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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a novel cellular therapy for multiple sclerosis.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of neurological disability, affecting more than 300 out of every one million people in the world. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC) transplantation in MS patients. Twenty-three patients were enrolled in this study and 13 of them were given hUC-MSC therapy at the same time as anti-inflammatory treatment, whereas the control patients received the anti-inflammatory treatment only. Treatment schedule included 1,000 mg/kg of methylprednisolone i.v. daily for 3 days and then 500 mg/kg for 2 days, followed by oral prednisone 1mg/kg/day for 10 days. The dosage of prednisone was then reduced by 5mg every two weeks until reaching a 5mg/day maintenance dosage. Intravenous infusion of hUC-MSCs was applied three times in a 6 week period for each patient. The overall symptoms of the hUC-MSC treated patients improved compared to patients in the control group. Both the EDSS scores and relapse occurrence were significantly lower than those of the control patients. Inflammatory cytokines were assessed, and the data demonstrated a shift from Th1 to Th2 immunity in hUC-MSC treated patients. Our data demonstrated a high potential for hUC-MSC treatment of MS. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Rattus norvegicus SILN strain with central nervous system disorder.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract The Rattus norvegicus SILN strain is a common used model for nervous system disorder disease study. We sequenced this R. norvegicus strain SILN mitochondrial genome for the first time (GenBank Accession No. KM114606). Its mitogenome was 16,311?bp and coding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes.
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Non-specific physiological background effects of acupuncture revealed by proteomic analysis in normal rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The total effects of adequate real acupuncture treatment consist of pathologic-specific and non-specific physiological effects. The latter may be the fundamental component of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. This study investigated the physiological background effects of acupuncture in normal rats treated with acupuncture.
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Knockdown of NOB1 expression inhibits the malignant transformation of human prostate cancer cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Nin one binding-1 protein (NOB1) is a kind of zinc protein involved in ribosome biogenesis and controlled proteolysis. To explore the function of NOB1 in human prostate malignancy, we analyzed the expression of NOB1 in prostate cancer and found that NOB1 was elevated in prostate cancer tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of NOB1 by lentivirus-shRNA inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation ability of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that silencing of NOB1 caused G0/G1 phase arrest and a slight decrease in S phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore, knockdown of NOB1 significantly suppressed the mobility of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggested that NOB1 might be involved in tumorigenecity of prostate cancer, and could be a potential molecular target for prostate cancer gene therapy.
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Mitochondrial DNA mutations may not be frequent in asthenospermic infertile men.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract Mutations in mitochondrial DNA were implicated to be associated with male infertility. Due to its high mutation rate, mtDNA defects may occur at any nucleotide of its 16,569 bp sequence. In this study, we analyzed a recent paper concerning the role of mtDNA variations in asthenospermic infertile men, we found that mtDNA mutation was a frequent event in male infertility. However, some polymorphisms in gene encoding mt-tRNAs were mislabelled as "pathogenic mutations". We also discussed the potential pitfalls and mistakes in mitochondrial medicine studies.
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Liver clock protein BMAL1 promotes de novo lipogenesis through insulin-mTORC2-AKT signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The clock protein BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) participates in circadian regulation of lipid metabolism, but its contribution to insulin AKT-regulated hepatic lipid synthesis is unclear. Here we used both Bmal1(-/-) and acute liver-specific Bmal1-depleted mice to study the role of BMAL1 in refeeding-induced de novo lipogenesis in the liver. Both global deficiency and acute hepatic depletion of Bmal1 reduced lipogenic gene expression in the liver upon refeeding. Conversely, Bmal1 overexpression in mouse liver by adenovirus was sufficient to elevate the levels of mRNA of lipogenic enzymes. Bmal1(-/-) primary mouse hepatocytes displayed decreased levels of de novo lipogenesis and lipogenic enzymes, supporting the notion that BMAL1 regulates lipid synthesis in hepatocytes in a cell-autonomous manner. Both refed mouse liver and insulin-treated primary mouse hepatocytes showed impaired AKT activation in the case of either Bmal1 deficiency or Bmal1 depletion by adenoviral shRNA. Restoring AKT activity by a constitutively active mutant of AKT nearly normalized de novo lipogenesis in Bmal1(-/-) hepatocytes. Finally, Bmal1 deficiency or knockdown decreased the protein abundance of RICTOR, the key component of the mTORC2 complex, without affecting the gene expression of key factors of insulin signaling. Thus, our study uncovered a novel metabolic function of hepatic BMAL1 that promotes de novo lipogenesis via the insulin-mTORC2-AKT signaling during refeeding.
