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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Integrated regional network construction for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To investigate the feasibility of establishing an integrated regional network for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care in China and evaluate the implementation effect of this network.
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Multimedia Model for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of PAH contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of PAHs (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured PAH concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (?5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (?4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived PAH emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of PAHs and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates.
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[Expression and localization of the nuclear factor-?B classical signaling pathway in the radial artery of diabetic patients].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To observe the expression and localization of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) classic signaling pathway in the radial artery of the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with diabetes and non-diabetes.
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The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.
Int J Environ Health Res
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making.
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Quantifying the lifetime circadian rhythm of physical activity: a covariate-dependent functional approach.
Biostatistics
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Objective measurement of physical activity using wearable devices such as accelerometers may provide tantalizing new insights into the association between activity and health outcomes. Accelerometers can record quasi-continuous activity information for many days and for hundreds of individuals. For example, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging physical activity was recorded every minute for [Formula: see text] adults for an average of [Formula: see text] days per adult. An important scientific problem is to separate and quantify the systematic and random circadian patterns of physical activity as functions of time of day, age, and gender. To capture the systematic circadian pattern, we introduce a practical bivariate smoother and two crucial innovations: (i) estimating the smoothing parameter using leave-one-subject-out cross validation to account for within-subject correlation and (ii) introducing fast computational techniques that overcome problems both with the size of the data and with the cross-validation approach to smoothing. The age-dependent random patterns are analyzed by a new functional principal component analysis that incorporates both covariate dependence and multilevel structure. For the analysis, we propose a practical and very fast trivariate spline smoother to estimate covariate-dependent covariances and their spectra. Results reveal several interesting, previously unknown, circadian patterns associated with human aging and gender.
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Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in nantong, china: an interventional study.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 ?g/m(3) (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 ?g/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.
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Wavefront correction performed by a deformable mirror of arbitrary actuator pattern within a multireflection waveguide.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The wavefront correction ability of a deformable mirror with a multireflection waveguide was investigated and compared via simulations. By dividing a conventional actuator array into a multireflection waveguide that consisted of single-actuator units, an arbitrary actuator pattern could be achieved. A stochastic parallel perturbation algorithm was proposed to find the optimal actuator pattern for a particular aberration. Compared with conventional an actuator array, the multireflection waveguide showed significant advantages in correction of higher order aberrations.
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Analysis of curricular reform practices at chinese medical schools.
Teach Learn Med
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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A comprehensive search of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 was performed to gain a greater understanding of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools.
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Computational Study of Gleevec and G6G Reveals Molecular Determinants of Kinase Inhibitor Selectivity.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Gleevec is a potent inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase but not of the highly homologous c-Src kinase. Because the ligand binds to an inactive form of the protein in which an Asp-Phe-Gly structural motif along the activation loop adopts a so-called DFG-out conformation, it was suggested that binding specificity was controlled by a "conformational selection" mechanism. In this context, the binding affinity displayed by the kinase inhibitor G6G poses an intriguing challenge. Although it possesses a chemical core very similar to that of Gleevec, G6G is a potent inhibitor of both Abl and c-Src kinases. Both inhibitors bind to the DFG-out conformation of the kinases, which seems to be in contradiction with the conformational selection mechanism. To address this issue and display the hidden thermodynamic contributions affecting the binding selectivity, molecular dynamics free energy simulations with explicit solvent molecules were carried out. Relative to Gleevec, G6G forms highly favorable van der Waals dispersive interactions upon binding to the kinases via its triazine functional group, which is considerably larger than the corresponding pyridine moiety in Gleevec. Upon binding of G6G to c-Src, these interactions offset the unfavorable free energy cost of the DFG-out conformation. When binding to Abl, however, G6G experiences an unfavorable free energy penalty due to steric clashes with the phosphate-binding loop, yielding an overall binding affinity that is similar to that of Gleevec. Such steric clashes are absent when G6G binds to c-Src, due to the extended conformation of the phosphate-binding loop.
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[Mechanism exploration on synthesis of secondary metabolites in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with yeast extract].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Suspension cultures cell of Sorbus aucuparia (SASC) was used as materials, the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of SASC after treatment with yeast extract (YE) were detected, and the synthetic mechanism of secondary metabolites in SASC treated with YE was preliminarily explored. The results were as follows: under the assay conditions, SASC was induced to synthesize five biphenyl compounds, and these compounds content changed differently with induction time prolonging; YE treatment inhibited cell growth, the culture medium pH was gradually reduced after treatment; water-soluble protein content showed a trend of slow decline, which was significantly increased in YE treatment group (YE group) compared with the control group (CK group), the maximum relative content was 147.76% in contrast with CK group; both YE group and CK group were extracellular Ca2+ flow influx, but the YE group flow was significantly slow than CK group. The results indicate that YE induced the cells in a stress state, which was not conducive to the growth of cells and forced the cells to synthesize biphenyl compounds against external stress; water-soluble protein may serve as intracellular enzymes involved in the synthesis of compounds regulation; Ca2+ may as signal molecule mediate cell signal transduction respond to YE stress.
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Nondisease-Specific Problems and All-Cause Mortality among Older Adults with CKD: The REGARDS Study.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The term "nondisease-specific" has been used to describe problems that cross multiple domains of health and are not necessarily the result of a single underlying disease. Although individuals with reduced eGFR and elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio have many comorbidities, the prevalence of and outcomes associated with nondisease-specific problems have not been well studied.
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The Association Between Systemic Sclerosis, Arginine and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a kind of autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), as an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, can cause or contribute to the inflammatory syndrome and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, increased ADMA levels have been demonstrated in SSc, revealing that ADMA might play an important role for the associated manifestations of SSc. Besides, ADMA may play a significant role in the level of NO, which is produced by arginine. In the review, we discuss the role of arginine and ADMA in patients with SSc.
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[Biological characteristics of cleft palate relevant gene thyroid transcription factor-2 transgenic mice].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The aim of this study is to establish a transgenic mouse model for cleft palate relevant gene thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2), which can be used to study palatal shelf development when the expression pattern and regular activation of TTF-2 is altered.
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The epidemiology of alcohol consumption and multiple sclerosis: a review.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Alcohol consumption is accounted for a large proportion in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and may be a modifiable lifestyle factor that affects the risk of developing the disease. The epidemiological studies about the association between MS and alcohol consumption have got corresponding studies during the last decade. It has been suggested that alcohol consumption was associated with mood disorders, disability and even onset of MS, but a common theme is lacking. To make an understanding of the effect of alcohol consumption on MS, the related epidemiological evidence and potential mechanisms are reviewed.
