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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Do Assessments of HIV Risk Behaviors Change Behaviors and Prevention Intervention Efficacy? An Experimental Examination of the Influence of Type of Assessment and Risk Perceptions.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Behavioral assessments may change behaviors and responses to behavioral interventions, depending on assessment type and respondents' motivations.
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Changes in Obesity Between Fifth and Tenth Grades: A Longitudinal Study in Three Metropolitan Areas.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Despite epidemic childhood obesity levels, we know little about how BMI changes from preadolescence to adolescence and what factors influence changes.
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Medical mistrust is related to lower longitudinal medication adherence among African-American males with HIV.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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African-Americans living with HIV show worse health behaviors (e.g. medication adherence) and outcomes (e.g. viral suppression) than do their White counterparts. In a 6-month longitudinal study, we investigated whether medical mistrust among African-American males with HIV (214 enrolled, 140 with longitudinal data) predicted lower electronically monitored antiretroviral medication adherence. General medical mistrust (e.g. suspicion toward providers), but not racism-related mistrust (e.g. belief that providers treat African-Americans poorly due to race), predicted lower continuous medication adherence over time (b?=?-.08, standard error?=?.04, p?=?.03). Medical mistrust may contribute to poor health outcomes. Intervention efforts that address mistrust may improve adherence among African-Americans with HIV.
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Predictors of the Existence of Congregational HIV Programs: Similarities and Differences Compared With Other Health Programs.
Am J Health Promot
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract Purpose . Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other health programs. Design . Cross-sectional study. Setting . United States. Subjects . A nationally representative sample of 1506 U.S. congregations surveyed in the National Congregations Study (2006-2007). Measures . Key informants at each congregation completed in-person and telephone interviews on congregational HIV and other health programs and various congregation characteristics (response rate = 78%). County-level HIV prevalence and population health data from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's 2007 County Health Rankings were linked to the congregational data. Analysis . Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities. Results . Most congregations (57.5%) had at least one health-related program; many fewer (5.7%) had an HIV program. Predictors of health vs. HIV programs differed. The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs (p < .05). Other significant characteristics varied by size of congregation and type of program (HIV vs. other health). Conclusion . Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to promote health or prevent HIV should consider congregational size as well as other factors that predict involvement. Results of this study can inform policy interventions to increase the capacity of religious congregations to address HIV and health.
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Barriers to HIV Testing in Black Immigrants to the U.S.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Late HIV testing is common among immigrants from sub Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Since 2010, HIV testing is no longer a required component of immigrant screening examinations or mandatory for immigrants seeking long term residence in the US. Thus, barriers to HIV testing must be addressed.
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"I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood": Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 15, 2014: e1-e10. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301866).
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Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South African youths.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers.
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Conceptualisations of masculinity and self-reported medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men in Los Angeles, California, USA.
Cult Health Sex
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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HIV-positive Latino men have been found to have poorer medication adherence compared to Whites. This study sought to identify how cultural conceptualisations of masculinity are associated with self-reported medication adherence among Latino men. A total of 208 HIV-positive men reported the number of doses of antiretroviral medication missed in the previous seven days (dichotomised at 100% adherence versus less). Conceptualisations of masculinity consisted of traditional machismo (e.g., power and aggressive attitudes, which are normally associated with negative stereotypes of machismo) and caballerismo (e.g., fairness, respect for elders and the importance of family). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence. The mean adherence was 97% (SD = 6.5%; range = 57-100%). In all, 77% of the participants reported 100% adherence in the previous seven days. Caballerismo was associated with a greater likelihood (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; p = 0.03) and machismo with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.95; p = 0.03) of medication adherence. In addition, higher medication side-effects were found to be associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81; p = 0.001) of medication adherence. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying cultural factors that may affect medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men resident in the USA.
