related species of Scleractinian corals allowed to determine the link between immunity and reproduction and colony growth. First, we explored differences in constitutive immunity among closely related coral species of the genus Meandrina with different reproductive patterns (gonochoric vs. hermaphrodite). We then compared fast-growing branching vs. slow-growing massive Porites to test co-variation between constitutive immunity and growth rates and morphology in corals. Results indicate that there seems to be a relationship between constitutive immunity and sexual pattern with gonochoric species showing significantly higher levels of immunity than hermaphrodites. Therefore, gonochoric species maybe better suited to resist infections and overcome stressors. Constitutive immunity varied in relation with growth rates and colony morphology, but each species showed contrasting trends within the studied immune pathways. Fast-growing branching species appear to invest more in relatively low cost pathways of the immune system than slow-growing massive species. In corals, energetic investments in life-history traits such as reproduction and growth rate (higher energy investment) seem to have a significant impact on their capacity to respond to stressors, including infectious diseases and coral bleaching. These differences in energy investment are critical in the light of the recent environmental challenges linked to global climate change affecting these organisms. Understanding physiological trade-offs, especially those involving the immune system, will improve our understanding as to how corals could/will respond and survive in future adverse environmental conditions associated with climate change.
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Bachelors, divorcees, and widowers: does marriage protect men from type 2 diabetes?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While research has suggested that being married may confer a health advantage, few studies to date have investigated the role of marital status in the development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether men who are not married have increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men (n?=?41,378) who were free of T2D in 1986, were followed for ?22 years with biennial reports of T2D, marital status and covariates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare risk of incident T2D by marital status (married vs unmarried and married vs never married, divorced/separated, or widowed). There were 2,952 cases of incident T2D. Compared to married men, unmarried men had a 16% higher risk of developing T2D (95%CI:1.04,1.30), adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, lifestyle and body mass index (BMI). Relative risks (RR) for developing T2D differed for divorced/separated (1.09 [95%CI: 0.94,1.27]), widowed (1.29 [95%CI:1.06,1.57]), and never married (1.17 [95%CI:0.91,1.52]) after adjusting for age, family history of diabetes and ethnicity. Adjusting for lifestyle and BMI, the RR for T2D associated with widowhood was no longer significant (RR:1.16 [95%CI:0.95,1.41]). When allowing for a 2-year lag period between marital status and disease, RRs of T2D for widowers were augmented and borderline significant (RR:1.24 [95%CI:1.00,1.54]) after full adjustment. In conclusion, not being married, and more specifically, widowhood was more consistently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and this may be mediated, in part, through unfavorable changes in lifestyle, diet and adiposity.
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Changes in fetal mannose and other carbohydrates induced by a maternal insulin infusion in pregnant sheep.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The importance of non-glucose carbohydrates, especially mannose and inositol, for normal development is increasingly recognized. Whether pregnancies complicated by abnormal glucose transfer to the fetus also affect the regulation of non-glucose carbohydrates is unknown. In pregnant sheep, maternal insulin infusions were used to reduce glucose supply to the fetus for both short (2-wk) and long (8-wk) durations to test the hypothesis that a maternal insulin infusion would suppress fetal mannose and inositol concentrations. We also used direct fetal insulin infusions (1-wk hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp) to determine the relative importance of fetal glucose and insulin for regulating non-glucose carbohydrates.
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The effects of stress at work and at home on inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study examined whether stress at work and at home may be related to dysregulation of inflammation and endothelial function, two important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease. In order to explore potential biological mechanisms linking stress with cardiovascular health, we investigated cross-sectional associations between stress at work and at home with an inflammation score (n's range from 406-433) and with two endothelial biomarkers (intercellular and vascular adhesion molecules, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1; n's range from 205-235) in a cohort of healthy US male health professionals. No associations were found between stress at work or at home and inflammation. Men with high or medium levels of stress at work had significantly higher levels of sVCAM-1 (13% increase) and marginally higher levels of sICAM-1 (9% increase), relative to those reporting low stress at work, independent of health behaviors. Men with high levels of stress at home had marginally higher levels of both sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 than those with low stress at home. While lack of findings related to inflammation are somewhat surprising, if replicated in future studies, these findings may suggest that endothelial dysfunction is an important biological mechanism linking stress at work with cardiovascular health outcomes in men.
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Prospective Study of Anxiety and Incident Stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Higher levels of anxiety are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have investigated whether anxiety is associated with stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between anxiety symptoms and incident stroke in a nationally representative longitudinal study of the US population.