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Antihypertensive medication classes used among medicare beneficiaries initiating treatment in 2007-2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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After the 2003 publication of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines, there was a 5-10% increase in patients initiating antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, but most patients still did not initiate treatment with this class. There are few contemporary published data on antihypertensive medication classes filled by patients initiating treatment.
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Cytosolic DNA sensing via the stimulator of interferon genes adaptor: Yin and Yang of immune responses to DNA.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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DNA is immunogenic and many cells express cytosolic DNA sensors that activate the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) adaptor to trigger interferon type I (IFN-?) release, a potent immune activator. DNA sensing to induce IFN-? triggers host immunity to pathogens but constitutive DNA sensing can induce sustained IFN-? release that incites autoimmunity. Here, we focus on cytosolic DNA sensing via the STING/IFN-? pathway that regulates immune responses. Recent studies reveal that cytosolic DNA sensing via the STING/IFN-? pathway induces indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), which catabolizes tryptophan to suppress effector and helper T-cell responses and activate Foxp3-lineage CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. During homeostasis, and in some inflammatory settings, specialized innate immune cells in the spleen and lymph nodes may ingest and sense cytosolic DNA to reinforce tolerance that prevents autoimmunity. However, malignancies and pathogens may exploit DNA-induced regulatory responses to suppress natural and vaccine-induced immunity to malignant and infected cells. In this review, we discuss the biologic significance of regulatory responses to DNA and novel approaches to exploit DNA-induced immune responses for therapeutic benefit. The ability of DNA to drive tolerogenic or immunogenic responses highlights the need to evaluate immune responses to DNA in physiologic settings relevant to disease progression or therapy.
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Molecular characterization of rice sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase gene OsSPL1 and functional analysis of its role in disease resistance response.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Our results indicate that overexpression of OsSPL1 in transgenic tobacco plants attenuated disease resistance and facilitated programmed cell death. Long-chain base phosphates including sphingosine-1-phosphate have been shown to act as signaling mediators in regulating programmed cell death (PCD) and stress responses in mammals. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene OsSPL1, encoding a putative sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase that is involved in metabolism of sphingosine-1-phosphate. Expression of OsSPL1 was down-regulated in rice plants after treatments with salicylic acid, benzothiadiazole and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, but was induced by infection with a virulent strain of Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. Transgenic tobacco lines with overexpression of OsSPL1 were generated and analyzed for the possible role of OsSPL1 in disease resistance response and PCD. The OsSPL1-overexpressing tobacco plants displayed increased susceptibility to infection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pst), the causal agent of wildfire disease, showing severity of disease symptom and bacterial titers in inoculated leaves, and attenuated pathogen-induced expression of PR genes after infection of Pst as compared to the wild-type and vector-transformed plants. Higher level of cell death, as revealed by dead cell staining, leakage of electrolyte and expression of hypersensitive response indicator genes, was observed in the OsSPL1-overexpressing plants after treatment with fumonisin B1, a fungal toxin that induces PCD in plants. Our results suggest that OsSPL1 has different functions in regulating disease resistance response and PCD in plants.
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The association between vibration and vascular injury in rheumatic diseases: A review of the literature.
Autoimmunity
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Abstract Vascular manifestations can be seen early in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Animal experiments, laboratory and clinical findings indicated that acute or long-term vibration exposure can induce vascular abnormalities. Recent years, in addition to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), vibration as a risk factor for other rheumatic diseases has also received corresponding considered. This review is concentrated upon the role of vibration in the disease of systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this review, we are going to discuss the main mechanisms which are thought to be important in pathophysiology of vascular injury under the three broad headings of "vascular", "neural" and "intravascular". Aspects on the vibration and vascular inflammation are briefly discussed. And the epidemiological studies related to vibration studies in SSc and other rheumatic diseases are taken into account.
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Single-incision versus three-port laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (TPLA) has been shown superior to open appendectomy for acute appendicitis (AA); alternatively, single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA) is gaining popularity. The choice between SILA and traditional TPLA remains controversial. This meta-analysis of high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aims to compare efficacy and safety of SILA with TPLA for AA.
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A simple score (AVFS) to identify spinal dural arteriovenous fistula before spinal digital subtraction angiography.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disorder with the presenting of nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs at onset, which can be a challenge to diagnose promptly and leads to the overusing of spinal digital subtraction angiography (SpDSA) in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to find specific characteristics of SDAVF by comparing the clinical and radiologic data between the SpDSA-identified patients with SDAVF and SpDSA-negative patients, who were suspected with spinal vascular diseases before admission.
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Phase discrepancy analysis and compensation for fast Fourier transform based solution of the transport of intensity equation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The transport of intensity equation (TIE) has long been recognized as a quantitative method for phase retrieval and phase contrast imaging. However, it is shown that the most widely accepted fast Fourier transform (FFT) based solutions do not provide an exact solution to the TIE in general. The root of the problem lies in the so-called "Teague's assumption" that the transverse flux is considered to be a conservative field, which cannot be satisfied for a general object. In this work, we present the theoretical analysis of the phase discrepancy owing to the Teague's assumption, and derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the FFT-based solution to coincide with the exact phase. An iterative algorithm is then proposed aiming to compensate such phase discrepancy in a simple yet effective manner.
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Tomato SR/CAMTA transcription factors SlSR1 and SlSR3L negatively regulate disease resistance response and SlSR1L positively modulates drought stress tolerance.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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BackgroundThe SR/CAMTA proteins represent a small family of transcription activators that play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Seven SlSR/CAMTA genes were identified in tomato as tomato counterparts of SR/CAMTA; however, the involvement of SlSRs/CAMTAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses is not clear. In this study, we performed functional analysis of the SlSR/CAMTA family for their possible functions in defense response against pathogens and tolerance to drought stress.ResultsExpression of SlSRs was induced with distinct patterns by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based knockdown of either SlSR1 or SlSR3L in tomato resulted in enhanced resistance to B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 and led to constitutive accumulation of H2O2, elevated expression of defense genes, marker genes for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, and regulatory genes involved in the salicylic acid- and ethylene-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, the expression of SlSR1L and SlSR2L in detached leaves and whole plants was significantly induced by drought stress. Silencing of SlSR1L led to decreased drought stress tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves, reduced root biomass and attenuated expression of drought stress responsive genes in tomato. The SlSR1 and SlSR3L proteins were localized in the nucleus of plant cells when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and had transcriptional activation activity in yeast.ConclusionsVIGS-based functional analyses demonstrate that both SlSR1 and SlSR3L in the tomato SlSR/CAMTA family are negative regulators of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 while SlSR1L is a positive regulator of drought stress tolerance in tomato.