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Physical activity and experience of total knee replacement in patients 1-4 years post-surgery in the dominican republic: A qualitative study.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders are the second-leading cause of years lived with disability globally. Total Knee Replacement (TKR) offers patients with advanced arthritis relief from pain and the opportunity to return to physical activity. We investigated the impact of TKR on physical activity for patients in a developing nation. Methods: We interviewed 18 Dominican patients (78% female) who received TKR as part of the Operation Walk Boston surgical mission program about their level of physical activity after surgery. Qualitative interviews were conducted in Spanish, and English transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results: Most patients found that TKR increased their participation in physical activities in several life domains such as occupational or social pursuits. Some patients limited their own physical activities due to uncertainty about medically appropriate levels of joint use and post-operative physical activity. Many patients noted positive effects of TKR on mood and mental health. For most patients in the study, religion offered a framework for understanding their receipt of and experience with TKR. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the potential of TKR to permit patients in the developing world to return to physical activities. This research also demonstrates the influence of patient education, culture, and religion on patients' return to physical activity. As the global burden of musculoskeletal disease increases, it is important to characterize the impact of activity limitation on patients' lives in diverse settings, and the potential for surgical intervention to ease the burden of chronic arthritis. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Child Problem Recognition and Help-Seeking Intentions Among Black and White Parents.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Parents play a central role in utilization of mental health services by their children. This study explored the relationship between parents' recognition of child mental health problems and their decisions to seek help. Participants included 251 parents (49% Black, 51% White; 49% fathers, 51% mothers) recruited from community settings. Parents ranged in age from 20 to 66 years old with at least one child between ages 2 and 21. Parents read three vignettes that described a child with an anxiety disorder, ADHD, and no clinically significant diagnosis. Parents completed measures of problem recognition, perception of need, willingness to seek help, and beliefs about causes of mental illness. Findings from Generalized Estimating Equations revealed that parents were more likely to report intentions to seek help when they recognized a problem (odds ratio [OR] = 41.35, p < .001), 95% confidence interval (CI) [14.81, 115.49]; when it was an externalizing problem (OR = 1.85, p < .05), 95% CI [1.14, 3.02]; and when parents were older (OR = 1.04, p < .05), 95% CI [1.01, 1.08]. Predictors of parental problem recognition included perceived need, prior experience with mental illness, and belief in trauma as a cause of mental illness. Predictors of help-seeking intentions included problem recognition, perceived need, externalizing problem type, and being female. Given the relationship between parental problem recognition and willingness to seek help, findings suggest that efforts to address disparities in mental health utilization could focus on problem-specific, gender-sensitive, mutable factors such as helping parents value help-seeking for internalizing as well as externalizing problems.
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A randomized controlled trial of students for nutrition and eXercise: a community-based participatory research study.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To conduct a randomized controlled trial of Students for Nutrition and eXercise, a 5-week middle school-based obesity-prevention intervention combining school-wide environmental changes, multimedia, encouragement to eat healthy school cafeteria foods, and peer-led education.
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Peer victimization in fifth grade and health in tenth grade.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories.
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Middle school student attitudes about school drinking fountains and water intake.
Acad Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To describe middle school student attitudes about school drinking fountains, investigate whether such attitudes are associated with intentions to drink water at school, and determine how intentions relate to overall water intake.
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An intervention to reduce HIV-related stigma in partnership with African American and Latino churches.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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HIV-related stigma negatively affects prevention and care, and community-based interventions are needed. Here we describe the development of a multi-ethnic, faith-based intervention to reduce HIV stigma that included: educational workshops on HIV, testing, and stigma; peer leader workshops using role plays and drawing on principles of motivational interviewing; a pastor-delivered sermon on HIV that incorporated theological reflection and an imagined contact scenario; and congregation-based HIV testing events. Lessons learned include: partnership development is essential and requires substantial investment; tailoring intervention components to single race-ethnic groups may not be preferable in diverse community settings; and adapting testing processes to be able to serve larger numbers of people in shorter time frames is needed for congregational settings. This development process successfully combined the rigorous application of social science theory and community engagement to yield a multifaceted HIV stigma reduction intervention appropriate for Protestant and Catholic churches in African American and Latino communities.
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A randomized trial to optimize HIV/TB care in South Africa: design of the Sizanani trial.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Despite increases in HIV testing, only a fraction of people newly diagnosed with HIV infection enter the care system and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. We report on the design and initial enrollment of a randomized trial of a health system navigator intervention to improve linkage to HIV care and TB treatment completion in Durban, South Africa.
