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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Spatio temporal influence of isoflavonoids on bacterial diversity in the soybean rhizosphere.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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High bacterial density and diversity near plant roots has been attributed to rhizodeposit compounds that serve as both energy sources and signal molecules. However, it is unclear if and how specific rhizodeposit compounds influence bacterial diversity. We silenced the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids, a major component of soybean rhizodeposits, using RNA interference in hairy root composite plants, and examined changes in rhizosphere bacteriome diversity. We used successive sonication to isolate soil fractions from different rhizosphere zones at two different time points, and analyzed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Extensive diversity analysis of the resulting spatio temporal profiles of soybean bacterial communities indicated that indeed isoflavonoids significantly influenced soybean rhizosphere bacterial diversity. Our results also suggested a temporal gradient effect of rhizodeposit isoflavonoids on the rhizosphere. However, the hairy root transformation process itself significantly altered rhizosphere bacterial diversity, necessitating appropriate additional controls. Gene silencing in hairy root composite plants combined with successive sonication is a useful tool to determine the spatio temporal effect of specific rhizodeposit compounds on rhizosphere microbial communities.
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Current Practices of Screening for Incident Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Among HIV-Infected, HCV-Uninfected Individuals in Primary Care.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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?Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-uninfected patients are at risk for incident HCV infection, but little is known about screening practices for incident HCV among HIV-infected individuals in HIV primary care clinics.
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Relationship of circadian pattern of urine sodium excretion to hypertension and obstructive sleep apnoea.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and hypertension frequently coexist, and both are associated with higher night-time than daytime urine sodium excretion rate (UNaV). However, the relative contribution of each condition is unknown. We compared the circadian pattern of UNaV in hypertensive and normotensive patients with and without OSA.
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Facilitating the use of implicit memory and learning in the physical therapy management of individuals with Alzheimer disease: a case series.
J Geriatr Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Physical rehabilitation of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) is often complicated by impairments in explicit memory and learning. Rehabilitation strategies that facilitate the use of the preserved implicit memory system may be effective in treating patients with AD. The purpose of this case series is to describe the application of these strategies, including high-repetition practice, errorless learning (EL), and spaced retrieval, to the physical therapy management of individuals with moderate AD.
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Night-to-night Variability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity: Relationship to Overnight Rostral Fluid Shift.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Overnight rostral fluid shift from the legs to the neck may narrow the pharynx and contribute to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. We hypothesized that night-to-night changes in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) would be associated with changes in overnight rostral fluid shift.
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Measuring Preparedness for Mammography in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Validation Study of the Mammography Preparedness Measure.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Women with intellectual disabilities have similar breast cancer rates as the general population, but lower rates of regular mammography and higher breast cancer mortality rates. Although prior qualitative work demonstrates that women with intellectual disabilities face unique, disability-specific barriers to mammography, the present authors lack standardized, validated instruments for measuring knowledge of breast cancer screening in this population. In addition, much research related to adults with intellectual disabilities focuses on family or carer perspectives, rather than involving women with intellectual disabilities, themselves.
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An alphavirus-based adjuvant enhances serum and mucosal antibodies, T cells, and protective immunity to influenza virus in neonatal mice.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Neonatal immune responses to infection and vaccination are biased toward TH2 at the cost of proinflammatory TH1 responses needed to combat intracellular pathogens. However, upon appropriate stimulation, the neonatal immune system can induce adult-like TH1 responses. Here we report that a new class of vaccine adjuvant is especially well suited to enhance early life immunity. The GVI3000 adjuvant is a safe, nonpropagating, truncated derivative of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus that targets dendritic cells (DCs) in the draining lymph node (DLN) and produces intracellular viral RNA without propagating to other cells. RNA synthesis strongly activates the innate immune response so that in adult animals, codelivery of soluble protein antigens induces robust humoral, cellular, and mucosal responses. The adjuvant properties of GVI3000 were tested in a neonatal BALB/c mouse model using inactivated influenza virus (iFlu). After a single immunization, mice immunized with iFlu with the GVI3000 adjuvant (GVI3000-adjuvanted iFlu) had significantly higher and sustained influenza virus-specific IgG antibodies, mainly IgG2a (TH1), compared to the mice immunized with antigen only. GVI3000 significantly increased antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, primed mucosal immune responses, and enhanced protection from lethal challenge. As seen in adult mice, the GVI3000 adjuvant increased the DC population in the DLNs, caused activation and maturation of DCs, and induced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the DLNs soon after immunization, including gamma interferon (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). In summary, the GVI3000 adjuvant induced an adult-like adjuvant effect with an influenza vaccine and has the potential to improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of new and existing neonatal vaccines.
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Parenthood and severe mental illness: relationships with recovery.
Psychiatr Rehabil J
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Parenting is an important life domain for many people, but little research examines the parenting experience and its role in recovery for those with a severe mental illness. The current study provides preliminary evidence of how these concepts are related in a sample of individuals living with severe mental illness attending a community mental health center. We also explored potential differences between mothers and fathers, which could help better tailor services to meet the needs of parents with severe mental illness.
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A tetravalent alphavirus-vector based dengue vaccine provides effective immunity in an early life mouse model.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Dengue viruses (DENV1-4) cause 390 million clinical infections every year, several hundred thousand of which progress to severe hemorrhagic and shock syndromes. Preexisting immunity resulting from a previous DENV infection is the major risk factor for severe dengue during secondary heterologous infections. During primary infections in infants, maternal antibodies pose an analogous risk. At the same time, maternal antibodies are likely to prevent induction of endogenous anti-DENV antibodies in response to current live, attenuated virus (LAV) vaccine candidates. Any effective early life dengue vaccine has to overcome maternal antibody interference (leading to ineffective vaccination) and poor induction of antibody responses (increasing the risk of severe dengue disease upon primary infection). In a previous study, we demonstrated that a non-propagating Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon expression vector (VRP), expressing the ectodomain of DENV E protein (E85), overcomes maternal interference in a BALB/c mouse model. We report here that a single immunization with a tetravalent VRP vaccine induced NAb and T-cell responses to each serotype at a level equivalent to the monovalent vaccine components, suggesting that this vaccine modality can overcome serotype interference. Furthermore, neonatal immunization was durable and could be boosted later in life to further increase NAb and T-cell responses. Although the neonatal immune response was lower in magnitude than responses in adult BALB/c mice, we demonstrate that VRP vaccines generated protective immunity from a lethal challenge after a single neonatal immunization. In summary, VRP vaccines expressing DENV antigens were immunogenic and protective in neonates, and hence are promising candidates for safe and effective vaccination in early life.