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[Epidemiological characters of Yunnan sudden death syndrome and its research progress].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Yunnan sudden death syndrome (YSDS) is an abruptly fatal disease of unknown etiology, found mostly in central or northwestern mountain area (with altitude between 1,815 and 2,225 meters) of Yunnan province from June to September every year. It occurs mostly in young female adults, with high incidences in Lisu, Yi and Miao ethnics and high familial aggregation. The clinical manifestation of YSDS is changeful and the pathological characteristic is lack of specificity. The pathogenesis may be attributed to several factors including poor hygiene and lower socioeconomic conditions, lack of Selenium or Chromium, infection of Coxsackie B virus, mushroom consumption and special geological conditions. This article reviews the epidemiologic features, clinical manifestations, pathological features, etiology and hypothesis in order to provide clues for the research of YSDS.
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Uptake enhancement of curcumin encapsulated into phosphatidylcholine-shielding micelles by cancer cells.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Internalization of drugs by cancer cells is a crucial factor to impact cancer treatment effect. Curcumin, having inhibitory effect on a variety of cancers, was encapsulated into micelles of six-arm star-shape poly(?-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine) (6sPCL-PMPC) in order to enhance its concentration in blood and cellular uptake. Micelles and curcumin-loaded micelles were prepared by the solvent-evaporation method. Drug-loading content and drug-loading efficiency could be achieved as high as 18.9 and 98%. MTT results showed that these curcumin-loaded micelles displayed significant cell cytotoxicity, while these blank micelles were noncytotoxic. The curcumin-loaded 6sPCL-PMPC micelles showed higher efficiency to kill HeLa cells than that of curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG micelles. The cellular uptake study indicated that the curcumin encapsulated into 6sPCL-PMPC micelles was ingested more by HeLa cells than the curcumin encapsulated into PCL-PEG micelles. In conclusion, the micelles with phosphatidylcholine (PC) groups as their exterior can greatly enhance the uptake by HeLa cells and the cytotoxicity of curcumin due to excellent internalization by cancer cells.
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Discovery of potent cytotoxic ortho-aryl chalcones as new scaffold targeting tubulin and mitosis with affinity-based fluorescence.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A series of new ortho-aryl chalcones have been designed and synthesized. Many of these compounds were found to exhibit significant antiproliferation activity toward a panel of cancer cell lines. Selected compounds show potent cytotoxicity against several drug resistant cell lines including paclitaxel (Taxol) resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells, vincristine resistant human ileocecum carcinoma cells, and doxorubicin resistant human breast carcinoma cells. Further investigation revealed that active analogues could inhibit the microtubule polymerization by binding to colchicine site and thus induce multipolar mitosis, G2/M phase arrest, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, affinity-based fluorescence enhancement was observed during the binding of active compounds with tubulin, which greatly facilitated the determination of tubulin binding site of the compounds. Finally, selected compound 26 was found to exhibit obvious in vivo antitumor activity in A549 tumor xenografts model. Our systematic studies implied a new scaffold targeting tubulin and mitosis for novel antitumor drug discovery.
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Elicitin-like proteins Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 from Pythium oligandrum trigger hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana and induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum and its elicitin-like proteins oligandrins have been shown to induce disease resistance in a range of plants. In the present study, the ability of two oligandrins, Oli-D1 and Oli-D2, to induce an immune response and the possible molecular mechanism regulating the defence responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato were investigated. Infiltration of recombinant Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 proteins induced a typical immune response in N.?benthamiana including the induction of a hypersensitive response (HR), accumulation of reactive oxygen species and production of autofluorescence. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays revealed that full-length Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 were required for full HR-inducing activity in N.?benthamiana, and virus-induced gene silencing-mediated knockdown of some of the signalling regulatory genes demonstrated that NbSGT1 and NbNPR1 were required for Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 to induce HR in N.?benthamiana. Subcellular localization analyses indicated that both Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 were targeted to the plasma membrane of N.?benthamiana. When infiltrated or transiently expressed in leaves, Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato and activated the expression of a set of genes involved in the jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET)-mediated signalling pathway. Our results demonstrate that Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 are effective elicitors capable of inducing immune responses in plants, probably through the JA/ET-mediated signalling pathway, and that both Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 have potential for the development of bioactive formulae for crop disease control in practice.
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Blockade of the OX40/OX40L pathway and induction of PD-L1 synergistically protects mouse islet allografts from rejection.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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OX40/OX40 ligand (OX40/OX40L) and programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) costimulatory signals play important roles in T cell-induced immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of OX40/OX40L and PD-1/PD-L1 costimulatory pathways in mouse islet allograft rejection.
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A novel resorbable strontium-containing ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate bone substitute: a preparation and preliminary study.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Distraction osteogenesis after aggrieved bone segment resections is promising in the treatment of bone tumors and osteomyelitis. However, there is ambiguity with regard to the optimal choice of bone substitute, with biodegradability and excellent bone repair performance constituting key requirements. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel resorbable strontium-containing ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (Sr-CaS) bone substitute to provide an alternative option for surgeons that better meets these requirements. The Sr-CaS was prepared using co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods and analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) scanning and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) patterns. Cytotoxicity by tetrazolium bromide (MTT), sub-acute toxicity and hemolysis tests were performed to assess the initial biocompatibility of the new bone substitute. Radiographic analysis, micro-CT measurements and histological observation were used to evaluate the bone repair ability in rat tibia bone defects. The XRD and FTIR patterns of Sr-CaS were both very similar to CaS and the product had comparable characteristics similar to ?-CaS as demonstrated by TG-DSC. Cytotoxicity of the substitute was class 1 (no cytotoxicity) and hemolysis was 4.3% (no hemolysis). Sub-acute toxicity was not seen after a 14 day evaluation. The substitute was radio-opaque. The empty group exhibited the lowest levels of both bone mineral densities (BMD) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) of the defects when compared to all other groups. The two Sr-CaS groups resulted in significantly greater BMDs and BV/TV of the defect compared to the CaS only group. However, there was no significant difference between the 5% and 10% Sr-CaS groups. The Sr-CaS was resorbable with satisfactory biocompatibility. The doped strontium ions enhanced the bone repair performance of CaS in a rat model and the new substitute demonstrated promising results for clinical use.
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Complete mitochondrial genomes of three mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis, E. hepuensis, and E. japonica.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Abstract Taxonomic classification of three mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis, E. hepuensis, and E. japonica) has long been controversial. In this study, the complete mitogenomes of the three crabs were reported. The three mitogenomes were conserved in the organization of genes with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Nucleotide variations among the crabs were identified in both coding and non-coding regions. In addition, variable numbers of tandem repeats in control region were identified in the mitten crabs. The mitogenome sequences provide a valuable resource to elucidate taxonomic relationship and evolutionary history of the three mitten crabs.