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Stigma and racial/ethnic HIV disparities: moving toward resilience.
Am Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations at the structural level (e.g., residential segregation) as well as the individual level among perceivers (e.g., discrimination) and targets (e.g., internalized stigma). We then review evidence of these associations. Because racial/ethnic minorities at risk of and living with HIV often possess multiple stigmas (e.g., HIV-positive, substance use), we adopt an intersectionality framework and conceptualize interdependence among co-occurring stigmas. We further propose a resilience agenda and suggest that intervening on modifiable strength-based moderators of the association between societal stigma and disparities can reduce disparities. Strengthening economic and community empowerment and trust at the structural level, creating common ingroup identities and promoting contact with people living with HIV among perceivers at the individual level, and enhancing social support and adaptive coping among targets at the individual level can improve resilience to societal stigma and ultimately reduce racial/ethnic HIV disparities.
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Association between perceived discrimination and racial/ethnic disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent youths.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths.
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Cultural Orientations, Parental Beliefs and Practices, and Latino Adolescents Autonomy and Independence.
J Youth Adolesc
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the studys parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43 % of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21 %), bilingual/bicultural (15 %), English-speaking/bicultural (15 %), or US (6 %) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youths behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents development.
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Association of discrimination-related trauma with sexual risk among HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We investigated whether 1 form of traumatic stress, discrimination-related trauma (e.g., physical assault because of race), was associated with unprotected anal intercourse, especially when compared with non-discrimination-related trauma, among African American men who have sex with men.
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Parental and home environmental facilitators of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among overweight and obese Latino youth.
Acad Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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To explore parental and home environmental facilitators of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and water consumption among obese/overweight Latino youth.
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Cost of talking parents, healthy teens: a worksite-based intervention to promote parent-adolescent sexual health communication.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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To examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of implementing Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a worksite-based parenting program designed to help parents address sexual health with their adolescent children.
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Risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation at initial HIV diagnosis in Durban, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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After observing persistently low CD4 counts at initial HIV diagnosis in South Africa, we sought to determine risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation among adults.
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Perceived discrimination and physical health among HIV-positive Black and Latino men who have sex with men.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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We conducted the first study to examine health correlates of discrimination due to race/ethnicity, HIV-status, and sexual orientation among 348 HIV-positive Black (n = 181) and Latino (n = 167) men who have sex with men. Participants completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. In multivariate analyses, Black participants who experienced greater racial discrimination were less likely to have a high CD4 cell count [OR = 0.7, 95 % CI = (0.5, 0.9), p = 0.02], and an undetectable viral load [OR = 0.8, 95 % CI = (0.6, 1.0), p = 0.03], and were more likely to visit the emergency department [OR = 1.3, 95 % CI = (1.0, 1.7), p = 0.04]; the combined three types of discrimination predicted greater AIDS symptoms [F (3,176) = 3.8, p < 0.01]. Among Latinos, the combined three types of discrimination predicted greater medication side effect severity [F (3,163) = 4.6, p < 0.01] and AIDS symptoms [F (3,163) = 3.1, p < 0.05]. Findings suggest that the stress of multiple types of discrimination plays a role in health outcomes.
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Lets Talk!, A South African worksite-based HIV prevention parenting program.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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South African adolescents have high HIV risk, yet few prevention interventions are effective. Parents play a pivotal role in youths healthy sexual development and may be at risk themselves. We tested whether Lets Talk!, a worksite-based parenting program, improves parent-child communication about HIV and sexual health and parent condom use self-efficacy and behavior.
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A qualitative analysis of factors influencing HPV vaccine uptake in Soweto, South Africa among adolescents and their caregivers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In South Africa, the prevalence of oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) may be as high as 64%, and cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The development of efficacious prophylactic vaccines has provided an opportunity for primary prevention. Given the importance of psycho-social forces in vaccine uptake, we sought to elucidate factors influencing HPV vaccination among a sample of low-income South African adolescents receiving the vaccine for the first time in Soweto.