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Genetic influences on trajectories of systolic blood pressure across childhood and adolescence.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Background- Blood pressure (BP) tends to increase across childhood and adolescence, but the genetic influences on rates of BP change are not known. Potentially important genetic influences could include genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies of adults as being associated with BP, height, and body mass index. Understanding the contribution of these genetic variants to changes in BP across childhood and adolescence could yield understanding into the life course development of cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results- Pooling data from 2 cohorts (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [n=7013] and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort [n=1459]), we examined the associations of allelic scores of 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for adult BP, 180 height SNPs, and 32 body mass index SNPs, with trajectories of systolic BP (SBP) from 6 to 17 years of age, using linear spline multilevel models. The allelic scores of BP and body mass index SNPs were associated with SBP at 6 years of age (per-allele effect sizes, 0.097 mm Hg [SE, 0.039 mm Hg] and 0.107 mm Hg [SE, 0.037 mm Hg]); associations with age-related changes in SBP between 6 and 17 years of age were of small magnitude and imprecisely estimated. The allelic score of height SNPs was only weakly associated with SBP changes. No sex or cohort differences in genetic effects were observed. Conclusions- Allelic scores of BP and body mass index SNPs demonstrated associations with SBP at 6 years of age with a similar magnitude but were not strongly associated with changes in SBP with age between 6 and 17 years. Further work is required to identify variants associated with changes with age in BP.
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Linear spline multilevel models for summarising childhood growth trajectories: A guide to their application using examples from five birth cohorts.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Childhood growth is of interest in medical research concerned with determinants and consequences of variation from healthy growth and development. Linear spline multilevel modelling is a useful approach for deriving individual summary measures of growth, which overcomes several data issues (co-linearity of repeat measures, the requirement for all individuals to be measured at the same ages and bias due to missing data). Here, we outline the application of this methodology to model individual trajectories of length/height and weight, drawing on examples from five cohorts from different generations and different geographical regions with varying levels of economic development. We describe the unique features of the data within each cohort that have implications for the application of linear spline multilevel models, for example, differences in the density and inter-individual variation in measurement occasions, and multiple sources of measurement with varying measurement error. After providing example Stata syntax and a suggested workflow for the implementation of linear spline multilevel models, we conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the linear spline approach compared with other growth modelling methods such as fractional polynomials, more complex spline functions and other non-linear models.
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Risks and benefits of prophylactic cyclic parenteral nutrition in surgical neonates.
Nutr Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Cyclic parenteral nutrition (PN) is used for both the treatment and prevention of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). Early initiation of prophylactic cyclic PN may not be well tolerated in young neonates. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that prophylactic cyclic PN initiated prior to the onset of hyperbilirubinemia is associated with younger age at initiation, lower bilirubin levels, and similar rates of adverse events compared to therapeutic cyclic PN initiated after established cholestasis in surgical neonates. Methods: A retrospective review of infants with gastrointestinal disorders requiring surgical intervention who received cyclic PN 2006-2011 was performed. Results: Of the 43 infants eligible for analysis, 23 received prophylactic and 20 received therapeutic cyclic PN. Infants in both groups were comparable in demographics, surgical diagnoses, and illness severity. At initiation of cyclic PN, infants with prophylactic cyclic PN were significantly younger in chronologic (P = .003) and postmenstrual age (P = .029). Prophylactic cyclic PN was associated with a significantly lower incidence of hyperbilirubinemia (P = .001), lower maximum conjugated bilirubin (P < .0001), and lower last checked conjugated bilirubin (P = .032) compared to the therapeutic cyclic PN. The incidence of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia was similar for the 2 groups. Conclusions: There may be a potential benefit to initiating cyclic PN prior to the development of hyperbilirubinemia in surgical neonates. Early initiation of prophylactic cyclic PN does not appear to increase the risk for adverse events.
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Physical activity during pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular risk factors: findings from a prospective cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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The long-term consequences of maternal physical activity during pregnancy for offspring cardiovascular health are unknown. We examined the association of maternal self-reported physical activity in pregnancy (18 weeks gestation) with offspring cardiovascular risk factors at age 15.