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Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells infected with adenovirus expressing HGF promote regeneration of damaged neuron cells in a Parkinson's disease model.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (hUC-MSCs) have great potential for developing a therapeutic agent as such. HGF is a multifunctional mediator originally identified in hepatocytes and has recently been reported to possess various neuroprotective properties. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hUC-MSCs infected by an adenovirus carrying the HGF gene on the PD cell model induced by MPP+ on human bone marrow neuroblastoma cells. Our results provide evidence that the cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF could promote regeneration of damaged PD cells at higher efficacy than the supernatant from hUC-MSCs alone. And intracellular free Ca(2+) obviously decreased after treatment with cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF, while the expression of CaBP-D28k, an intracellular calcium binding protein, increased. Therefore our study clearly demonstrated that cultural supernatant of MSC overexpressing HGF was capable of eliciting regeneration of damaged PD model cells. This effect was probably achieved through the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels by modulating of CaBP-D28k expression.
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Constitutive G?i coupling activity of very large G protein-coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1) and its regulation by PDZD7 protein.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The very large G protein-coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1) is a core component in inner ear hair cell development. Mutations in the vlgr1 gene cause Usher syndrome, the symptoms of which include congenital hearing loss and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. However, the mechanism of VLGR1-regulated intracellular signaling and its role in Usher syndrome remain elusive. Here, we show that VLGR1 is processed into two fragments after autocleavage at the G protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site. The cleaved VLGR1 ?-subunit constitutively inhibited adenylate cyclase (AC) activity through G?i coupling. Co-expression of the G?iq chimera with the VLGR1 ?-subunit changed its activity to the phospholipase C/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway, which demonstrates the G?i protein coupling specificity of this subunit. An R6002A mutation in intracellular loop 2 of VLGR1 abolished G?i coupling, but the pathogenic VLGR1 Y6236fsx1 mutant showed increased AC inhibition. Furthermore, overexpression of another Usher syndrome protein, PDZD7, decreased the AC inhibition of the VLGR1 ?-subunit but showed no effect on the VLGR1 Y6236fsx1 mutant. Taken together, we identified an independent G?i signaling pathway of the VLGR1 ?-subunit and its regulatory mechanisms that may have a role in the development of Usher syndrome.
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Henoch-Schönlein purpura in 535 Chinese children: clinical features and risk factors for renal involvement.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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To analyse the clinical features of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) with or without nephritis in Chinese children and to determine the risk factors for renal involvement.
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Significant association among the Fas -670 A/G (rs1800682) polymorphism and esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The Fas gene plays a key role in regulation of apoptotic cell death, and corruption of this signaling pathway has been shown to participate in immune escape and tumorgenesis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of Fas gene at position -670 A/G may affect its expression and play an important role in the pathology of many kinds of cancer. The association between Fas -670 A/G polymorphism and cancer risk is still controversial and ambiguous. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the currently literature to clarify this relationship. We conducted a search in the PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, and WanFang databases, covering all papers published by May 5, 2014. Overall, 59 case-control studies with 17,035 cases and 23,155 controls were retrieved based on the search criteria for cancer susceptibility related to -670 A/G polymorphism in Fas gene. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) revealed association strengths. Although no significant relationship was detected between Fas -670 A/G polymorphism and whole cancer risk, in the ethnicity subgroup, significant associations were found in three types of cancer: prostate cancer (OR?=?1.06, 95 % CI?=?1.01-1.11 for A-allele vs. G-allele); hepatocellular carcinoma (OR?=?0.89, 95 % CI?=?0.80-0.99 for AG vs. GG); esophageal cancer (OR?=?0.95, 95 % CI?=?0.92-0.99 for AA?+?AG vs. GG). Moreover, lower cancer risk was found in smokers carried A-allele, when compared to smokers carried the GG genotype. The Fas -670 A/G polymorphism may be associated with esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer susceptibility from our meta-analysis. Studies with larger samples and gene-environment interactions are warranted to understand the role of Fas -670 A/G polymorphism for cancer risk.