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Validation of a quality-of-life scale for women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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To validate a disease-specific scale to measure the impact of symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), a condition that affects up to 6.5% of U.S. women.
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HIV misconceptions associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory study.
Afr J AIDS Res
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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In South Africa, approximately 20% of 15-49-year-olds are infected with HIV. Among black South Africans, high levels of HIV/AIDS misconceptions (e.g. HIV is manufactured by whites to reduce the black African population; AIDS is caused by supernatural forces or witchcraft) may be barriers to HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 young, black adults (aged 18-26; 56% males) visiting a public clinic for sexually transmitted infections, to investigate whether HIV/AIDS misconceptions were related to low condom use in main partner relationships. We assessed agreement with HIV/AIDS misconceptions relating to the supernatural (e.g. witchcraft as a cause of HIV) and to genocide (e.g. the withholding of a cure). In multivariate models, agreement that Witchcraft plays a role in HIV transmission was significantly related to less positive attitudes about condoms, less belief in condom effectiveness for HIV prevention, and lower intentions to use condoms among men. The belief that Vitamins and fresh fruits and vegetables can cure AIDS was associated with lower intentions among men to use condoms. Women who endorsed the belief linking HIV to witchcraft had a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner, whereas women who endorsed the belief that a cure for AIDS was being withheld had a lower likelihood of having had unprotected sex. Knowledge about distinct types of HIV/AIDS misconceptions and their correlates can help in the design of culturally appropriate HIV-prevention messages that address such beliefs.
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Perceived discrimination and mental health symptoms among Black men with HIV.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, than do members of the general public. We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales; all p values < .05). The multivariate model for depression yielded a three-way interaction among all three discrimination types (p < .01), indicating that perceived racial discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p < .05). Findings suggest that some types of perceived discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmata when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH.
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HIV risk and perceptions of masculinity among young black men who have sex with men.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are known to have the highest rates of HIV infection in the United States. Although reported rates of unprotected anal intercourse are similar to the rates of men who have sex with men of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, YBMSM aged 15-22 years are five times more likely to be HIV-infected than the comparably aged white men who have sex with men. We explored contextual social-environmental factors that may influence how YBMSM assess risk, choose partners, and make decisions about condom use.
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Prevalence of symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis among adult females in the United States.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a poorly understood condition that can cause serious disability. We provide the first population based symptom prevalence estimate to our knowledge among United States adult females.
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Patient disease perceptions and coping strategies for arthritis in a developing nation: a qualitative study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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There is little prior research on the burden of arthritis in the developing world. We sought to document how patients with advanced arthritis living in the Dominican Republic are affected by and cope with their disease.
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Increasing the availability and consumption of drinking water in middle schools: a pilot study.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Although several studies suggest that drinking water may help prevent obesity, no US studies have examined the effect of school drinking water provision and promotion on student beverage intake. We assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and outcomes of a school-based intervention to improve drinking water consumption among adolescents.
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Preliminary healthy eating outcomes of SNaX, a pilot community-based intervention for adolescents.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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We used principles of community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a 5-week intervention for middle school students, Students for Nutrition and eXercise (SNaX). SNaX aimed to translate school obesity-prevention policies into practice with peer advocacy of healthy eating and school cafeteria changes.
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Discrimination as a key mediator of the relationship between posttraumatic stress and HIV treatment adherence among African American men.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and may be associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We examined the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and adherence among 214 African American males. Because PLHA may experience discrimination, potentially in the form of traumatic stress (e.g., hate crimes), we also examined whether perceived discrimination (related to race, HIV status, sexual orientation) is an explanatory variable in the relationship between PTSD and adherence. Adherence, monitored electronically over 6 months, was negatively correlated with PTSD total and re-experiencing symptom severity; all 3 discrimination types were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms and negatively correlated with adherence. Each discrimination type separately mediated the relationship between PTSD and adherence; when both PTSD and discrimination were included in the model, discrimination was the sole predictor of adherence. Findings highlight the critical role that discrimination plays in adherence among African American men experiencing posttraumatic stress.