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Determining the dynamics of influenza transmission by age.
Emerg Themes Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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It is widely accepted that influenza transmission dynamics vary by age; however methods to quantify the reproductive number by age group are limited. We introduce a simple method to estimate the reproductive number by modifying the method originally proposed by Wallinga and Teunis and using existing information on contact patterns between age groups. We additionally perform a sensitivity analysis to determine the potential impact of differential healthcare seeking patterns by age. We illustrate this method using data from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic in Gauteng Province, South Africa.
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A randomized, double crossover study to investigate the influence of saline infusion on sleep apnea severity in men.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commoner in patients with fluid-retaining states than in those without fluid retention, in men than in women, and worsens with aging. In men, OSA severity is related to the amount of fluid shifting out of the legs overnight, but a cause-effect relationship is not established. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that mimicking fluid overload during sleep would increase severity of OSA more in older (? 40 years) than in younger men (< 40 years).
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Assertive community treatment for parents with serious mental illnesses: a comparison of "parent-sensitive" assertive community treatment teams versus other teams.
Psychiatr Rehabil J
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based practice for individuals living with serious mental illnesses. Although studies estimate that at least half of people with serious mental illnesses are parents, little is known about ACT policies and services for parent consumers.
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Polypoid changes of the middle turbinate as an indicator of atopic disease.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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High levels of local immunoglobulin E (IgE) have been demonstrated in nasal polypoid tissue; however, an association between nasal polyps and allergy has not been proven. The authors have observed that polypoid edema isolated to the leading edge of the middle turbinate (MT) is highly associated with allergic rhinitis. The objective of this study was to determine if there is an association between isolated MT polyps and inhalant allergy.
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Measuring staff empowerment regarding health care for clients with intellectual disabilities.
Int J Family Med
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Background. Women with intellectual disabilities (ID) contract breast cancer at the same rate as the general population but have higher breast cancer mortality and lower rates of breast cancer screening. Many women with ID live in group homes or supported residences where they are cared for by direct support workers. While direct support workers are thought to influence client health, this effect is underresearched, and we lack tools for measuring staff empowerment and perceptions regarding client health. Methods. We developed and validated an instrument, the staff empowerment tool (SET), to measure staff empowerment as related to supporting clients in preventive health. Results. The SET was found to be a reliable instrument for measuring staff activation and empowerment in helping clients access mammography screening. Discussion. Quantifying staff empowerment and perspectives is important in studying and reducing disparities among adults with ID, a vulnerable population. Further research to determine the impact of staff empowerment levels on their clients' health and health care access is suggested. The SET is a valuable tool for measuring the construct of staff empowerment, evaluating interventions, and collecting data regarding variation in staff empowerment.
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Dengue virus envelope protein domain I/II hinge determines long-lived serotype-specific dengue immunity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4, are endemic throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with an estimated 390 million acute infections annually. Infection confers long-term protective immunity against the infecting serotype, but secondary infection with a different serotype carries a greater risk of potentially fatal severe dengue disease, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The single most effective measure to control this threat to global health is a tetravalent DENV vaccine. To date, attempts to develop a protective vaccine have progressed slowly, partly because the targets of type-specific human neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), which are critical for long-term protection, remain poorly defined, impeding our understanding of natural immunity and hindering effective vaccine development. Here, we show that the envelope glycoprotein domain I/II hinge of DENV-3 and DENV-4 is the primary target of the long-term type-specific NAb response in humans. Transplantation of a DENV-4 hinge into a recombinant DENV-3 virus showed that the hinge determines the serotype-specific neutralizing potency of primary human and nonhuman primate DENV immune sera and that the hinge region both induces NAbs and is targeted by protective NAbs in rhesus macaques. These results suggest that the success of live dengue vaccines may depend on their ability to stimulate NAbs that target the envelope glycoprotein domain I/II hinge region. More broadly, this study shows that complex conformational antibody epitopes can be transplanted between live viruses, opening up similar possibilities for improving the breadth and specificity of vaccines for influenza, HIV, hepatitis C virus, and other clinically important viral pathogens.
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Utility, limitations, and future of non-human primates for dengue research and vaccine development.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dengue is considered the most important emerging, human arboviruses, with worldwide distribution in the tropics. Unfortunately, there are no licensed dengue vaccines available or specific anti-viral drugs. The development of a dengue vaccine faces unique challenges. The four serotypes co-circulate in endemic areas, and pre-existing immunity to one serotype does not protect against infection with other serotypes, and actually may enhance severity of disease. One foremost constraint to test the efficacy of a dengue vaccine is the lack of an animal model that adequately recapitulates the clinical manifestations of a dengue infection in humans. In spite of this limitation, non-human primates (NHP) are considered the best available animal model to evaluate dengue vaccine candidates due to their genetic relatedness to humans and their ability to develop a viremia upon infection and a robust immune response similar to that in humans. Therefore, most dengue vaccines candidates are tested in primates before going into clinical trials. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of published studies on dengue vaccine evaluations using the NHP model, and discuss critical parameters affecting the usefulness of the model. In the light of recent clinical data, we assess the ability of the NHP model to predict immunological parameters of vaccine performances in humans and discuss parameters that should be further examined as potential correlates of protection. Finally, we propose some guidelines toward a more standardized use of the model to maximize its usefulness and to better compare the performance of vaccine candidates from different research groups.
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The policy implications of the cost structure of home health agencies.
Medicare Medicaid Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To examine the cost structure of home health agencies by estimating an empirical cost function for those that are Medicare-certified, ten years following the implementation of prospective payment.