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Insulin, cognition, and dementia.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Cognitive disorders of aging represent a serious threat to the social and economic welfare of current society. It is now widely recognized that pathology related to such conditions, particularly Alzheimers disease, likely begins years or decades prior to the onset of clinical dementia symptoms. This revelation has led researchers to consider candidate mechanisms precipitating the cascade of neuropathological events that eventually lead to clinical Alzheimers disease. Insulin, a hormone with potent effects in the brain, has recently received a great deal of attention for its potential beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. Insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced sensitivity of target tissues to the favorable effects of insulin, is related to multiple chronic conditions known to impact cognition and increase dementia risk. With insulin resistance-associated conditions reaching epidemic proportions, the prevalence of Alzheimers disease and other cognitive disorders will continue to rise exponentially. Fortunately, these chronic insulin-related conditions are amenable to pharmacological intervention. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies that focus on increasing insulin sensitivity in the brain may be an important target for protecting or treating cognitive decline. The following review will highlight our current understanding of the role of insulin in brain, potential mechanisms underlying the link between insulin resistance and dementia, and current experimental therapeutic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function via modifying the brains insulin sensitivity.
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Female health and family planning in Sierra Leone.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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To describe the current status of access to maternal care, family planning use, and place of delivery in Sierra Leone, one of the poorest countries in the world with one of the highest maternal mortality rates.
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Phobic anxiety symptom scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes in US men and women.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Emotional stress may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the relation between phobic anxiety symptoms and risk of T2D is uncertain.
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Divergent associations of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies with inflammation.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Recent work suggests effective emotion regulation may protect against risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), but the mechanisms remain unknown. Strategies for regulating emotions vary in how effectively they mitigate potentially toxic effects of stressful life experiences, and therefore may be differentially associated with CHD risk. In this study, we examined the emotion regulation strategies of reappraisal and suppression in relation to inflammation, a biological state associated with both stress and CHD. We hypothesized that suppression would be associated with elevated inflammation and reappraisal would be associated with lower levels of inflammation.
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Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype and diet on apolipoprotein E lipidation and amyloid peptides: randomized clinical trial.
JAMA Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is caused in part by decreased clearance of the ?-amyloid (A?) peptide breakdown products. Lipid-depleted (LD) apolipoproteins are less effective at binding and clearing A?, and LD A? peptides are more toxic to neurons. However, not much is known about the lipid states of these proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid.
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The role of oxytocin in social bonding, stress regulation and mental health: an update on the moderating effects of context and interindividual differences.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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In this review we summarize the results and conclusions of five studies as presented in a symposium at the 42nd annual meeting of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, in New York in September 2012. Oxytocin administration has received increasing attention for its role in promoting positive social behavior and stress regulation, and its potential as a therapeutic intervention for addressing various aspects of psychiatric disorders. However, it has been noted that the observed effects are not uniformly beneficial. In this paper we present five new studies each concluding that contextual and interindividual factors moderate the effects of oxytocin, as well as peripheral oxytocin levels. These findings are in accordance with the recent idea that oxytocin administration may increase sensitivity to social salience cues and that the interpretation of these cues may be influenced by contextual (i.e. presence of a stranger versus friend) or interindividual factors (i.e. sex, attachment style, or the presence of psychiatric symptoms). When social cues in the environment are interpreted as "safe" oxytocin may promote prosociality but when the social cues are interpreted as "unsafe" oxytocin may promote more defensive and, in effect, "anti-social" emotions and behaviors. Likewise, oxytocin appears to promote such agonistic tendencies in individuals who are chronically pre-disposed to view the social milieu in uncertain and/or in negative terms (e.g., those with borderline personality disorder, severe attachment anxiety and/or childhood maltreatment). In all, these studies in pre-clinical animal, healthy humans and patients samples further reinforce the importance of considering both contextual and interindividual factors when trying to understand the role of oxytocin as a biological substrate underlying social bonding and stress regulatory processes and when studying the effects of oxytocin administration in particular in patients with (increased risk for) psychiatric disorders.
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Loss to follow-up in cohort studies: bias in estimates of socioeconomic inequalities.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Although cohort members tend to be healthy and affluent compared with the whole population, some studies indicate this does not bias certain exposure-outcome associations. It is less clear whether this holds when socioeconomic position (SEP) is the exposure of interest.
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Cognitive-behavioral treatment for comorbid insomnia and osteoarthritis pain in primary care: the lifestyles randomized controlled trial.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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To assess whether older persons with osteoarthritis (OA) pain and insomnia receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for pain and insomnia (CBT-PI), a cognitive-behavioral pain coping skills intervention (CBT-P), and an education-only control (EOC) differed in sleep and pain outcomes.
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Estimating trajectories of energy intake through childhood and adolescence using linear-spline multilevel models.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped.
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Growth hormone-releasing hormone effects on brain ?-aminobutyric acid levels in mild cognitive impairment and healthy aging.
JAMA Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has been previously shown to have cognition-enhancing effects. The role of neurotransmitter changes, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, may inform the mechanisms for this response.