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Improving HIV/AIDS care through treatment advocacy: going beyond client education to empowerment by facilitating client-provider relationships.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Treatment advocacy (TA) programs have been implemented by AIDS service organizations (ASOs) and primary care clinics across the USA to help engage clients with HIV into care and support their adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). TA aims to empower people with HIV through education and client-centered counseling regarding HIV, ART, and other health issues; advocate on behalf of patients with providers; and make referrals to healthcare services and clinical trials. However, relatively little is known about the impact TA has on clients healthcare experiences. The present studys objectives included exploring how TA services help clients engage in HIV care, initiate ART, and adhere to HIV medications. We conducted 25 semi-structured qualitative open-ended interviews with clients living with HIV/AIDS recruited from AIDS Project Los Angeles (APLA); four HIV medical providers; and two TA staff at APLA. Of the 25 clients interviewed, 92% were male and 8% were female. The average age was 43 years (SD=9). About 60% were African-American, 20% were White, 12% were other or multiracial, 4% were Latino, and 4% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Five interconnected themes consistently emerged across clients, TAs, and providers. TAs helped clients understand treatments and supported adherence within a holistic context. Further, TAs acted as a bridge to providers and helped clients build self-advocacy skills. Our data show that TA services go beyond traditional areas of education and treatment adherence. TA services within an ASO also provide a safe place to discuss initial HIV diagnoses and other health issues in a more comprehensive manner. TA services complemented medical and other social services by preparing clients with HIV to be better consumers of healthcare services. Future quantitative research examining the effectiveness of TA on improving clients engagement in care and adherence is a critical next step.
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Prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction among women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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To examine the prevalence and correlates of general and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC)-specific sexual dysfunction among women in the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology study using a probability sample survey of U.S. households. Sexual dysfunction can contribute to a reduced quality of life for women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).
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Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers who participated in the Healthy Passages study. Results showed that associations of maternal depression and single parenthood with child BMI are mediated by parenting quality and its relation to childrens leisure activity and sedentary behavior. Interventions for child obesity may be more successful if they target family environment, particularly parenting quality and its impact on childrens active and sedentary behaviors.
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Cost of rapid HIV testing at 45 U.S. hospitals.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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In 2006, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended expanded and routine use of single-session rapid HIV tests in all health care settings to increase the proportion of persons who learn their HIV status. Limited empiric information is available regarding the costs of rapid testing and pre- and posttest counseling in health care settings. We surveyed 45 U.S. hospitals during 2005 through 2006 to assess the costs associated with rapid testing and counseling. Cost analyses were conducted from the provider (hospital) perspective, and results were expressed in year 2006 U.S. dollars. The mean per-test cost of rapid HIV testing and counseling was $48.07 for an HIV-negative test and $64.17 for a preliminary-positive test. Pre- and posttest counseling costs accounted for 38.4% of the total cost of rapid testing for HIV-negative patients. Counseling costs were significantly correlated with overall test costs. Many hospitals contained overall test costs by limiting time spent in pre- and posttest counseling or by using lower-paid personnel for counseling activities or both. Counseling costs constituted a significant proportion of the overall costs of rapid testing and counseling activities at study hospitals. Our data provide useful baseline data before implementation of the CDCs 2006 recommendations. Costs can be reduced by limiting time spent in pre- and posttest counseling or by using lower-paid personnel for counseling activities or both.
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Longitudinal relationships between antiretroviral treatment adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race, and sexual orientation among African-American men with HIV.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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African-Americans show worse HIV disease outcomes compared to Whites. Health disparities may be aggravated by discrimination, which is associated with worse health and maladaptive health behaviors. We examined longitudinal effects of discrimination on antiretroviral treatment adherence among 152 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men. We measured adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation at baseline and monthly for 6 months. Hierarchical repeated-measures models tested longitudinal effects of each discrimination type on adherence. Over 6 months, participants took 60% of prescribed medications on average; substantial percentages experienced discrimination (HIV-serostatus, 38%; race/ethnicity, 40%; and sexual orientation, 33%). Greater discrimination due to all three characteristics was significantly bivariately associated with lower adherence (all ps?