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A systematic review of the prevalence of herb usage among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Clinical studies display a wide range of herb use prevalence among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. We searched databases indexing the literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, and Medline. We included studies that reported herbal medicine prevalence among ethnic minorities, African American, Hispanic, or Asian adults living in the United States. Data from 108 included studies found the prevalence of herb use by African Americans was 17 % (range 1-46 %); for Hispanics, 30 % (4-100 %); and for Asians, 30 % (2-73 %). Smaller studies were associated with higher reported herb use (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference (p = 0.01) between regional and national studies with regional studies reporting higher use. While herb usage surveys in racial/ethnic minorities show great variability, indications suggest high prevalence. More research is needed to understand herb use among ethnic/racial minorities, reasons for use, and barriers to disclosure of use to clinicians.
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Implementation of illness management and recovery in the Veterans Administration: An on-line survey.
Psychiatr Rehabil J
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Objective: This study explores the implementation of illness management and recovery (IMR) across Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The implementation of illness management programming has been mandated in certain programs within VAMCs. IMR is consistent with the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) emphasis on recovery-oriented, evidence-based treatments. This study examines both the penetration of IMR within the VA system and the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Methods: An online survey was sent to local recovery coordinators, who, in turn, identified other local IMR experts. Results: Respondents from 107 clinics (representing 101 VAMCs) answered the survey. Less than half of VAMCs provide IMR services. Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Recovery Centers (PRRC), which specialize in services for Veterans with psychiatric disabilities, are more likely to provide IMR; however, more than one third do not. Few respondents had access to IMR implementation tools such as training, consultation, or fidelity monitoring. Only about one fifth of IMR providers have been trained in IMR. Respondents reported several facilitators to implementation, such as knowledgeable staff members and peer support. Common barriers to implementation included limited staff availability and "intimidating" workbook materials. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: The VA is well underway in its implementation of IMR; however, there is room for expansion. Implementation tools such as training and consultation are needed to ensure dissemination and quality within VA. Given the comparative resources and infrastructure of VA, it is likely that equal or greater implementation tools are necessary in other systems of care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Health literacy and complementary and alternative medicine use among underserved inpatients in a safety net hospital.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Little is known about the relationship between health literacy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income racially diverse patients. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from 581 participants enrolled in the Re-Engineered Discharge clinical trial. The authors assessed sociodemographic characteristics, CAM use, and health literacy. They used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to test the association of health literacy with four patterns of CAM use. Of the 581 participants, 50% reported using any CAM, 28% used provider-delivered CAM therapies, 27% used relaxation techniques, and 21% used herbal medicine. Of those with higher health literacy, 55% used CAM. Although there was no association between health literacy and CAM use for non-Hispanic Black participants, non-Hispanic White (OR = 3.68, 95% CI [1.27, 9.99]) and Hispanic/other race (OR = 3.40, 95% CI [1.46, 7.91]) participants were significantly more likely to use CAM if they had higher health literacy. For each racial/ethnic group, there were higher odds of using relaxation techniques among those with higher health literacy. Underserved hospitalized patients use CAM. Regardless of race, patients with high health literacy make greater use of relaxation techniques.
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Acute kidney injury is surprisingly common and a powerful predictor of mortality in surgical sepsis.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and often catastrophic complication in hospitalized patients; however, the impact of AKI in surgical sepsis remains unknown. We used Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End stage (RIFLE) consensus criteria to define the incidence of AKI in surgical sepsis and characterize the impact of AKI on patient morbidity and mortality.
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Role of humoral versus cellular responses induced by a protective dengue vaccine candidate.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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With 2.5 billion people at risk, dengue is a major emerging disease threat and an escalating public health problem worldwide. Dengue virus causes disease ranging from a self-limiting febrile illness (dengue fever) to the potentially fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Severe dengue disease is associated with sub-protective levels of antibody, which exacerbate disease upon re-infection. A dengue vaccine should generate protective immunity without increasing severity of disease. To date, the determinants of vaccine-mediated protection against dengue remain unclear, and additional correlates of protection are urgently needed. Here, mice were immunized with viral replicon particles expressing the dengue envelope protein ectodomain to assess the relative contribution of humoral versus cellular immunity to protection. Vaccination with viral replicon particles provided robust protection against dengue challenge. Vaccine-induced humoral responses had the potential to either protect from or exacerbate dengue disease upon challenge, whereas cellular immune responses were beneficial. This study explores the immunological basis of protection induced by a dengue vaccine and suggests that a safe and efficient vaccine against dengue should trigger both arms of the immune system.
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Effect of rostral fluid shift on pharyngeal resistance in men with and without obstructive sleep apnea.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) relates to overnight rostral fluid shift, possibly because fluid accumulation around the pharynx increases pharyngeal resistance (Rph). We hypothesised that Rph will increase more in men with than without OSA in response to rostral fluid redistribution.
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Complementary and alternative medicine use among patients with thyroid cancer.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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To report on the incidence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among patients with thyroid cancer.
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A quality improvement project significantly increased the vaccination rate for immunosuppressed patients with IBD.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk for vaccine preventable illnesses. Our aim was to develop a quality improvement intervention to measure and improve the proportion of immunosuppressed IBD patients receiving recommended vaccinations.
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Distance-Based Mapping of Disease Risk.
Int J Biostat
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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In this article, we consider the problem of comparing the distribution of observations in a planar region to a pre-specified null distribution. Our motivation is a surveillance setting where we map locations of incident disease, aiming to monitor these data over time, to locate potential areas of high/low incidence so as to direct public health actions. We propose a non-parametric approach to distance-based disease risk mapping inspired by tomographic imaging. We consider several one-dimensional projections via the observed distribution of distances to a chosen fixed point; we then compare this distribution to that expected under the null and average these comparisons across projections to compute a relative-risk-like score at each point in the region. The null distribution can be established from historical data. Scores are displayed on the map using a color scale. In addition, we give a detailed description of the method along with some desirable theoretical properties. To further assess the performance of this method, we compare it to the widely used log ratio of kernel density estimates. As a performance metric, we evaluate the accuracy to locate simulated spatial clusters superimposed on a uniform distribution in the unit disk. Results suggest that both methods can adequately locate this increased risk but each relies on an appropriate choice of parameters. Our proposed method, distance-based mapping (DBM), can also generalize to arbitrary metric spaces and/or high-dimensional data.