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Reanalysis of the gene expression profile in chronic pancreatitis via bioinformatics methods.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Diagnosis at an early stage of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is challenging. It has been reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly found and applied as targets for the diagnosis and treatment of various cancers. However, to the best of our knowledge, few published papers have described the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis of CP.
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Mouse hepatocyte overexpression of NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) triggers fatal macrophage-dependent liver injury and fibrosis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Damaged, necrotic, or apoptotic hepatocytes release damage-associated molecular patterns that initiate sterile inflammation, and liver inflammation drives liver injury and fibrosis. Here we identified hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B)-inducing kinase (NIK), a Ser/Thr kinase, as a novel trigger of fatal liver inflammation. NIK is activated by a broad spectrum of stimuli. It was up-regulated in injured livers in both mice and humans. In primary mouse hepatocytes, NIK overexpression stimulated, independently of cell injury and death, release of numerous chemokines and cytokines that activated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). BMDMs in turn secreted proapoptotic molecules that stimulated hepatocyte apoptosis. Hepatocyte-specific expression of the NIK transgene triggered massive liver inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, and liver fibrosis, leading to weight loss, hypoglycemia, and death. Depletion of Kupffer cells/macrophages reversed NIK-induced liver destruction and death. Conclusion: the hepatocyte NIK-liver immune cell axis promotes liver inflammation, injury, and fibrosis, thus driving liver disease progression. (Hepatology 2014).
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HTUPA as a new thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction: a multicenter, randomized study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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It is necessary to develop a new thrombolytic agent which can be used by a single bolus at first aid sites to decrease the time to reperfusion in clinical practice. HTUPA, a genetically engineered new thrombolytic with a longer half-life, is well qualified. We aim to compare the thrombolytic efficacy and safety of human tissue urokinase type plasminogen activator (HTUPA) to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Prevalence and risk factors for depression in newly diagnosed patients with POEMS syndrome.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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This prospective study delineated the prevalence and risk factors for clinical depression in patients with POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes). Using a PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire scale-9, which evaluates the severity of depressive symptoms) score cut-off ? 10, the prevalence of pretreatment depression was 38.0%. Based on multivariate logistic regression, higher ONLS (Overall Neuropathy Limitation Scale, which assesses the severity of neuropathy) upper limb scores (hazard ratio [HR] 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.81; p = 0.02) and ascites (HR 4.30; 95% CI 1.03-17.9; p = 0.04) were significant and independent predictors for depression. The incidence of post-treatment depression was 1.53% by the end of follow-up, while no patients received antidepressants. A preliminary logistic regression suggested depression to be a risk factor for early death (within 3 months after diagnosis) (HR 9.77; 95% CI, 1.08-88.9; p = 0.04).
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Hydro-Jet-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with no renal arterial clamping: a preliminary study in a single center.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To describe our experience with Hydro-Jet-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) with no renal arterial clamping in 35 patients with renal cell carcinoma.
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Partial hepatectomy vs. transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for resectable multiple hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan Criteria: a RCT.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The aim of this randomized comparative trial (RCT) is to compare partial hepatectomy (PH) with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treat patients with resectable multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (RMHCC) outside of Milan Criteria.
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Usefulness of the heart-rate variability complex for predicting cardiac mortality after acute myocardial infarction.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Previous studies indicate that decreased heart-rate variability (HRV) is related to the risk of death in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the conventional indices of HRV have poor predictive value for mortality. Our aim was to develop novel predictive models based on support vector machine (SVM) to study the integrated features of HRV for improving risk stratification after AMI.
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Cavoatrial thrombectomy in hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus in the vena cava and atrium without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with tumor thrombus (TT) in hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), and right atrium (RA) portends a poor prognosis because of intravascular extension leading to rapid distal metastases. En bloc resection of cavoatrial TT without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is challenging. We describe a new method of vascular occlusion for thrombus entering into the RA without the need for CPB as shown in echocardiography.