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Parents disclosure of their HIV infection to their children in the context of the family.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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We interviewed 33 HIV-infected parents from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), 27 of their minor children, 19 adult children, and 15 caregivers about the process of children learning that their parents were HIV positive. We summarize the retrospective descriptions of parents disclosure of their HIV status to their children, from the perspective of multiple family members. We analyzed transcripts of these interviews with systematic qualitative methods. Both parents and children reported unplanned disclosure experiences with positive and negative outcomes. Parents sometimes reported that disclosure was not as negative as they feared. However, within-household analysis showed disagreement between parents and children from the same household regarding disclosure outcomes. These findings suggest that disclosure should be addressed within a family context to facilitate communication and childrens coping. Parents should consider negative and positive outcomes, unplanned disclosure and childrens capacity to adapt after disclosure when deciding whether to disclose.
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Perceptions of "urgency" in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or overactive bladder.
Neurourol. Urodyn.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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To compare urgency symptoms in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB).
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Development, validation and testing of an epidemiological case definition of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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No standard case definition exists for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome for patient screening or epidemiological studies. As part of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology study, we developed a case definition for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with known sensitivity and specificity. We compared this definition with others used in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epidemiological studies.
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Perceptions about availability and adequacy of drinking water in a large California school district.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Concerns about the influence of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on obesity have led experts to recommend that water be freely available in schools. We explored perceptions about the adequacy of drinking water provision in a large California school district to develop policies and programs to encourage student water consumption.
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Cost of OraQuick oral fluid rapid HIV testing at 35 community clinics and community-based organizations in the USA.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the expanded use of rapid HIV antibody tests in community settings to increase the proportion of persons who are aware of their HIV status. The cost of providing rapid testing services in these settings is not known. We conducted a cost survey of non-profit community clinics and community-based organizations (CBOs). The final study sample for the cost analyses included 28 community clinics and seven CBOs that offered rapid HIV testing, all of which used OraSures OraQuick oral fluid assay. Overall, the mean per-client rapid testing cost was 36.68 dollars for HIV-negative clients (2006 dollars, provider perspective) and 44.22 dollars for preliminary-positive clients. Personnel costs accounted for 55.6% of overall testing costs for negative clients and 63.2% for preliminary-positive clients. This study contributes unique empirical data about the costs of OralQuick rapid testing that can be used by clinic and CBO directors to assess the economic impact of implementing rapid testing at their sites. The findings also could be used to inform discussions regarding national and local HIV testing policies.
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Community-based participatory research: partnering with communities for effective and sustainable behavioral health interventions.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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The present issue contains one of the first studies published in Health Psychology-by Resnicow and colleagues-that uses elements of community-based participatory research (CBPR) (Resnicow et al., 2009). The authors engaged community partners (three health maintenance organizations or HMOs) to develop and implement a fruit and vegetable promotion intervention (Tolsma et al., 2009). African American HMO patients (the intervention targets) participated in formative work (i.e., focus groups) on survey items and intervention content and in survey pilot testing. A diverse group of researcher and nonresearcher expert stakeholders (e.g., African American health plan staff; consultants with expertise in Black identity theory, on which the intervention was based) was engaged in major project decisions regarding the measures and intervention design.
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Using community-based participatory research to identify potential interventions to overcome barriers to adolescents healthy eating and physical activity.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barriers in neighborhoods (e.g., lack of accessible nutritious food), in schools (e.g., poor quality of physical education), at home (e.g., sedentary lifestyle), and at the individual level (e.g., lack of nutrition knowledge). Participants proposed interventions such as nutrition classes for families, addition of healthy school food options that appeal to students, and non-competitive physical education activities. Participants supported health education delivered by students. Findings demonstrate that community-based participatory research is useful for revealing potentially feasible interventions that are acceptable to community members.