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Estimating the reproductive number in the presence of spatial heterogeneity of transmission patterns.
Int J Health Geogr
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Estimates of parameters for disease transmission in large-scale infectious disease outbreaks are often obtained to represent large groups of people, providing an average over a potentially very diverse area. For control measures to be more effective, a measure of the heterogeneity of the parameters is desirable.
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Recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis with aortic-ventricular disruption: a surgical challenge.
J. Heart Valve Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) after aortic valve replacement occurs infrequently but carries a high mortality rate, particularly with previous valved conduit root replacement or aortic root reconstruction (ARR). Infection can lead to paravalvular aortic root abscess, aorto-left ventricular disruption, and left ventricular pseudoaneurysm formation. Herein is presented a case series of aortic-left ventricular disruption and ventricular psuedoaneurysm secondary to PVE after previous aortic root replacement; the surgical approach and outcomes are discussed.
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Parents served by assertive community treatment: parenting needs, services, and attitudes.
Psychiatr Rehabil J
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based practice for individuals with severe mental illness. Although at least half of all people with severe mental illness are parents, little is known about their experiences as parents and as recipients of mental health interventions like ACT. The purpose of the current study was to examine the experiences of parent consumers served by ACT.
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Parents served by assertive community treatment: prevalence, treatment services, and provider attitudes.
J Behav Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based practice for individuals with severe mental illness. Although studies estimate at least half of all people with severe mental illness are parents, little is known about ACT policies and services for consumers who are parents. ACT providers from 67 teams completed a survey assessing policies for identifying parent consumers of ACT, estimated prevalence of parent consumers, available treatment services, and attitudes about parent consumers. Participants estimated that 18% of ACT consumers are parents. However, less than half of participants (47.8%) reported formally asking about parental status during intake and only 22.4% reported providing programs or services designed for parent consumers. Most participants (about 80%) reported negative or mixed attitudes about parenting with severe mental illness. Findings suggest the need for more attention and focus on parent consumers, including the formal identification of consumers parental status and availability of parent-related treatment services.
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Right ventricular dilatation on bedside echocardiography performed by emergency physicians AIDS in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.
Ann Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of right ventricular dilatation identified by emergency physicians on bedside echocardiography in patients with a suspected or confirmed pulmonary embolism. The secondary objective included an exploratory analysis of the predictive value of a subgroup of findings associated with advanced right ventricular dysfunction (right ventricular hypokinesis, paradoxical septal motion, McConnells sign).
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An alphavirus vector-based tetravalent dengue vaccine induces a rapid and protective immune response in macaques that differs qualitatively from immunity induced by live virus infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Despite many years of research, a dengue vaccine is not available, and the more advanced live attenuated vaccine candidate in clinical trials requires multiple immunizations with long interdose periods and provides low protective efficacy. Here, we report important contributions to the development of a second-generation dengue vaccine. First, we demonstrate that a nonpropagating vaccine vector based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP) expressing two configurations of dengue virus E antigen (subviral particles [prME] and soluble E dimers [E85]) successfully immunized and protected macaques against dengue virus, while antivector antibodies did not interfere with a booster immunization. Second, compared to prME-VRP, E85-VRP induced neutralizing antibodies faster, to higher titers, and with improved protective efficacy. Third, this study is the first to map antigenic domains and specificities targeted by vaccination versus natural infection, revealing that, unlike prME-VRP and live virus, E85-VRP induced only serotype-specific antibodies, which predominantly targeted EDIII, suggesting a protective mechanism different from that induced by live virus and possibly live attenuated vaccines. Fourth, a tetravalent E85-VRP dengue vaccine induced a simultaneous and protective response to all 4 serotypes after 2 doses given 6 weeks apart. Balanced responses and protection in macaques provided further support for exploring the immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine candidate in humans.
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Emergency department visits after hospital discharge: a missing part of the equation.
Ann Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Current methods of measuring hospital readmissions capture only inpatient-to-inpatient hospitalization and ignore return visits to the emergency department (ED) that do not result in an admission. The relative importance of the return ED visit is currently not well established. We conduct this study to characterize the frequency of ED utilization within 30 days of inpatient hospital discharge.
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A comparison of self-reported and phone-administered methods of ACT fidelity assessment: a pilot study in Indiana.
Psychiatr Serv
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Monitoring fidelity of assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is costly. This study investigated the reliability and validity of a less burdensome approach: self-reported assessment.
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Early activation of the host complement system is required to restrict central nervous system invasion and limit neuropathology during Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks in human and equid populations in Central and South America. In order to ascertain the role that complement plays in resolving VEEV-induced disease, complement-deficient C3(-/-) mice were infected with a VEEV mutant (V3533) that caused mild, transient disease in immunocompetent mice. In the absence of a functional complement system, peripheral inoculation with V3533 induced much more severe encephalitis. This enhanced pathology was associated with a delay in clearance of infectious virus from the serum and more rapid invasion of the central nervous system in C3(-/-) mice. If V3533 was inoculated directly into the brain, however, disease outcome in C3(-/-) and wild-type mice was identical. These findings indicate that complement-dependent enhancement of peripheral virus clearance is critical for protecting against the development of severe VEEV-induced encephalitis.
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The influence of neighborhood socioeconomic status and walkability on TV viewing time.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Influences on TV viewing time, which is associated with adverse health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes, need clarification. We assessed the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability with TV viewing time in the Black Womens Health Study, a prospective study of African American women.
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Impact of an emergency department closure on the local emergency medical services system.
Prehosp Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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On July 12, 2010, Boston Medical Center (BMC), the busiest emergency department (ED) in Massachusetts, with more than 100,000 adult patient visits per year, consolidated its two fully functional EDs into one. In preparation for this consolidation, BMC implemented systems changes to mitigate potential negative effects on both BMC and emergency medical services (EMS) providers, including Boston Emergency Medical Services (Boston EMS), the provider of 9-1-1 EMS to the City of Boston.