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Internalizing and externalizing behaviors predict elevated inflammatory markers in childhood.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Children with behavior problems, such as internalizing or externalizing disorders, are at increased risk for poorer physical health in adulthood. Inflammation has been posited as a potential biological mediator underlying this association. However, it is unclear how early in development associations between behavior problems and inflammation may be detected, and whether associations are present for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors in pre-pubertal children.
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An anxious heart: anxiety and the onset of cardiovascular diseases.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The public health burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is high both in terms of economic and social costs. Key modifiable factors identified for CVD prevention include health behaviors and health risk factors (e.g., cholesterol, blood pressure). However, a substantial body of research has also identified stress, anxiety, and depression as potentially modifiable CVD risk factors. Here we focus on the role of anxiety in the development of CVD and consider its potential as a key target for primordial prevention strategies. First, we highlight important findings and summarize the latest research on anxiety and incident CVD. We also review and summarize the findings to date on subclinical CVD outcomes and briefly consider mechanisms by which anxiety may influence CVD. We identify key issues and consider how these issues may inform our understanding of the anxiety-CVD relationship. Finally, we briefly discuss the clinical implications of this work, with specific recommendations for providers.
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Are genetic variations in OXTR, AVPR1A, and CD38 genes important to social integration? Results from two large U.S. cohorts.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Some evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms in oxytocin pathway genes influence various social behaviors, but findings thus far have been mixed. Many studies have been based in small samples and there is possibility of publication bias. Using data from 2 large U.S. prospective cohorts with over 11,000 individuals, we investigated 88 SNPs in OXTR, AVPR1A, and CD38, in relation to social integration (measured as social connectedness in both binary and continuous forms and being continuously married). After correction for multiple testing only one SNP in CD38 (rs12644506) was significantly associated with social integration and that SNP predicted when using a dichotomized indicator of social connectedness (adjusted p=0.02), but not a continuous measure of social connectedness or the continuously married outcome. A significant gender-heterogeneous effect was identified in one OXTR SNP on dichotomized social connectedness; specifically, rs4686302 T allele was nominally associated with social connectedness in men, whereas the association direction was opposite in women (adjusted gender heterogeneity p=0.02). Furthermore, the rs53576 A allele was significantly associated with social connectedness only in women, and the effect magnitude was stronger in a dominant genetic model (adjusted p=0.003). In summary, our findings suggested that common genetic variants of OXTR, CD38, and AVPR1A are not associated with social integration as measured in this study using the simplified Berkman-Syme Social Network Index, but these findings and other work hint that effects may be modified by gender or other social experiences. Further work considering genetic pathways in relation to social integration may be more fruitful if these additional factors can be more comprehensively evaluated.
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Nationally representative household survey of surgery and mortality in Sierra Leone.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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There is limited evidence to characterize the burden of unmet need of surgical diseases in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to determine rate of deaths attributable to a surgical condition and reasons for not seeking surgical care in Sierra Leone.
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Cumulative Adversity in Childhood and Emergent Risk Factors for Long-Term Health.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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To examine whether and when effects of cumulative adversity in the first 7 years of life are evident in relation to 3 childhood markers of risk for poor adult physical health.
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The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school-based cluster randomised controlled trial protocol detailed statistical analysis plan.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The Active For Life Year 5 (AFLY5) randomised controlled trial protocol was published in this journal in 2011. It provided a summary analysis plan. This publication is an update of that protocol and provides a detailed analysis plan.Update: This update provides a detailed analysis plan of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the AFLY5 intervention. The plan includes details of how variables will be quality control checked and the criteria used to define derived variables. Details of four key analyses are provided: (a) effectiveness analysis 1 (the effect of the AFLY5 intervention on primary and secondary outcomes at the end of the school year in which the intervention is delivered); (b) mediation analyses (secondary analyses examining the extent to which any effects of the intervention are mediated via self-efficacy, parental support and knowledge, through which the intervention is theoretically believed to act); (c) effectiveness analysis 2 (the effect of the AFLY5 intervention on primary and secondary outcomes 12 months after the end of the intervention) and (d) cost effectiveness analysis (the cost-effectiveness of the AFLY5 intervention. The details include how the intention to treat and per-protocol analyses were defined and planned sensitivity analyses for dealing with missing data. A set of dummy tables are provided in Additional file 1.
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Household survey in Sierra Leone reveals high prevalence of surgical conditions in children.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Although great efforts are being undertaken to reduce child morbidity and mortality globally, there is limited knowledge about the need for pediatric surgical care. Some data on surgical need is available from hospital registries, but it is difficult to interpret for countries with limited surgical capacity.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.