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Identification of TCIRG1 and CLCN7 gene mutations in a patient with autosomal recessive osteopetrosis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Osteopetrosis is a heritable bone disorder that exhibits highly clinical and genetical heterogeneity, and is caused by defective osteoclastic resorption. The three main forms are the autosomal recessive severe (ARO), the intermediate autosomal and the autosomal dominant benign osteopetrosis forms. In the present study, the clinical, biochemical and radiological manifestations were described in a patient with osteopetrosis. Sequence analysis identified the compound heterozygous mutations, c.909C>A (p.Tyr303X) and c.2008C>T (p.Arg670X), in TCIRG1, and a heterozygous splicing mutation, c.1798?1G>T, in the chloride channel 7 gene (CLCN7). Two aberrant forms of the CLCN7 transcripts, c.1798_1883 (exon 20) deletion predicted to cause p.Leu601GlyfsX13, and the c.1798_1821 deletion, the first 24 bp of the exon 20, predicted to cause p.Gly600_Gln607del, were detected by further analysis of the splicing patterns in the leukocytes. The patient's asymptomatic mother carried the TCIRG1 c.909C>A (p.Tyr303X) and CLCN7 c.1798?1G>T mutations, while the asymptomatic father carried the TCIRG1 c.2008C>T (p.Arg670X) mutation only. The patient was finally diagnosed with ARO on the basis of clinical and biochemical parameters, radiological changes and genetic defects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with osteopetrosis who carries TCIRG1 and CLCN7 mutations. In addition, among the three mutations, TCIRG1 c.909C>A and CLCN7 c.1798?1G>T were novel mutations.
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Hepatoprotective role of Sestrin2 against chronic ER stress.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (c/EBP?). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As Sestrin2-deficient cells continue to translate a large amount of proteins during ER stress, they are highly susceptible to ER stress-associated cell death. Accordingly, dietary or genetically induced obesity, which does not lead to any pathological indication other than simple fat accumulation in the liver of wild-type (WT) mice, can provoke Sestrin2-deficient mice to develop severe ER stress-associated liver pathologies such as extensive liver damage, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. These pathologies are suppressed by liver-specific Sestrin2 reconstitution, mTORC1 inhibition or chemical chaperone administration. The Sestrin2-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) may be a general protective mechanism against ER stress-associated diseases.
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HGF accelerates wound healing by promoting the dedifferentiation of epidermal cells through ?1-integrin/ILK pathway.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Skin wound healing is a critical and complex biological process after trauma. This process is activated by signaling pathways of both epithelial and nonepithelial cells, which release a myriad of different cytokines and growth factors. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a cytokine known to play multiple roles during the various stages of wound healing. This study evaluated the benefits of HGF on reepithelialization during wound healing and investigated its mechanisms of action. Gross and histological results showed that HGF significantly accelerated reepithelialization in diabetic (DB) rats. HGF increased the expressions of the cell adhesion molecules ?1-integrin and the cytoskeleton remodeling protein integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in epidermal cells in vivo and in vitro. Silencing of ILK gene expression by RNA interference reduced expression of ?1-integrin, ILK, and c-met in epidermal cells, concomitantly decreasing the proliferation and migration ability of epidermal cells. ?1-Integrin can be an important maker of poorly differentiated epidermal cells. Therefore, these data demonstrate that epidermal cells become poorly differentiated state and regained some characteristics of epidermal stem cells under the role of HGF after wound. Taken together, the results provide evidence that HGF can accelerate reepithelialization in skin wound healing by dedifferentiation of epidermal cells in a manner related to the ?1-integrin/ILK pathway.
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Bacterial imaging with photostable upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Autofluorescence, photodamage and photobleaching are often encountered when using downconverting fluorophores and fluorescent proteins for bacteria labeling. These caveats represent a serious limitation when trying to map bacteria dissemination for prolonged periods. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs), which are able to convert low energy near-infrared (NIR) excitation light into higher energy visible or NIR light, can address these limitations. These particles' unique optical properties translate into attractive advantages of minimal autofluorescence, reduced photodamage, deeper tissue penetration and prolonged photostability. Here, we report a UCN-based bacteria labeling strategy using Escherichia coli as prototypic bacteria. A comparative analysis highlighted the superior photostability of UCN-labeled bacteria over green fluorescent protein-expressing bacteria. Infection study of UCN-labeled bacteria in dendritic cells indicated co-localization of the UCN signal with bacterial position for up to 6 h post-infection. Furthermore, long-term monitoring of the same infected cells demonstrated the potential to utilize photostable UCN-based imaging for bacterial trafficking purposes.