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An automated procedure logging system improves resident documentation compliance.
Acad Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an automated procedure logging (APL) system on the number of procedures logged by emergency medicine (EM) residents. Secondary objectives were to assess the APLs effect on completeness and accuracy of procedure logging and to measure resident compliance with the system.
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Trial to end ambulance diversion in Boston: report from the conference of the Boston teaching hospitals consortium.
Prehosp Disaster Med
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Annual ambulance diversion hours in Boston increased more than six-fold from 1997 to 2006. Although interventions and best practices were implemented, there was no reduction in the number of diversion hours.
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Outcomes of Pseudomonas eradication therapy in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with poorer outcomes in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. It is unknown whether early eradication improves outcomes. This retrospective study assessed clinical and microbiological outcomes of eradication therapy following initial Pseudomonas infection. All patients undergoing Pseudomonas eradication therapy from 2004 to 2010 were identified retrospectively and assessed for microbiological eradication, exacerbation frequency, hospital admissions, clinical symptoms and lung function. 30 patients were identified with median follow-up time 26.4 months. Eradication therapy involved intravenous antibiotics (n = 12), intravenous antibiotics followed by oral ciprofloxacin (n = 13) or ciprofloxacin alone (n = 5), combined with 3 months of nebulised colistin. Pseudomonas was initially eradicated from sputum in 24 patients (80.0%). 13/24 patients remained Pseudomonas-free and 11/24 were subsequently reinfected (median time 6.2 months). Exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced from 3.93 per year pre-eradication and 2.09 post-eradication (p = 0.002). Admission rates were similar, at 0.39 per year pre-eradication and 0.29 post-eradication (p = NS). 20/30 patients reported initial clinical improvement, whilst at one-year follow up, 19/21 had further improved or remained stable. Lung function was unchanged. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas can be eradicated from a high proportion of patients, which may lead to prolonged clearance and reduced exacerbation rates. This important outcome requires confirmation in a prospective study.
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Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Management of acute pathology remains one of the most challenging clinical entities, with a persistently high mortality rate both prior to and upon arrival to a hospital. Responding to the distinct advantages of endovascular approaches to aortic disease, many high-volume cardiovascular centers have focused on endovascular therapies for managing patients with ruptured or leaking aortic aneurysms and other acute aortic syndromes. Nonetheless, similar to outcomes for other surgical emergencies, time and efficiency are critical in managing these conditions. Early diagnosis, transport to an appropriate acute care facility, rapid institution of optimal medical management, availability of cardiovascular anesthesia and intensive care, and appropriate and timely surgical intervention continue to be the keys to success. This article discusses the endovascular approach to ruptured abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms.
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Coprevalence of tremor with spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control study.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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The aim of this study was to define the coprevalence of tremor with spasmodic dysphonia (SD).
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The role of psychosomatic medicine in global health care.
Curr Psychiatry Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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This article reviews the principles and skills involved with psychosomatic medicine and their potential ability to improve global health care. New awareness of the escalating global public health impact of noncommunicable diseases, including chronic medical conditions and mental disorders, has stimulated interest in determining how best to organize health services. Home to the biopsychosocial model, the field of psychosomatic medicine is well-suited to inform such efforts by virtue of its emphasis on cross-disciplinary collaboration and specialized knowledge at the interface of medicine and psychiatry that takes into account individual and contextual influences on health. Consistent with the principles of psychosomatic medicine, promising strategies to improve global health care include integrating mental health care into primary care, applying the chronic care model in programs aimed at enhancing disease self-management, and using innovative models such as Internet-based therapy and telemedicine to increase access to quality care.
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Coprevalence of anxiety and depression with spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control study.
J Voice
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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There is evidence supporting an association between depression and anxiety in patients with chronic disease. Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and disabling voice disorder. Reported rates of depression and anxiety in SD range from 7.1% to 72%, with a maximum number of 18 patients. The goal of this study was to define the coprevalence of depression and anxiety with SD.
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Conducting school-based research: lessons learned from an after-school intervention study.
J Pediatr Health Care
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Although conducting research within schools poses challenges, the knowledge gained from studying children within the context of their lives and the availability of participants makes the school site a valuable site for research with children. The process of scheduling the research program, identifying an appropriate school site, recruiting and retaining participants, and knowing the optimal times and methods of contact is paramount to enhancing the success of a school based study.
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Decreased dengue replication and an increased anti-viral humoral response with the use of combined Toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 agonists in macaques.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Pathogenic versus protective outcomes to Dengue virus (DENV) infection are associated with innate immune function. This study aimed to determine the role of increased TLR3- and TLR7/8-mediated innate signaling after Dengue infection of rhesus macaques in vivo to evaluate its impact on disease and anti-DENV immune responses.
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Longitudinal assessment of urban form and weight gain in African-American women.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Numerous cross-sectional studies have found higher levels of obesity among residents of auto-oriented, sprawling areas compared to residents of more urban areas.
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Quantitative urine amino acid analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and aTRAQ reagents.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) is the most widely used method for amino acid analysis in physiological fluids because it provides excellent separation and reproducibility, with minimal sample preparation. The disadvantage, however, is the long analysis time needed to chromatographically resolve all the amino acids. To overcome this limitation, we evaluated a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which utilizes aTRAQ reagents, for amino acid analysis in urine. aTRAQ reagents tag the primary and secondary amino groups of amino acids. Internal standards for each amino acid are also labeled with a modified aTRAQ tag and are used for quantification. Separation and identification of the amino acids is achieved by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using retention times and mass transitions, unique to each amino acid, as identifiers. The run time, injection-to-injection, is 25 min, with all amino acids eluting within the first 12 min. This method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ?mol/L, and is linear up to 1000 ?mol/L for most amino acids. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) was less than 20% for all amino acids throughout the linear range. Method comparison demonstrated concordance between IEC and LC-MS/MS and clinical performance was assessed by analysis of samples from patients with known conditions affecting urinary amino acid excretion. Reference intervals established for this method were also concordant with reference intervals obtained with IEC. Overall, aTRAQ reagents used in conjunction with LC-MS/MS should be considered a comparable alternative to IEC. The most attractive features of this methodology are the decreased run time and increased specificity.