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Natural infection of Cryptosporidium muris in ostriches (Struthio camelus).
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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A total of 303 fecal samples were collected from ostriches (Struthio camelus) and 31 samples (10.2%) were Cryptosporidium-positive upon microscopic analysis. The infection rate was 27.6% in ostriches aged 16-60 days, 1.2% in those aged 61-180 days, and 20.4% in those aged >10 years. The Cryptosporidium-positive isolates were genotyped with a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The 22 isolates from ostriches aged >10 years were identified as Cryptosporidium muris, whereas the nine isolates from ostriches <180 days were Cryptosporidium baileyi. Ten of the 22 C. muris isolates were analyzed based on the actin and HSP70 genes, and the results were identical to those observed for the SSU rRNA gene. Cross-transmission studies demonstrated that the C. muris isolate infected BALB/c mice and Mongolian gerbils, but did not infect chickens. C. muris isolated in this study appears to be host-adapted, consistent with a previous multilocus sequence typing analysis. Further studies are required to understand the prevalence and transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in ostriches in different geographic areas.
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Endovascular coil embolization of aneurysm neck for the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm with bleb formation.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Ruptured intracranial aneurysm (ICA) with bleb formation (RICABF) is a special type of ruptured ICA. However, the exact role and effectiveness of endovascular coil embolization (ECE) in RICABF is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ECE of aneurysm neck for RICABF treatment.
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A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China.
Parasite
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) results were calculated.
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Generalized Scalable Multiple Copy Algorithms for Molecular Dynamics Simulations in NAMD.
Comput Phys Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Computational methodologies that couple the dynamical evolution of a set of replicated copies of a system of interest offer powerful and flexible approaches to characterize complex molecular processes. Such multiple copy algorithms (MCAs) can be used to enhance sampling, compute reversible work and free energies, as well as refine transition pathways. Widely used examples of MCAs include temperature and Hamiltonian-tempering replica-exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD and H-REMD), alchemical free energy perturbation with lambda replica-exchange (FEP/?-REMD), umbrella sampling with Hamiltonian replica exchange (US/H-REMD), and string method with swarms-of-trajectories conformational transition pathways. Here, we report a robust and general implementation of MCAs for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the highly scalable program NAMD built upon the parallel programming system Charm++. Multiple concurrent NAMD instances are launched with internal partitions of Charm++ and located continuously within a single communication world. Messages between NAMD instances are passed by low-level point-to-point communication functions, which are accessible through NAMD's Tcl scripting interface. The communication-enabled Tcl scripting provides a sustainable application interface for end users to realize generalized MCAs without modifying the source code. Illustrative applications of MCAs with fine-grained inter-copy communication structure, including global lambda exchange in FEP/?-REMD, window swapping US/H-REMD in multidimensional order parameter space, and string method with swarms-of-trajectories were carried out on IBM Blue Gene/Q to demonstrate the versatility and massive scalability of the present implementation.
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Dendritic ni-p-coated melamine foam for a lightweight, low-cost, and amphipathic three-dimensional current collector for binder-free electrodes.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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A highly conductive 3D current collector that is dendritic, lightweight, and robust is synthesized for binder-free electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. It has excellent chemical/electrochemical stability in a wide voltage window (0-5 V) and robust mechanical behavior even after 600 cycles of compression. When active materials are grown in situ on the as-obtained current collector, the resulting cycling stability and rate capability far exceed those of conventional electrodes and other 3D current collectors.
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DrugComboRanker: drug combination discovery based on target network analysis.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Currently there are no curative anticancer drugs, and drug resistance is often acquired after drug treatment. One of the reasons is that cancers are complex diseases, regulated by multiple signaling pathways and cross talks among the pathways. It is expected that drug combinations can reduce drug resistance and improve patients' outcomes. In clinical practice, the ideal and feasible drug combinations are combinations of existing Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs or bioactive compounds that are already used on patients or have entered clinical trials and passed safety tests. These drug combinations could directly be used on patients with less concern of toxic effects. However, there is so far no effective computational approach to search effective drug combinations from the enormous number of possibilities.
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Estimating ground-level PM2.5 in China using satellite remote sensing.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Estimating ground-level PM2.5 from satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a spatial statistical model is a promising new method to evaluate the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 exposure in a large geographic region. However, studies outside North America have been limited due to the lack of ground PM2.5 measurements to calibrate the model. Taking advantage of the newly established national monitoring network, we developed a national-scale geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to estimate daily PM2.5 concentrations in China with fused satellite AOD as the primary predictor. The results showed that the meteorological and land use information can greatly improve model performance. The overall cross-validation (CV) R(2) is 0.64 and root mean squared prediction error (RMSE) is 32.98 ?g/m(3). The mean prediction error (MPE) of the predicted annual PM2.5 is 8.28 ?g/m(3). Our predicted annual PM2.5 concentrations indicated that over 96% of the Chinese population lives in areas that exceed the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (CNAAQS) Level 2 standard. Our results also confirmed satellite-derived AOD in conjunction with meteorological fields and land use information can be successfully applied to extend the ground PM2.5 monitoring network in China.
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Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole compounds containing piperazine moiety.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi.
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Metal-porphyrin: a potential catalyst for direct decomposition of N(2)O by theoretical reaction mechanism investigation.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The adsorption of nitrous oxide (N2O) on metal-porphyrins (metal: Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, or Zn) has been theoretically investigated using density functional theory with the M06L functional to explore their use as potential catalysts for the direct decomposition of N2O. Among these metal-porphyrins, Ti-porphyrin is the most active for N2O adsorption in the triplet ground state with the strongest adsorption energy (-13.32 kcal/mol). Ti-porphyrin was then assessed for the direct decomposition of N2O. For the overall reaction mechanism of three N2O molecules on Ti-porphyrin, two plausible catalytic cycles are proposed. Cycle 1 involves the consecutive decomposition of the first two N2O molecules, while cycle 2 is the decomposition of the third N2O molecule. For cycle 1, the activation energies of the first and second N2O decompositions are computed to be 3.77 and 49.99 kcal/mol, respectively. The activation energy for the third N2O decomposition in cycle 2 is 47.79 kcal/mol, which is slightly lower than that of the second activation energy of the first cycle. O2 molecules are released in cycles 1 and 2 as the products of the reaction, which requires endothermic energies of 102.96 and 3.63 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, the O2 desorption is mainly released in catalytic cycle 2 of a TiO3-porphyrin intermediate catalyst. In conclusion, regarding the O2 desorption step for the direct decomposition of N2O, the findings would be very useful to guide the search for potential N2O decomposition catalysts in new directions.
