The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex.
Bemisia tabaci has had a colorful nomenclatural past and is now recognized as a species complex. This new species framework has added many new areas of research including adding new insight into the virus transmission specificity of the species in the B. tabaci species complex. There is a wide disparity in what is known about the transmission of plant viruses by different members of the B. tabaci species complex. In this paper, we have synthesized the transmission specificities of the plant viruses transmitted by species belonging to the complex. There are five genera of plant viruses with members that are transmitted by species of the B. tabaci species complex. The transmission of viruses belonging to two of these, Begomovirus and Crinivirus, are well studied and much is known in regards to the relationship between species and transmission and etiology. This is in contrast to viruses of the genera, Torradovirus and Carlavirus, for which very little is known inregards to their transmission. This is the first attempt to integrate viral data within the new B. tabaci species complex framework. It is clear that matching historical transmission data with the current species framework is difficult due to the lack of awareness of the underlying genetic diversity within B. tabaci. We encourage all researchers to determine which species of B. tabaci they are using to facilitate association of phenotypic traits with particular members of the complex.
A small subset of the large pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein family in higher plants contain a C-terminal small MutS-related (SMR) domain. Although few in number, they figure prominently in the chloroplast biogenesis and retrograde signaling literature due to their striking mutant phenotypes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of PPR-SMR proteins focusing on Arabidopsis and maize proteomic and mutant studies. We also examine their occurrence in other organisms and have determined by phylogenetic analysis that, while they are limited to species that contain chloroplasts, their presence in algae and early branching land plant lineages indicates that the coupling of PPR motifs and an SMR domain into a single protein occurred early in the evolution of the Viridiplantae clade. In addition, we discuss their possible function and have examined conservation between SMR domains from Arabidopsis PPR proteins with those from other species that have been shown to possess endonucleolytic activity.
Humans and insect herbivores are competing for the same food crops and have been for thousands of years. Despite considerable advances in crop pest management, losses due to insects remain considerable. The global homogenisation of agriculture has supported the range expansion of numerous insect pests and has been driven in part by human-assisted dispersal supported through rapid global trade and low-cost air passenger transport. One of these pests, is the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a cryptic species complex that contains some of the worlds most damaging pests of agriculture. The complex shows considerable genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic relationships. One consequence of the considerable impact that members of the B. tabaci complex have on agriculture, is the view that human activity, particularly in relation to agricultural practices, such as use of insecticides, have driven the diversification found within the species complex. This has been particularly in the case of two members of the complex, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), which have become globally distributed invasive species. An alternative hypothesis is that diversification is due to paleogeographic and paleoclimatological changes.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina?citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is one of the most serious pests of citrus in the world, because it transmits the pathogen that causes citrus greening disease. To determine genetic variation among geographic populations of D.?citri, microsatellite markers, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase?I (mtCOI) and the Wolbachia-Diaphorina, wDi, gene wsp sequence data were used to characterize Iranian and Pakistani populations. Also, a Bayesian phylogenetic technique was utilized to elucidate the relationships among the sequences data in this study and all mtCOI and wsp sequence data available in GenBank and the Wolbachia database.
The whiteflies under the name Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) are species complex of at least 31 cryptic species some of which are globally invasive agricultural pests. Previously, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the indigenous New World B. tabaci species was sequenced and major differences of gene order from the postulated whitefly ancestral gene order were found. However, the sequence and gene order of mitogenomes in other B. tabaci species are unknown. In addition, the sequence divergences and gene expression profiles of mitogenomes in the B. tabaci species complex remain completely unexplored.