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School site visits for community-based participatory research on healthy eating.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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School nutrition policies are gaining support as a means of addressing childhood obesity. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers an approach for academic and community partners to collaborate to translate obesity-related school policies into practice. Site visits, in which trained observers visit settings to collect multilevel data (e.g., observation, qualitative interviews), may complement other methods that inform health promotion efforts. This paper demonstrates the utility of site visits in the development of an intervention to implement obesity-related policies in Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) middle schools.
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The impact of HIV diagnosis-related vs. non-diagnosis related trauma on PTSD, depression, medication adherence, and HIV disease markers.
J Evid Based Soc Work
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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The present study examined differences in three groups of people living with HIV (PLWH); those who did not meet post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria, those with HIV-related PTSD, and those with non-HIV-related PTSD. Patients with PTSD reported more PTSD and depression symptoms and lower levels of medication adherence. Participants with HIV-related PTSD were more likely to report reliving the trauma and were more adherent to HIV medications than participants with non-HIV-related PTSD. Results suggest that HIV- and non-HIV-related PTSD have a similar impact on PLWH and in both cases impact their functioning, adherence to medications, and levels of depression.
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Depressive symptoms and momentary affect: the role of social interaction variables.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Interpersonal functioning may be one important factor in the development and course of depression symptomatology. This study used ecological momentary assessment to test the associations among depressive symptoms, social experiences and momentary affect in women.
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Brief report: a qualitative analysis of discussions about HIV in families of parents with HIV.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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To explore communication about HIV prevention, risk behaviors, and transmission in families affected by HIV.
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Development and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention intervention: lessons learned from community-based participatory research.
Prog Community Health Partnersh
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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National, state, and local policies aim to change school environments to prevent child obesity. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) can be effective in translating public health policy into practice.
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Barriers to care among people living with HIV in South Africa: contrasts between patient and healthcare provider perspectives.
AIDS Care
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We collected qualitative data (semi-structured interviews with 11 healthcare providers and 10 patients; 8 focus groups with 41 patients) to identify barriers to linkage to care among people living with HIV in South Africa who were not yet taking antiretroviral treatment. Patients and providers identified HIV stigma as a sizable barrier. Patients felt that stigma-related issues were largely beyond their control, fearing discrimination if they disclosed to employers or were seen visiting clinics in their community. Providers believed that patients should take responsibility for overcoming internal stigma and disclosing serostatus. Patients had considerable concerns about inconvenient clinic hours, long queues, difficulty in appointment scheduling, and disrespect from staff. Providers seemed to minimize the effects of such barriers and not recognize the extent of patient dissatisfaction. Better communication and understanding between patients and providers are needed to facilitate greater patient satisfaction and retention in HIV care.
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Pediatric residents perspectives on reducing work hours and lengthening residency: a national survey.
Pediatrics
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In 2011, the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education increased restrictions on resident duty-hours. Additional changes have been considered, including greater work-hours restrictions and lengthening residency. Program directors tend to oppose further restrictions; however, residents views are unclear. We sought to determine whether residents support these proposals, and if so why.
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Community HIV treatment advocacy programs may support treatment adherence.
AIDS Educ Prev
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Treatment advocacy (TA) programs, based in AIDS service organizations and clinics, aim to engage clients into care and support antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence through client-centered counseling; advocate for patients with providers; and provide social service referrals. Systematic evaluations of TA are lacking. We conducted a non-randomized evaluation examining relationships of TA participation to adherence, care engagement, social services utilization, unmet needs, patient self-advocacy, and adherence self-efficacy among 121 HIV-positive clients (36 in TA, 85 not in TA; 87% male, 34% African American, 31% White, 19% Latino). In multivariate models, TA participants (vs. non-TA participants) showed higher electronically monitored [85.3% vs. 70.7% of doses taken; b(SE) = 13.16(5.55), p < .05] and self-reported [91.1% vs. 75.0%; b(SE) = 11.60(5.65), p < .05] adherence; utilized more social service programs [Ms = 5.2 vs. 3.4; b(SE) = 1.97(0.48), p < .0001]; and had fewer unmet social-service needs [Ms = 1.8 vs. 2.7; b(SE) = -1.06(0.48), p < .05]. Findings suggest the need for a randomized controlled trial of TA.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.