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Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools: What have we learned?
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Abstract Introduction: Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress.
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Characterization of a novel recombinant hyaluronan binding protein for tissue hyaluronan detection.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor-Stimulated Gene 6 protein (TSG-6) is a hyaluronan (HA)-binding glycoprotein containing an HA-binding Link module. Because of its well-defined structure, HA binding properties and small size, TSG-6 is an excellent candidate as an alternative to animal-derived HA-binding protein (HABP) for the detection of HA. The present work describes the generation and characterization of a novel recombinant HA-binding probe obtained by fusion of a modified TSG-6 Link module with mutationally inactivated heparin-binding sequence and the Fc portion of human IgG1 (TSG-6-?Hep-Fc) for tissue HA detection in histological samples. Direct binding assays indicated strong binding of TSG-6-?Hep-Fc to HA, with little residual binding to heparin. Histolocalization of HA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using biotin-TSG-6-?Hep-Fc resulted in hyaluronidase-sensitive staining patterns similar to those obtained with biotin-HABP, but with improved sensitivity. HA was detected in many human tissues, and was most abundant in soft connective tissues such as the skin dermis and the stroma of various glands. Digital image analysis revealed a linear correlation between biotin-HABP and biotin-TSG-6-?Hep-Fc staining intensity in a subset of normal and malignant human tissues. These results demonstrate that TSG-6-?Hep-Fc is a sensitive and specific probe for the detection of HA by histological methods.
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Porous Ni-Mn oxide nanosheets in situ formed on nickel foam as 3D hierarchical monolith de-NO(x) catalysts.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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In this work, we successfully in situ decorated nickel foam with porous Ni-Mn oxide nanosheets (3DH-NM/NF) as 3D hierarchical monolith de-NOx catalysts via a simple hydrothermal reaction and calcination process. The catalysts were carefully examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, elemental mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, H2 temperature-programmed reduction and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The results indicated that the nanosheets are composed of a Ni6Mn1O8 spinel and the metal species are uniformly dispersed in bi-metal oxides. As a result, the strong synergistic effects between the Mn and Ni species have been observed. The active oxygen species, reducible species and acidity are enhanced by the in situ formation of the nanosheets on the surface of nickel foam. These desirable features of 3DH-NM/NF catalysts bring about the excellent de-NOx performance. Moreover, the 3DH-NM/NF catalysts also present good stability and H2O resistance. Based on these favorable properties, 3DH-NM/NF could be considered as a promising candidate for the monolith de-NOx catalysts.
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A furanyl acryl conjugated coumarin as an efficient inhibitor and a highly selective off-on fluorescent probe for covalent labelling of thioredoxin reductase.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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A simple and novel furanyl acryl conjugated coumarin fluorophore was designed as an effective thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)-responding fluorescent probe by an activity-guided approach. Basically, the ?,?-unsaturated ketone moiety in the probe structure could quench the fluorescence of the coumarin, but upon the covalent modification of TrxR, a significant fluorescence could be generated, which has been confirmed to be obviously selective over Trx, GSH, Cys and DTT.
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Hydrogenated CoOx nanowire@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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We report a facile strategy to prepare 3D core-shell nanowire heterostructures with microporous hydrogenated CoOx (H-CoOx) nanowires as the conducting scaffold to support Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Benefiting from the H-CoOx nanowire core to provide the effective pathway for charge transport and the core-shell heterostructures with synergistic effects, the H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire electrode achieved the specific capacitance of 2196 F g(-1) (areal capacitance of 5.73 F cm(-2)), which is approximately a 1.4-fold enhancement compared with the Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowires. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was fabricated by using H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 nanowires as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide @Fe3O4 nanocomposites as the negative electrode. The ASCs achieved high energy density (? 45.3 W h kg(-1) at 1010 W kg(-1)), high power density (? 7080 W kg(-1) at 23.4 W h kg(-1)) and high cycling stability. Furthermore, after charging for ? 1 min, one such 22 cm(2) ASC device demonstrated to be able to drive a small windmill (0.8 V, 0.1 W) for 20 min. Two such ASCs connected in series can power up a seven-color LED (3.2 V) efficiently.
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Fully printed, rapid-response sensors based on chemically modified graphene for detecting NO2 at room temperature.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has proven to be effective in trace gas detection at room temperature ambient conditions. However, the slow response-recovery characteristic is a major hurdle for the RGO-based gas sensors. Herein, we report a gravure-printed chemoresistor-type NO2 sensor based on sulfonated RGO (S-RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (Ag-S-RGO). Large amounts of silver nanoparticles with an average particle size of 10-20 nm were uniformly assembled on flat S-RGO surfaces. The printed Ag-S-RGO sensor possesses a high sensitivity and fast response-recovery characteristic over NO2 concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 50 ppm. Upon exposure to 50 ppm NO2 at room temperature, the Ag-S-RGO sensor shows a sensitivity of 74.6%, a response time of 12 s and a recovery time of 20 s. In addition, the Ag-S-RGO sensors exhibit satisfactory flexibility with an almost constant resistance after 1000 bending cycles. The printed and high-performance Ag-S-RGO sensors described here will be a good prospect in environmental monitoring of NO2.
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Tomato WRKY transcriptional factor SlDRW1 is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to oxidative stress.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, only a few of tomato WRKYs have been studied for their biological functions. In the present study, we identified a Botrytis cinerea-responsive WRKY gene SlDRW1 (Solanum lycopersicumdefense-related WRKY1) from tomato. SlDRW1 is a nucleus localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlDRW1 was significantly induced by B. cinerea, leading to 10-13 folds of increase than that in the mock-inoculated plants but not by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Silencing of SlDRW1 resulted in increased severity of disease caused by B. cinerea, but did not affect the phenotype of disease caused by Pst DC3000. In addition, silencing of SlDRW1 also resulted in decreased tolerance against oxidative stress but did not affect drought stress tolerance. Furthermore, silencing of SlDRW1 attenuated defense response such as expression of defense-related genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlDRW1 is a positive regulator of defense response in tomato against B. cinerea and oxidative stress.