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A rapid and sensitive UFLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin in rat plasma and its application in pharmacokinetics.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Radix?Gentianae is a traditional Chinese medicine derived from medicinal plants of the family Gentianaceae. Its pharmacological effects have been primarily attributed to the presence of a number of secoiridoid glycosides, in particular gentiopicroside and swertiamarin. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the simultaneous determination of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin in rat plasma using paeoniflorin as internal standard (IS).
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A sensitive fluorescence anisotropy method for detection of lead (II) ion by a G-quadruplex-inducible DNA aptamer.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Sensitive and selective detection of Pb(2+) is of great importance to both human health and environmental protection. Here we propose a novel fluorescence anisotropy (FA) approach for sensing Pb(2+) in homogeneous solution by a G-rich thrombin binding aptamer (TBA). The TBA labeled with 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR) at the seventh thymine nucleotide was used as a fluorescent probe for signaling Pb(2+). It was found that the aptamer probe had a high FA in the absence of Pb(2+). This is because the rotation of TMR is restricted by intramolecular interaction with the adjacent guanine bases, which results in photoinduced electron transfer (PET). When the aptamer probe binds to Pb(2+) to form G-quadruplex, the intramolecular interaction should be eliminated, resulting in faster rotation of the fluorophore TMR in solution. Therefore, FA of aptamer probe is expected to decrease significantly upon binding to Pb(2+). Indeed, we observed a decrease in FA of aptamer probe upon Pb(2+) binding. Circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetime measurement were used to verify the reliability and reasonability of the sensing mechanism. By monitoring the FA change of the aptamer probe, we were able to real-time detect binding between the TBA probe and Pb(2+). Moreover, the aptamer probe was exploited as a recognition element for quantification of Pb(2+) in homogeneous solution. The change in FA showed a linear response to Pb(2+) from 10 nM to 2.0 ?M, with 1.0 nM limit of detection. In addition, this sensing system exhibited good selectivity for Pb(2+) over other metal ions. The method is simple, quick and inherits the advantages of aptamer and FA.
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Inhibition of autophagy signi?cantly enhances combination therapy with sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors for human hepatoma cells.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To clarify whether histone deacetylase inhibitors histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to sorafenib treatment.
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A 10-Year Single-Center Experience with Surgical Management of Adrenal Myelolipoma.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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Abstract Objective: The purpose is to report our 10-year experience with surgical management of large or symptomatic adrenal myelolipoma. Patients and Methods: Patients receiving surgical treatment for adrenal myelolipoma between December 2001 and September 2011 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: open surgery and laparoscopic surgery. Patient demographic data, lesion size evaluated by computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging, operation time, blood loss, time of returning to diets, perioperative complications, and length of hospital stay were collected and analyzed. Results: Forty patients (14 received open surgery and 26 received laparoscopic surgery) were enrolled in our study. Both procedures were successful and no patient in the retroperitoneal laparoscopic group required conversion to open surgery. The mean age of the patients was 52.7 years. The median size of the tumor was 5.0?cm. Forty-three percent of patients suffered from lumbago. There was no statistical difference in perioperative complications between the two groups (p>0.05). Retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy patients had a shorter operation time (90.66±37.97?min vs 141.82±62.78?min, p=0.017), less blood loss (150, 100-200?mL vs 450, 300-525?mL, p=0.000), earlier time of returning to diets (2, 2-3 days vs 3, 2-4.5 days, p=0.036), and a shorter hospital stay (6, 5-7 days vs 10, 8-11.25 days, p=0.000) when compared with open surgery patients. Conclusion: Both open and laparoscopic surgeries are efficient and safe treatments for large or symptomatic adrenal myelolipoma, and retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery has the advantages of minimal invasion and rapid postoperative recovery.
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[Changes in mast cells and hepatic expression of c-kit and stem cell factor in the rat model of chronic hepatitis].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To study the potential role of mast cells and the related molecular mechanism in chronic hepatitis (CH) using a rat model system.