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Long-term adaptive functioning outcomes of children with inherited metabolic and genetic diseases treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single large pediatric center: parents perspective.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Over the past 2 decades, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used as therapy for selected inherited metabolic and genetic diseases (IMGDs). The primary objective of HSCT for these disorders has been to promote long-term survival, optimize quality of life, and improve neurocognitive performance. We performed 45 HSCTs for 44 children with IMGDs (13 related and 32 unrelated); 24 HSCTs for 23 children with Hurler syndrome, 8 for malignant infantile osteopetrosis, 6 for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, 2 for metachromatic leukodystrophy, 2 for Gaucher disease, 1 for Ganglioside Monosialic Acid (GM) gangliosidosis, 1 for sialiosis (type 2), and 1 HSCT for Niemann-Pick type A. At a median follow-up of 7.2 years (range: 2.2 to 17.6 y) 18 of 23 patients with Hurler syndrome are alive, 15 attended regular school. Thirteen of 18 were ambulatory, 2 had mobility difficulties, and 1 uses wheelchair. For non-Hurler patients, 5 children suffered secondary graft failure and 4 of them died from progressive disease. The remaining children with osteopetrosis are alive and most children attended regular school. One out of the 4 survivors with adrenoleukodystrophy has been transferred to the adult follow-up clinic and he is in full-time employment. Parents perspectives and expectations of HSCT in these IMGDs were positive and supportive to continue to offer HSCT for these disorders.
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Medical student surgery elective in rural Haiti: a novel approach to satisfying clerkship requirements while providing surgical care to an underserved population.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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The addition of global health programs to medical school training results in graduates with enhanced clinical skills and increased sensitivity to cost issues. Funding from U.S. medical schools has been unable to meet student demand, and therefore it is often a critical limiting factor to the lack of development of these programs. We describe an alternative approach for global health surgical training for medical students.
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Inflammatory Mechanisms of Organ Crosstalk during Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.
Int J Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication during inpatient hospitalization, and clinical outcomes remain poor despite advancements in renal replacement therapy. AKI in the setting of multiple organ failure (MOF) remains a formidable challenge to clinicians and incurs an unacceptably high mortality rate. Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) incites a proinflammatory cascade and releases cellular and soluble mediators with systemic implications for remote organ injury. Evidence from preclinical models cites mechanisms of organ crosstalk during ischemic AKI including the expression of cellular adhesion molecules, lymphocyte trafficking, release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and modification of the host innate and adaptive immune response systems. In this paper, the influence of kidney IRI on systemic inflammation and distant organ injury will be examined. Recent experimental data and evolving concepts of organ crosstalk during ischemic AKI will also be discussed in detail.
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Reducing stress in school-age girls through mindful yoga.
J Pediatr Health Care
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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School-age children report much stress in their daily lives, which may lead to psychological and physical problems. Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction is a program of awareness-based practices effective with adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of mindfulness training through yoga with school-age girls to reduce perceived stress, enhance coping abilities, self-esteem, and self-regulation, and explore the relationship between the dose of the intervention and outcomes.
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Chikungunya virus induces IPS-1-dependent innate immune activation and protein kinase R-independent translational shutoff.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that is undergoing reemergence in areas around the Indian Ocean. Despite the current and potential danger posed by this virus, we know surprisingly little about the induction and evasion of CHIKV-associated antiviral immune responses. With this in mind we investigated innate immune reactions to CHIKV in human fibroblasts, a demonstrable in vivo target of virus replication and spread. We show that CHIKV infection leads to activation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and subsequent transcription of IRF3-dependent antiviral genes, including beta interferon (IFN-?). IRF3 activation occurs by way of a virus-induced innate immune signaling pathway that includes the adaptor molecule interferon promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1). Despite strong transcriptional upregulation of these genes, however, translation of the corresponding proteins is not observed. We further demonstrate that translation of cellular (but not viral) genes is blocked during infection and that although CHIKV is found to trigger inactivation of the translational molecule eukaryotic initiation factor subunit 2? by way of the double-stranded RNA sensor protein kinase R, this response is not required for the block to protein synthesis. Furthermore, overall diminution of cellular RNA synthesis is also observed in the presence of CHIKV and transcription of IRF3-dependent antiviral genes appears specifically blocked late in infection. We hypothesize that the observed absence of IFN-? and antiviral proteins during infection results from an evasion mechanism exhibited by CHIKV that is dependent on widespread shutoff of cellular protein synthesis and a targeted block to late synthesis of antiviral mRNA transcripts.
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IL-6 in human cytomegalovirus secretome promotes angiogenesis and survival of endothelial cells through the stimulation of survivin.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is linked to the acceleration of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy. One of the hallmarks of these diseases is angiogenesis (AG) and neovessel formation. Endothelial cells (ECs) are an integral part of AG and are sites of HCMV persistence. AG requires multiple synchronous processes that include EC proliferation, migration, and vessel stabilization. Virus-free supernatant (secretome) from HCMV-infected ECs induces AG. To identify factor(s) involved in this process, we performed a human cytokine array. Several cytokines were significantly induced in the HCMV secretomes including interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-8/CXCL8. Using in vitro AG assays, neutralization of IL-6 significantly reduced neovessel formation. Addition of the HCMV secretome to preformed vessels extended neovessel survival, but this effect was blocked by neutralization of IL-6. In these cells, IL-6 prevented apoptosis by blocking caspase-3 and -7 activation through the induction of survivin. Neutralization of IL-6 receptor on ECs abolished the ability of HCMV secretome to increase survivin expression and activated effector caspases. Moreover, survivin shRNA expression induced rapid regression of tubule capillary networks in ECs stimulated with HCMV secretome and activated effector caspases. These observations may explain how CMV accelerates vascular disease despite limited infection in tissues.