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Quantitative determinants of aerobic glycolysis identify flux through the enzyme GAPDH as a limiting step.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg Effect (WE) is characterized by the increased metabolism of glucose to lactate. It remains unknown what quantitative changes to the activity of metabolism are necessary and sufficient for this phenotype. We developed a computational model of glycolysis and an integrated analysis using metabolic control analysis (MCA), metabolomics data, and statistical simulations. We identified and confirmed a novel mode of regulation specific to aerobic glycolysis where flux through GAPDH, the enzyme separating lower and upper glycolysis, is the rate-limiting step in the pathway and the levels of fructose (1,6) bisphosphate (FBP), are predictive of the rate and control points in glycolysis. Strikingly, negative flux control was found and confirmed for several steps thought to be rate-limiting in glycolysis. Together, these findings enumerate the biochemical determinants of the WE and suggest strategies for identifying the contexts in which agents that target glycolysis might be most effective.
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Activation of the STING adaptor attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalitis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Cytosolic DNA sensing activates the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) adaptor to induce IFN type I (IFN-??) production. Constitutive DNA sensing to induce sustained STING activation incites tolerance breakdown, leading to autoimmunity. In this study, we show that systemic treatments with DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) induced potent immune regulatory responses via STING signaling that suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) when administered to mice after immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), at EAE onset, or at peak disease severity. DNP treatments attenuated infiltration of effector T cells into the CNS and suppressed innate and adaptive immune responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunization in spleen. Therapeutic responses were not observed in mice treated with cargo DNA or cationic polymers alone, indicating that DNP uptake and cargo DNA sensing by cells with regulatory functions was essential for therapeutic responses to manifest. Intact STING and IFN-?? receptor genes, but not IFN-? receptor genes, were essential for therapeutic responses to DNPs to manifest. Treatments with cyclic diguanylate monophosphate to activate STING also delayed EAE onset and reduced disease severity. Therapeutic responses to DNPs were critically dependent on IDO enzyme activity in hematopoietic cells. Thus, DNPs and cyclic diguanylate monophosphate attenuate EAE by inducing dominant T cell regulatory responses via the STING/IFN-??/IDO pathway that suppress CNS-specific autoimmunity. These findings reveal dichotomous roles for the STING/IFN-?? pathway in either stimulating or suppressing autoimmunity and identify STING-activating reagents as a novel class of immune modulatory drugs.
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Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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To describe prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in an Asian Indian population without diabetes.
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Dapper1 promotes autophagy by enhancing the Beclin1-Vps34-Atg14L complex formation.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process to clear up aggregated proteins or aged and damaged organelles. The Beclin1-Vps34-Atg14L complex is essential for autophagosome formation. However, how the complex formation is regulated is unclear. Here, we show that Dapper1 (Dpr1) acts as a critical regulator of the Beclin1-Vps34-Atg14L complex to promote autophagy. Dpr1 ablation in the central nervous system results in motor coordination defect and accumulation of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins. Dpr1 increases autophagosome formation as indicated by elevated puncta formation of LC3, Atg14L and DFCP1 (Double FYVE-containing protein 1). Conversely, loss of Dpr1 impairs LC3 lipidation and causes p62/SQSTM1 accumulation. Dpr1 directly interacts with Beclin1 and Atg14L and enhances the Beclin1-Vps34 interaction and Vps34 activity. Together, our findings suggest that Dpr1 enhances the Atg14L-Beclin1-Vps34 complex formation to drive autophagy.
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Biosynthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by NADH-dependent reductase from E. coli CCZU-Y10 discovered by genome data mining using mannitol as cosubstrate.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The reductase (PgCR) from recombinant Escherichia coli CCZU-Y10 displayed high reductase activity and excellent stereoselectivity for the reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((S)-CHBE). To efficiently synthesize (S)-CHBE (>99 % enantiomeric excess (ee)), the highly stereoselective bioreduction of COBE into (S)-CHBE with the whole cells of E. coli CCZU-Y10 was successfully demonstrated in a dibutyl phthalate-water biphasic system. The appropriate ratio of the organic phase to water phase was 1:1 (v/v). The optimum reaction temperature, reaction pH, cosubstrate, NAD(+), and cell dosage of the biotransformation of 100 mM COBE in this biphasic system were 30 °C, 7.0, mannitol (2.5 mmol/mmol COBE), 0.1 ?mol/(mmol COBE), and 0.1 g (wet weight)/mL, respectively. Moreover, COBE at a high concentration of (1,000 mM) could be asymmetrically reduced to (S)-CHBE in a high yield (99.0 %) and high enantiometric excess value (>99 % ee). Significantly, E. coli CCZU-Y10 shows high potential in the industrial production of (S)-CHBE (>99 % ee).
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Rab8a-AS160-MSS4 regulatory circuit controls lipid droplet fusion and growth.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Rab GTPases, by targeting to specific membrane compartments, play essential roles in membrane trafficking. Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic subcellular organelles whose growth is closely linked to obesity and hepatic steatosis. Fsp27 is shown to be required for LD fusion and growth by enriching at LD-LD contact sites. Here, we identify Rab8a as a direct interactor and regulator of Fsp27 in mediating LD fusion in adipocytes. Knockdown of Rab8a in the livers of ob/ob mice results in the accumulation of smaller LDs and lower hepatic lipid levels. Surprisingly, it is the GDP-bound form of Rab8a that exhibits fusion-promoting activity. We further discover AS160 as the GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Rab8a, which forms a ternary complex with Fsp27 and Rab8a to positively regulate LD fusion. MSS4 antagonizes Fsp27-mediated LD fusion activity through Rab8a. Our results have thus revealed a mechanistic signaling circuit controlling LD fusion and fatty liver formation.
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Tomato SlMKK2 and SlMKK4 contribute to disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli via receptors/sensors into intracellular responses and play key roles in plant immunity against pathogen attack. However, the function of tomato MAPK kinases, SlMKKs, in resistance against Botrytis cinerea remains unclear yet.
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Expression and function of Toll-like receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ovarian cancer.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Inflammation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer (OC), the underlying mechanisms of which are still unclear. We hypothesized that the abnormal expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which were potential activators of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-?B p65), could promote inflammation and tumorigenesis in OC. In this study, we characterized the expression of TLRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and found TLR2 and TLR6 mRNAs levels to be higher in PBMCs from OC patients than in those from benign disease (BC) or healthy normal controls (NC). Flow cytometry analysis showed that TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 were highly expressed in monocytes from OC patients, but not in those from control subjects. Consistently, inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 were up-regulated in PBMCs from OC patients upon stimulation with Pam3CSK4 (TLR1 ligand) and HKLM (TLR2 ligand), compared with unstimulated PBMCs. Stimulation of PBMCs with TLR ligands led to activation of downstream signaling molecules in TLRs (MyD88, TRAF6, TANK, NF-?B p65 and p-NF-?B p65). We also discovered that SK-OV-3-secreted factors were potent PBMCs activators, leading to the production of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 through activation of TLRs and downstream signaling molecules in PBMCs. Before coculturing with SK-OV-3, pretreatment of THP-1 cells or PBMCs with monoclonal antibodies against TLR1, TLR2 or TLR6 inhibited the production of IL-1? and IL-6 and activation of MyD88, TRAF6, TANK, NF-?B p65 and p-NF-?B p65. Our results provided new evidence that TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 signaling was linked with inflammation in OC microenvironment.