Species delimitation directly impacts on global biosecurity. It is a critical element in the decisions made by national governments in regard to the flow of trade and to the biosecurity measures imposed to protect countries from the threat of invasive species. Here we outline a novel approach to species delimitation, "tip to root", for two highly invasive insect pests, Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) and Lymantria dispar (Asian gypsy moth). Both species are of concern to biosecurity, but illustrate the extremes of phylogenetic resolution that present the most complex delimitation issues for biosecurity; B. tabaci having extremely high intra-specific genetic variability and L. dispar composed of relatively indistinct subspecies. This study tests a series of analytical options to determine their applicability as tools to provide more rigorous species delimitation measures and consequently more defensible species assignments and identification of unknowns for biosecurity. Data from established DNA barcode datasets (COI), which are becoming increasingly considered for adoption in biosecurity, were used here as an example. The analytical approaches included the commonly used Kimura two-parameter (K2P) inter-species distance plus four more stringent measures of taxon distinctiveness, (1) Rosenbergs reciprocal monophyly, (P(AB)),1 (2) Rodrigos (P(randomly distinct)),2 (3) genealogical sorting index, (gsi),3 and (4) General mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC).4,5 For both insect datasets, a comparative analysis of the methods revealed that the K2P distance method does not capture the same level of species distinctiveness revealed by the other three measures; in B. tabaci there are more distinct groups than previously identified using the K2P distances and for L. dipsar far less variation is apparent within the predefined subspecies. A consensus for the results from P(AB), P(randomly distinct) and gsi offers greater statistical confidence as to where genetic limits might be drawn. In the species cases here, the results clearly indicate that there is a need for more gene sampling to substantiate either the new cohort of species indicated for B. tabaci or to detect the established subspecies taxonomy of L. dispar. Given the ease of use through the Geneious species delimitation plugins, similar analysis of such multi-gene datasets would be easily accommodated. Overall, the tip to root approach described here is recommended where careful consideration of species delimitation is required to support crucial biosecurity decisions based on accurate species identification.
Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Many species in the tussock moth genus Lymantria are significant forestry pests, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., and consequently have been a focus for the development of molecular diagnostic tools to assist in identifying species and source populations. In this study we expand the taxonomic and geographic coverage of the DNA barcode reference library, and further test the utility of this diagnostic method, both for species/subspecies assignment and for determination of geographic provenance of populations.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Caribbean fruit fly, is indigenous to Florida and the Greater Antilles where it causes economic losses in fruit crops, including citrus. Because of the geographic separation of many of its native locations and anecdotal descriptions of regional differences in host preferences, there have been questions about the population structure of A. suspensa. Seven DNA microsatellite markers were used to characterize the population genetic structure of A. suspensa, in Florida and the Caribbean from a variety of hosts, including citrus. We genotyped 729 A. suspensa individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, Cayman Island, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. The investigated seven loci displayed from 5 to 19 alleles, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.05 to 0.83. There were five unique alleles in Florida and three unique alleles in the Caribbean samples; however, no microsatellite alleles were specific to a single host plant. Genetic diversity was analyzed using F(ST) and analysis of molecular variance and revealed low genetic diversity between Florida and Caribbean samples and also between citrus and noncitrus samples. Analyses using migrate revealed there is continuous gene flow between sampling sites in Florida and the Caribbean and among different hosts. These results support previous comparisons based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I locus indicating there is no genetic differentiation among locations in Florida and the Caribbean and that there is no separation into host races.
Whiteflies, heteropterans in the family Aleyrodidae, are globally distributed and severe agricultural pests. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence has been used extensively in whitefly phylogenetic comparisons and in biotype identification of the agriculturally important Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) whitefly. Because of the economic importance of several whitefly genera, and the invasive nature of the B and the Q biotypes of Bemisia tabaci, mtCOI sequence data are continually generated from sampled populations worldwide. Routine phylogenetic comparisons and biotype identification is done through amplification and sequencing of an approximately 800-bp mtCOI DNA fragment. Despite its routine use, published primers for amplification of this region are often inefficient for some B. tabaci biotypes and especially across whitefly species. Through new sequence generation and comparison to available whitefly mtCOI sequence data, a set of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification primers (Btab-Uni primers) were identified that are more efficient at amplifying approximately 748 bp of the approximately 800-bp fragment currently used. These universal primers amplify an mtCOI fragment from numerous B. tabaci biotypes and whitefly genera by using a single amplification profile. Furthermore, mtCOI PCR primers specific for the B, Q, and New World biotypes of B. tabaci were designed that allow rapid discrimination among these biotypes. These primers produce a 478-, 405-, and 303-bp mtCOI fragment for the B, New World, and Q biotypes, respectively. By combining these primers and using rapid PCR and electrophoretic techniques, biotype determination can be made within 3 h for up to 96 samples at a time.