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A cypovirus VP5 displays the RNA chaperone-like activity that destabilizes RNA helices and accelerates strand annealing.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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For double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses in the family Reoviridae, their inner capsids function as the machinery for viral RNA (vRNA) replication. Unlike other multishelled reoviruses, cypovirus has a single-layered capsid, thereby representing a simplified model for studying vRNA replication of reoviruses. VP5 is one of the three major cypovirus capsid proteins and functions as a clamp protein to stabilize cypovirus capsid. Here, we expressed VP5 from type 5 Helicoverpa armigera cypovirus (HaCPV-5) in a eukaryotic system and determined that this VP5 possesses RNA chaperone-like activity, which destabilizes RNA helices and accelerates strand annealing independent of ATP. Our further characterization of VP5 revealed that its helix-destabilizing activity is RNA specific, lacks directionality and could be inhibited by divalent ions, such as Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+) or Zn(2+), to varying degrees. Furthermore, we found that HaCPV-5 VP5 facilitates the replication initiation of an alternative polymerase (i.e. reverse transcriptase) through a panhandle-structured RNA template, which mimics the 5-3 cyclization of cypoviral positive-stranded RNA. Given that the replication of negative-stranded vRNA on the positive-stranded vRNA template necessitates the dissociation of the 5-3 panhandle, the RNA chaperone activity of VP5 may play a direct role in the initiation of reoviral dsRNA synthesis.
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Considerations for use of acupuncture as supplemental therapy for patients with allergic asthma.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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This study examines the clinical and immunomodulatory effects of acupuncture in the treatment of patients with allergic asthma. The acupuncture points GV14, BL12, and BL13 were selected based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine in treating asthma. Manual acupuncture was performed once every other day (three times per week) for 5 weeks. The needles were twisted approximately 360° evenly at the rate of 60 times/min for 20 s, manipulated every 10 min and withdrawn after 30 min. Concentrations of sIgA and total IgA in secretions were determined by the combination of sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and RIA. Levels of cortisol in the plasma were measured by RIA. Total IgE in the sera was examined by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to detect the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and IL-2R + T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The absolute and differential numbers of eosinophils in peripheral blood were counted with eosin staining. The total efficacy of the acupuncture treatment in patients with allergic asthma at the end of one course of treatment was 85 %. After treatment, the concentrations of sIgA and total IgA in the saliva (P<0.01, P<0.02) and nasal secretions (P<0.02, P<0.02) were significantly decreased in patients with allergic asthma. The levels of total IgE in sera (P<0.001), the counts of IL-2R + T lymphocytes (P<0.001), and the absolute and differential numbers of eosinophils (P<0.01, P<0.01) in the peripheral blood were also significantly decreased. The numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were significantly increased in the allergic asthmatics treated by acupuncture (P<0.001, P<0.01, and P<0.001, respectively). The concentration of cortisol in the plasma of asthmatic patients did not change significantly after the acupuncture treatment (P>0.05). Acupuncture has regulatory effects on mucosal and cellular immunity in patients with allergic asthma and may be an adjunctive therapy for allergic asthma.
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The KRAB Zinc Finger Protein RSL1 Modulates Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Liver and Adipose Tissue To Maintain Metabolic Homeostasis.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Krüppel-associated box zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are a huge family of vertebrate-specific repressors that modify gene expression in an epigenetic manner. Despite a well-defined repression mechanism, few biological roles or gene targets of KRAB-ZFP are known. Regulator of sex-limitation 1 (RSL1) is a mouse KRAB-ZFP that enforces male-predominant expression in the liver, affecting body mass and pubertal timing. Here we show that female but not male Rsl1(-/-) mice gain more weight than wild-type mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) and that key liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolic genes are altered in both Rsl1(-/-) sexes in response to dietary stress. Expression profiling of Rsl1-sensitive genes in liver and WAT indicates that RSL1 accentuates sex-biased gene expression in liver but greatly diminishes it in WAT. RSL1 expression solely in liver is sufficient to limit diet-induced weight gain and suppress lipogenic genes in WAT, indicating that RSL1 balances metabolism via liver-to-adipose-tissue communication. RSL1s effects on adult physiology exemplify a significant modulatory capacity of KRAB-ZFPs, in the absence of which there is widespread metabolic dysregulation. This ability to buffer against gene expression noise, coupled with extensive individual genetic variation, highlights the enormous potential of KRAB-Zfp genes as candidate risk factors for complex diseases.
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Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June-August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September-November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia.
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Characterization of six missense mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene in Chinese children with hypophosphatasia.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Hypophosphatasia, a rare inherited disease characterized by defective mineralization of bone and teeth, is caused by various mutations in the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene. Our aim was to determine the mutations on TNSALP gene in three Chinese children diagnosed as having hypophosphatasia.