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Naofen promotes TNF-?-mediated apoptosis of hepatocytes by activating caspase-3 in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To investigate whether naofen is involved in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-mediated apoptosis of hepatocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
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The first case of bacteraemia due to non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a type 2 diabetes mellitus patient in mainland China.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Bacteraemia due to non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is rarely documented in mainland China. We report such a case in a 70-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The clinical features, phenotypic analyses, and presence of a panel of known virulence genes in the isolated strain are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bacteraemia due to this strain in a T2DM patient without other coexisting underlying diseases in mainland China.
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Should peri-gastrectomy gastric acidity be our focus among gastric cancer patients?
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To investigate the necessity and correctness of acid suppression pre- and post-gastrectomy among gastric carcinoma (GC) patients.
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In vitro extraction of intra-corneal iron using reverse iontophoresis and vitamin C.
Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to optimize reverse iontophoretic (RI) extraction of ferric/ferrous ions from the cornea.
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Human babesiosis, an emerging tick-borne disease in the People¿s Republic of China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Babesiosis is a typical zoonotic, emerging disease caused by a tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of Babesia spp. that also can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Babesiosis imposes an increasing public-health threat. We reviewed and mapped epidemiological studies on Babesia in vectors and/or rodents in the People¿s Republic of China (P.R. China) and found that B. microti was the predominant species detected in the investigated regions such as Heilongjiang, Zhejiang, Fujian provinces and Taiwan island. We reviewed a series of sporadic human babesiosis cases collected from 1940¿s to 2013, in Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, Taiwan and Zhejiang and other regions including a main endemic area of malaria on the China-Myanmar border areas in P.R. China. Clinical manifestations of human babesiosis were also reviewed. Human babesiosis may have previously been overlooked in P.R. China due to a lack of medical awareness and the limitation of clinical diagnostic methods.
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Evolutionary relationships of Pemphigus and allied genera (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) and their primary endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Aphids harbor primary endosymbionts, Buchnera aphidicola, in specialized cells within their body cavities. Aphids and Buchnera have strict mutualistic relationships in nutrition exchange. This ancient association has received much attention from researchers who are interested in endosymbiotic evolution. Previous studies have found parallel phylogenetic relationships between non-galling aphids and Buchnera at lower taxonomic levels (genus, species). To understand whether relatively isolated habitats such as galls have effect on the parallel relationships between aphids and Buchnera, the present paper investigated the phylogenetic relationships of gall aphids from Pemphigus and allied genera, which induce pseudo-galls or galls on Populus spp. (poplar) and Buchnera. The molecular phylogenies inferred from three aphid genes (COI, COII and EF-1?) and two Buchnera genes (gnd, 16S rRNA gene) indicated significant congruence between aphids and Buchnera at generic as well as interspecific levels. Interestingly, both aphid and Buchnera phylogenies supported three main clades corresponding to the galling locations of aphids, namely leaf, the joint of leaf blade and petiole, and branch of the host plant. The results suggest phylogenetic conservatism of gall characters, which indicates gall characters are more strongly affected by aphid phylogeny, rather than host plants.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Cervaphis quercus (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae: Greenideinae).
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The mitochondrial genome of Cervaphis quercus has been sequenced and annotated. The entire genome of 15,272?bp encodes two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a control region. The genome has the same gene order as that found in the inferred ancestral insect. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased. All protein-coding genes use standard mitochondrial initiation codons. Secondary structure models of the two ribosomal RNA genes of C. quercus are similar to those proposed for other insects. All tRNAs have the classic clover-leaf structure, except for the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of trnS (AGN), which forms a simple loop. The presence of structural elements in the control region is also discussed, with an emphasis on the possible regulation of replication and/or transcription. Comparison with mitochondrial genomes of other aphid species shows their gene arrangements are conserved; however, the variety of repeat regions in species from a different aphid subfamily, Aphidinae, suggests that they resulted from independent evolutionary events.
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Self-adaptive strain-relaxation optimization for high-energy lithium storage material through crumpling of graphene.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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High-energy lithium battery materials based on conversion/alloying reactions have tremendous potential applications in new generation energy storage devices. However, these applications are limited by inherent large volume variations and sluggish kinetics. Here we report a self-adaptive strain-relaxed electrode through crumpling of graphene to serve as high-stretchy protective shells on metal framework, to overcome these limitations. The graphene sheets are self-assembled and deeply crumpled into pinecone-like structure through a contraction-strain-driven crumpling method. The as-prepared electrode exhibits high specific capacity (2,165?mAh?g(-1)), fast charge-discharge rate (20?A?g(-1)) with no capacity fading in 1,000 cycles. This kind of crumpled graphene has self-adaptive behaviour of spontaneous unfolding-folding synchronized with cyclic expansion-contraction volumetric variation of core materials, which can release strain and maintain good electric contact simultaneously. It is expected that such findings will facilitate the applications of crumpled graphene and the self-adaptive materials.
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Postmortem genetic screening of SNPs in RyR2 gene in sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome in the southern Chinese Han population.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To investigate the genetic variants of the RyR2 gene in sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) in the southern Chinese Han population, we genetically screened 29 of the 105 coding exons of the RyR2 gene associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in sporadic SUNDS victims using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 127 SUNDS cases and 165 healthy unrelated controls. None of the published or novel RyR2 missense mutations were found in 127 SUNDS cases. A total of sixteen genetic variants of the RyR2 gene were identified, comprised of: one novel synonymous coding mutation (c.13710C>A), one novel synonymous rare polymorphism (c.14871C>T), and fourteen previously reported polymorphisms. The genotype and allele frequency of previously reported missense polymorphism c.5656G>A (G1886S) was of no statistical difference between SUNDS cases and controls (x(2)=0.390, P>0.05; x(2)=0.271, P>0.05). This is the first report of genetic phenotype of RyR2 gene of SUNDS in the southern Chinese Han population. Previously reported plausible pathogenic missense polymorphism G1886S may not be an independent predisposition factor of SUNDS in the southern Chinese Han population. The association of genetic variants of the RyR2 gene with SUNDS needs further elucidation.