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Surgical sepsis and organ crosstalk: the role of the kidney.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalized patients, and clinical outcomes remain poor despite advances in renal replacement therapy. The accepted pathophysiology of AKI in the setting of sepsis has evolved from one of simple decreased renal blood flow to one that involves a more complex interaction of intra-glomerular microcirculatory vasodilation combined with the local release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. Evidence from preclinical AKI models suggests that crosstalk occurs between kidneys and other organ systems via soluble and cellular inflammatory mediators and that this involves both the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions are reflected by genomic changes and abnormal rates of cellular apoptosis in distant organs including the lungs, heart, gut, liver, and central nervous system. The purpose of this article is to review the influence of AKI, particularly sepsis-associated AKI, on inter-organ crosstalk in the context of systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure (MOF).
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Using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify Computed Tomography (CT) features in the Marshall System.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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The purpose of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is to code various types of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) based on their anatomical location and severity. The Marshall CT Classification is used to identify those subgroups of brain injured patients at higher risk of deterioration or mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and how AIS coding can be translated to the Marshall Classification
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Activation of the interferon response by human cytomegalovirus occurs via cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA but not glycoprotein B.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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In vitro infection of cells with the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates an innate immune response characterized by phosphorylation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and subsequent expression of IRF3-dependent genes. While previous work suggests that HCMV envelope glycoprotein B is responsible for initiating this reaction, the signaling pathways stimulated by virus infection that lead to IRF3 phosphorylation have largely been uncharacterized. Recently, we identified Z DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1), a sensor of cytoplasmic DNA, as an essential protein for this response. We now describe a human fibroblast cell line exhibiting a recessive defect that results in the absence of activation of IRF3 following treatment with HCMV but not Sendai virus or double-stranded RNA. In addition, we show that while exposure of these cells to soluble HCMV glycoprotein B is capable of triggering IRF3-dependent gene transcription, transfection of the cells with double-stranded DNA is not. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of ZBP1 in these cells reestablishes their ability to secrete interferon in response to HCMV and that multiple ZBP1 transcriptional variants exist in both wild-type and mutant cells. These results have two major implications for the understanding of innate immune stimulation by HCMV. First, they demonstrate that HCMV glycoprotein B is not the essential molecular pattern that induces an IRF3-dependent innate immune response. Second, IRF3-terminal signaling triggered by HCMV particles closely resembles that which is activated by cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA.
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Classification system for isolated arthritis of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal joint.
Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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We have developed a classification system for osteoarthritis (OA) of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal (STT) joint that can be used on posteroanterior, lateral, and oblique wrist radiographs. It can be used to communicate the degree of severity of arthritis, and to study arthritis in the wrist further. Currently we know of no classification system for OA of the STT. We devised a classification system and made an initial study to assess the reproducibility of the system. It was compared with a classification system similar to the Eaton classification of carpometacarpal OA of the thumb. Cohens kappa test and the sign test were used for comparison. Thirty-seven of the 46 wrists evaluated (80%) showed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal joint. Most kappa values for intrarater and inter-rater reliability lay between 0.87 and 0.95. There was absolute agreement between both systems about the existence of osteoarthritis. When we compared the two classification systems, ours tended to underestimate the arthritic stage. This classification may be helpful for communication, comparison, and evaluation of osteoarthritis of the STT joint among surgeons. Further study is needed to define the clinical and mechanical relevance of osteoarthritis in this joint.
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Reporting errors in infectious disease outbreaks, with an application to Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1.
Epidemiol Perspect Innov
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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Effectively responding to infectious disease outbreaks requires a well-informed response. Quantitative methods for analyzing outbreak data and estimating key parameters to characterize the spread of the outbreak, including the reproductive number and the serial interval, often assume that the data collected is complete. In reality reporting delays, undetected cases or lack of sensitive and specific tests to diagnose disease lead to reporting errors in the case counts. Here we provide insight on the impact that such reporting errors might have on the estimation of these key parameters.
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Host factors associated with the Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: role for G3BP1 and G3BP2 in virus replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Sindbis virus (SINV) is the prototype member of the Alphavirus genus, whose members cause severe human diseases for which there is no specific treatment. To ascertain host factors important in the replication of the SINV RNA genome, we generated a SINV expressing nsP4, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, with an in-frame 3xFlag epitope tag. Proteomic analysis of nsP4-containing complexes isolated from cells infected with the tagged virus revealed 29 associated host proteins. Of these, 10 proteins were associated only at a later time of infection (12 h), 14 were associated both early and late, and five were isolated only at the earlier time (6 h postinfection). These results demonstrate the dynamic nature of the virus-host interaction that occurs over the course of infection and suggest that different host proteins may be required for the multiple functions carried out by nsP4. Two related proteins found in association with nsP4 at both times of infection, GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1 (G3BP1) and G3BP2 were also previously identified as associated with SINV nsP2 and nsP3. We demonstrate a likely overlapping role for these host factors in limiting SINV replication events. The present study also identifies 10 host factors associated with nsP4 6 h after infection that were not found to be associated with nsP2 or nsP3. These factors are candidates for playing important roles in the RNA replication process. Identifying host factors essential for replication should lead to new strategies to interrupt alphavirus replication.
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T cells facilitate recovery from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-induced encephalomyelitis in the absence of antibody.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus of the genus Alphavirus that is responsible for a significant disease burden in Central and South America through sporadic outbreaks into human and equid populations. For humans, 2 to 4% of cases are associated with encephalitis, and there is an overall case mortality rate of approximately 1%. In mice, replication of the virus within neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) leads to paralyzing, invariably lethal encephalomyelitis. However, mice infected with certain attenuated mutants of the virus are able to control the infection within the CNS and recover. To better define what role T cell responses might be playing in this process, we infected B cell-deficient microMT mice with a VEEV mutant that induces mild, sublethal illness in immune competent mice. Infected microMT mice rapidly developed the clinical signs of severe paralyzing encephalomyelitis but were eventually able to control the infection and recover fully from clinical illness. Recovery in this system was T cell dependent and associated with a dramatic reduction in viral titers within the CNS, followed by viral persistence in the brain. Further comparison of the relative roles of T cell subpopulations within this system revealed that CD4(+) T cells were better producers of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) than CD8(+) T cells and were more effective at controlling VEEV within the CNS. Overall, these results suggest that T cells, especially CD4(+) T cells, can successfully control VEEV infection within the CNS and facilitate recovery from a severe viral encephalomyelitis.