DNA sequence data (cpDNA trnL intron and nrDNA ITS1 and ITS2) were analyzed to identify relationships within Orcuttieae, a small tribe of endangered grasses endemic to vernal pools in California and Baja California. The tribe includes three genera: Orcuttia, Tuctoria, and Neostapfia. All three genera carry out C(4) photosynthesis but aquatic taxa of Orcuttia lack Kranz anatomy. The unusual habitat preference of the tribe is coupled with the atypical development of C(4) photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy. Furthermore, the tribe has no known close relatives and has been noted to be phylogenetically isolated within the subfamily Chloridoideae. In this study we examine the problem of inferring the root of the tribe in the absence of an identified outgroup, analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the constituent taxa, and evaluate the evolutionary development of C(4) photosynthesis. We compare four methods for inferring the root of the tree: (1) the outgroup method, (2) midpoint rooting, the imposition of a molecular clock for both (3) maximum likelihood (ML) and (4) Bayesian analysis. We examine the consequences of each method for the inferred phylogenetic relationships. Three of the methods (outgroup rooting and the ML and Bayesian molecular clock analyses) suggest that the root of Orcuttieae is between Neostapfia and the Tuctoria/Orcuttia lineage, while midpoint rooting gives a different root. The Bayesian method additionally provides information about probabilities associated with other possible root locations. Assuming that the true root of Orcuttieae is between Neostapfia and the Tuctoria/Orcuttia lineage, our data indicate Neostapfia and Orcuttia are both monophyletic, while Tuctoria is paraphyletic (with no synapomorphies in either dataset) and forming a grade between the other two genera and needs taxonomic revision. Our data support the hypothesis that Orcuttieae was derived from a terrestrial ancestor and evolved specializations to an aquatic environment, including C(4) photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy.
Since Panayiotis Gennadius first identified the whitefly, Aleyrodes tabaci in 1889, there have been numerous revisions of the taxonomy of what has since become one of the worlds most damaging insect pests. Most of the taxonomic revisions have been based on synonymising different species under the name Bemisia tabaci. It is now considered that there is sufficient biological, behavioural and molecular genetic data to support its being a cryptic species complex composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species. The first step in revising the taxonomy of this complex involves matching the A. tabaci collected in 1889 to one of the members of the species complex using molecular genetic data. To do this we extracted and then amplified a 496 bp fragment from the 3 end of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase one (mtCOI) gene belonging to a single whitefly taken from Gennadius original 1889 collection. The sequence identity of this 123 year-old specimen enabled unambiguous assignment to a single haplotype known from 13 Mediterranean locations across Greece and Tunisia. This enabled us to unambiguously assign the Gennadius A. tabaci to the member of the B. tabaci cryptic species complex known as Mediterranean or as it is commonly, but erroneously referred to, as the Q-biotype. Mediterranean is therefore the real B. tabaci. This study demonstrates the importance of matching museum syntypes with known species to assist in the delimitation of cryptic species based on the organisms biology and molecular genetic data. This study is the first step towards the reclassification of B. tabaci which is central to an improved understanding how best to manage this globally important agricultural and horticultural insect pest complex.
The nomenclature used within the whitefly research-community for different putative species within Bemisia tabaci (sensu Russell(1) ) remains highly variable and confused. This was evident by the many different naming schemes researchers were using in their presentations at the 1(st) International Whitefly Symposium in Kolymbari, Crete, Greece (May 20-24, 2013). I wanted to try and document how we, as a community, have arrived at such a state of confused nomenclature. This also included an investigation into the nomenclature used in the literature (from 2002 to 2012) using two online search tools (Web of Science and Scirus).
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