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Electrostatic induced stretch growth of homogeneous ?-Ni(OH)2 on graphene with enhanced high-rate cycling for supercapacitors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Supercapacitors, as one of alternative energy devices, have been characterized by the rapid rate of charging and discharging, and high power density. But they are now challenged to achieve their potential energy density that is related to specific capacitance. Thus it is extremely important to make such materials with high specific capacitances. In this report, we have gained homogenous Ni(OH)2 on graphene by efficiently using of a facile and effective electrostatic induced stretch growth method. The electrostatic interaction triggers advantageous change in morphology and the ordered stacking of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets on graphene also enhances the crystallization of Ni(OH)2. When the as-prepared Ni(OH)2/graphene composite is applied to supercapacitors, they show superior electrochemical properties including high specific capacitance (1503 F g(-1) at 2 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability up to 6000 cycles even at a high scan rate of 50 mV s(-1).
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Pairwise constrained concept factorization for data representation.
Neural Netw
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Concept factorization (CF) is a variant of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). In CF, each concept is represented by a linear combination of data points, and each data point is represented by a linear combination of concepts. More specifically, each concept is represented by more than one data point with different weights, and each data point carries various weights called membership to represent their degrees belonging to that concept. However, CF is actually an unsupervised method without making use of prior information of the data. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised concept factorization method, called Pairwise Constrained Concept Factorization (PCCF), which incorporates pairwise constraints into the CF framework. We expect that data points which have pairwise must-link constraints should have the same class label as much as possible, while data points with pairwise cannot-link constraints will have different class labels as much as possible. Due to the incorporation of the pairwise constraints, the learning quality of the CF has been significantly enhanced. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed novel method in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms on several real world applications.
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Enhanced functional expression of aquaporin Z via fusion of in situ cleavable leader peptides in Escherichia coli cell-free system.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) is a water channel protein from Escherichia coli and has attracted many attentions to develop the biomimetic water filtration technology. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) system, one of the most complex multi-enzymatic systems, has the ability of producing the integral membrane protein in vitro. To enhance the synthesis of AqpZ in E. coli cell-free system, several natural leader peptides were respectively fused at the N-terminus and were verified to enhance the expression level significantly. Moreover, the supplementation of detergents or liposome could activate leader peptidase from the cell-free extract and provide hydrophobic environment for proper folding of AqpZ. Thus, the release of mature AqpZ via the in situ removal of leader peptide was achieved, with a specific water transport activity of (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10?¹? cm³ s?¹ monomer?¹. Using this in situ removable leader peptide strategy, the transcription-translation, leader sequence cleavage and membrane protein folding were integrated into a simple process in the cell-free system, providing a convenient approach to enhance the expression of target proteins, especially those membrane proteins difficult to achieve.
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Review of current methods, applications, and data management for the bioinformatics analysis of whole exome sequencing.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has greatly promoted advances in the study of human diseases at the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic levels. Exome sequencing, where the coding region of the genome is captured and sequenced at a deep level, has proven to be a cost-effective method to detect disease-causing variants and discover gene targets. In this review, we outline the general framework of whole exome sequence data analysis. We focus on established bioinformatics tools and applications that support five analytical steps: raw data quality assessment, pre-processing, alignment, post-processing, and variant analysis (detection, annotation, and prioritization). We evaluate the performance of open-source alignment programs and variant calling tools using simulated and benchmark datasets, and highlight the challenges posed by the lack of concordance among variant detection tools. Based on these results, we recommend adopting multiple tools and resources to reduce false positives and increase the sensitivity of variant calling. In addition, we briefly discuss the current status and solutions for big data management, analysis, and summarization in the field of bioinformatics.
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Identification and characterization of a new erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a novel erythronolide-producing halophilic actinomycete isolated from salt field.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Erythromycins (Ers) are clinically potent macrolide antibiotics in treating pathogenic bacterial infections. Microorganisms capable of producing Ers, represented by Saccharopolyspora erythraea, are mainly soil-dwelling actinomycetes. So far, Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a halophilic actinomycete isolated from Baicheng salt field, is the only known Er-producing extremophile. In this study, we have reported the draft genome sequence of Ac. erythraea YIM90600, genome mining of which has revealed a new Er biosynthetic gene cluster encoding several novel Er metabolites. This Er gene cluster shares high identity and similarity with the one of Sa. erythraea NRRL2338, except for two absent genes, eryBI and eryG. By correlating genotype and chemotype, the biosynthetic pathways of 3'-demethyl-erythromycin C, erythronolide H (EH) and erythronolide I have been proposed. The formation of EH is supposed to be sequentially biosynthesized via C-6/C-18 epoxidation and C-14 hydroxylation from 6-deoxyerythronolide B. Although an in vitro enzymatic activity assay has provided limited evidence for the involvement of the cytochrome P450 oxidase EryFAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600) in the catalysis of a two-step oxidation, resulting in an epoxy moiety, the attempt to construct an EH-producing Sa. erythraea mutant via gene complementation was not successful. Characterization of EryKAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600) in vitro has confirmed its unique role as a C-12 hydroxylase, rather than a C-14 hydroxylase of the erythronolide. Genomic characterization of the halophile Ac. erythraea YIM90600 will assist us to explore the great potential of extremophiles, and promote the understanding of EH formation, which will shed new insights into the biosynthesis of Er metabolites.
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Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1). SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.
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Enhanced expression of WD repeat-containing protein 35 via CaMKK/AMPK activation in bupivacaine-treated Neuro2a cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We previously reported that bupivacaine induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and nuclear factor-kappa B activation, resulting in an increase in expression of WD repeat-containing protein 35 (WDR35) in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells. However, the identity of signaling upstream of p38 MAPK pathways to WDR35 expression remains unclear. It has been shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can activate p38 MAPK through diverse mechanisms. In addition, several kinases acting upstream of AMPK have been identified including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Recent studies reported that AMPK may be involved in bupivacaine-induced cytotoxicity in Schwann cells and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The present study was undertaken to test whether CaMKK and AMPK are involved in bupivacaine-induced WDR35 expression in Neuro2a cells. Our results showed that bupivacaine induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK in Neuro2a cells. The AMPK inhibitors, compound C and iodotubercidin, attenuated the bupivacaine-induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, resulting in an inhibition of the bupivacaine-induced increase in WDR35 expression. Treatment with the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 also attenuated the bupivacaine-induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, resulting in an inhibition of the bupivacaine-induced increase in WDR35 expression. These results suggest that bupivacaine activates AMPK and p38 MAPK via CaMKK in Neuro2a cells, and that the CaMKK/AMPK/p38 MAPK pathway is involved in regulating WDR35 expression.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.