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Yoga for children.
Pediatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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There is an increasing interest in the use of yoga for children to calm the mind and increase health and well being. Despite scant but increasing evidence supporting the efficacy of yoga in children, special yoga programs within schools are being developed for children and adolescents. This increasing popularity of the potential benefits of yoga may encourage parents to consider yoga for their children and request referrals or clarification of the purported effects. A description of the philosophical basis of yoga, the basic components of a yoga practice, safety concerns, and how to locate and evaluate a yoga program for children will be addressed.
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Estimation of the reproductive number and the serial interval in early phase of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in the USA.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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The United States was the second country to have a major outbreak of novel influenza A/H1N1 in what has become a new pandemic. Appropriate public health responses to this pandemic depend in part on early estimates of key epidemiological parameters of the virus in defined populations.
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Prospective study of urban form and physical activity in the Black Womens Health Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2009
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The authors used data from the Black Womens Health Study to assess the association between neighborhood urban form and physical activity. Women reported hours/week of utilitarian and exercise walking and of vigorous activity in 1995 and on biennial follow-up questionnaires through 2001. Housing density, road networks, availability of public transit, sidewalks, and parks were characterized for the residential neighborhoods of 20,354 Black Womens Health Study participants living in New York, New York; Chicago, Illinois; and Los Angeles, California. The authors quantified the associations between features of the environment and physical activity using odds ratios for >or=5 relative to <5 hours/week of physical activity. For all women, housing density had the strongest association with utilitarian walking (odds ratio for the most- compared with the least-dense quintile = 2.72, 95% confidence interval: 2.22, 3.31), followed by availability of public transit. Women who moved during follow-up to neighborhoods of lower density were 36% more likely to decrease their levels of utilitarian walking, and those who moved to neighborhoods of higher density were 23% more likely to increase their levels of utilitarian walking, relative to women who moved to neighborhoods of similar density. These data suggest that increases in housing density may lead to increases in utilitarian walking among African-American women.
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The impact of footwear and packweight on injury and illness among long-distance hikers.
Wilderness Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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To determine the prevalence and predictors of injury and illness among long-distance hikers.
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Power to detect spatial disturbances under different levels of geographic aggregation.
J Am Med Inform Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Spatio and/or temporal surveillance systems are designed to monitor the ongoing appearance of disease cases in space and time, and to detect potential disturbances in either dimension. Patient addresses are sometimes reported at some level of geographic aggregation, for example by ZIP code or census tract. While this aggregation has the advantage of protecting patient privacy, it also risks compromising statistical efficiency. This paper investigated the variation in power to detect a change in the spatial distribution in the presence of spatial aggregation.
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The Choice of the Number of Bins for the M Statistic.
Comput Stat Data Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Methods to monitor spatial patterns of disease in populations are of interest in public health practice. The M statistic uses interpoint distances between cases to detect abnormalities in the spatial patterns of diseases. This statistic compares the observed distribution of interpoint distances with that which is expected when no unusual spatial patterns exist. We show the relationship of M to Pearsons Chi Square statistic, xn2. Both statistics require the discretization of continuous data into bins and then are formed by creating a quadratic form, scaled by an appropriate variance covariance matrix. We seek to choose the number and type of these bins for the M statistic so as to maximize the power to detect spatial anomalies. By showing the relationship between M to xn2, we argue for the extension of the theory that has been developed for the selection of the number and type of bins for xn2 to M. We further show that spatial data provides a unique insight into the problem through examples with simulated data and spatial data from a health care provider. In the spatial setting, these indicate that the optimal number of bins depends on the size of the cluster. For large clusters, a smaller number of bins appears to be preferrable, however for small clusters having many bins increases the power. Further, results indicate that the number of bins does not appear to vary with m, the number of spatial locations. We discuss the implications of this result for further work.
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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disrupts STAT1 signaling by distinct mechanisms independent of host shutoff.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important human and veterinary pathogen causing sporadic epizootic outbreaks of potentially fatal encephalitis. The type I interferon (IFN) system plays a central role in controlling VEEV and other alphavirus infections, and IFN evasion is likely an important determinant of whether these viruses disseminate and cause disease within their hosts. Alphaviruses are thought to limit the induction of type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes by shutting off host cell macromolecular synthesis, which in the case of VEEV is partially mediated by the viral capsid protein. However, more specific strategies by which alphaviruses inhibit type I IFN signaling have not been characterized. Analyses of cells infected with VEEV and VEEV replicon particles (VRP) demonstrate that viral infection rapidly disrupts tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor STAT1 in response to both IFN-beta and IFN-gamma. This effect was independent of host shutoff and expression of viral capsid, suggesting that VEEV uses novel mechanisms to interfere with type I and type II IFN signaling. Furthermore, at times when STAT1 activation was efficiently inhibited, VRP infection did not limit tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1, Tyk2, or STAT2 after IFN-beta treatment but did inhibit Jak1 and Jak2 activation in response to IFN-gamma, suggesting that VEEV interferes with STAT1 activation by the type I and II receptor complexes through distinct mechanisms. Identification of the viral requirements for this novel STAT1 inhibition will further our understanding of alphavirus molecular pathogenesis and may provide insights into effective alphavirus-based vaccine design.
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N-linked glycans on dengue viruses grown in mammalian and insect cells.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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This study compared the ability of mosquito and mammalian cell-derived dengue virus (DENV) to infect human dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)-expressing cells and characterized the structure of envelope (E) protein N-linked glycans on DENV derived from the two cell types. DENVs derived from both cell types were equally effective at infecting DC-SIGN-expressing human monocytes and dendritic cells. The N-linked glycans on mosquito cell-derived virus were a mix of high-mannose and paucimannose glycans. In virus derived from mammalian cells, the N-linked glycans were a mix of high-mannose and complex glycans. These results indicate that N-linked glycans are incompletely processed during DENV egress from cells, resulting in high-mannose glycans on viruses derived from both cell types. Studies with full-length and truncated E protein demonstrated that incomplete processing was most likely a result of the poor accessibility of glycans on the membrane-anchored protein.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.