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Urodynamic Pattern Distribution Among Aged Male Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Bladder Outlet Obstruction.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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To develop a urodynamic study (UDS) pattern system for aged male patients who complained of non-neurogenic lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to create a reference guideline for their diagnosis and treatment by a retrospective analysis.
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Bioinspired uniform illumination by vibrated sessile droplet pinned by a hydrophilic/superhydrophobic heterogeneous surface.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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We introduce a strategy to generate uniform illumination. The droplet pinned by a hydrophilic/superhydrophobic heterogeneous surface is oscillated, driven by a laterally placed loudspeaker. The vibrated droplet can be considered as a tunable lens, whose focus and focus length can be real-time tuned. The tunable "lens" is presented as a device for uniform illumination by mechanical manipulation. The incident light is scattered by the vibrated droplet during oscillation, and the irradiance distribution on the image plane becomes larger and more homogenous when the droplet is at resonance.
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Determination of Prostaglandin E1 in dog plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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The determination of Prostaglandin (PG) E1 in plasma is challenged by its low concentration (pg/mL) and endogenous interference. An LC-MS/MS method for the determination of PGE1 in dog plasma has been developed and validated. Plasma being sampled at 4°C and treated with indomethacin effectively inhibited interferents synthesized post-sampling. Samples were subjected to one-step extraction and separated by reversed phase HPLC with a short cycle time of 3min. An LLOQ of 10pg/mL was achieved with 500?l plasma. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs involving an intravenous infusion of 3.2?g/kg PGE1. The half-life was recovered at 7min. The simple, sensitive and rapid method was suitable to be applied to pharmacokinetic studies of PGE1 at clinically relevant doses.
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Glucagon gene polymorphism modifies the effects of smoking and physical activity on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Few genome-wide association studies have considered interactions between multiple genetic variants and environmental factors associated with disease. The interaction was examined between a glucagon gene (GCG) polymorphism and smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity and the association with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a case-control study of Chinese Han subjects. The rs12104705 polymorphism of GCG and interactions with environmental variables were analyzed for 9619 participants by binary multiple logistic regression. Smoking with the C-C haplotype of rs12104705 was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR=1.174, 95% CI=1.013-1.361). Moderate and high physical activity with the C-C genotype was associated with decreased risk of T2DM as compared with low physical activity with the genotype (OR=0.251, 95% CI=0.206-0.306 and OR=0.190, 95% CI=0.164-0.220). However, the interaction of drinking and genotype was not associated with risk of T2DM. Genetic polymorphism in rs12104705 of GCG may interact with smoking and physical activity to modify the risk of T2DM.
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The Research of Acupuncture Effective Biomolecules: Retrospect and Prospect.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Acupuncture is an effective, safe and convenient therapy that has been applied for 2,500 years. The acupuncture researches have obtained significant improvement with the technical support of the life sciences and the studies of acupuncture have in turn accelerated the development of biomedical science. The effects of acupuncture influence important physiopathologic and biological activities, including gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and other biological processes. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, organs, and tissues are reported to be carriers of the biomolecules of the effects of acupuncture. The paper summarized the progress of acupuncture effective biomolecules researches and found that biomolecules play important roles in the mechanism of acupuncture. With the development of omics technologies and translational medicine, the acupuncture research will meet both opportunities and challenges.
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Circadian rhythms in liver physiology and liver diseases.
Compr Physiol
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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In mammals, circadian rhythms function to coordinate a diverse panel of physiological processes with environmental conditions such as food and light. As the driving force for circadian rhythmicity, the molecular clock is a self-sustained transcription-translational feedback loop system consisting of transcription factors, epigenetic modulators, kinases/phosphatases, and ubiquitin E3 ligases. The molecular clock exists not only in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus but also in the peripheral tissues to regulate cellular and physiological function in a tissue-specific manner. The circadian clock system in the liver plays important roles in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. Clock gene mutant animals display impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction, providing strong evidence for the connection between the circadian clock and metabolic homeostasis. Circadian-controlled hepatic metabolism is partially achieved by controlling the expression and/or activity of key metabolic enzymes, transcription factors, signaling molecules, and transporters. Reciprocally, intracellular metabolites modulate the molecular clock activity in response to the energy status. Although still at the early stage, circadian clock dysfunction has been implicated in common chronic liver diseases. Circadian dysregulation of lipid metabolism, detoxification, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell-cycle control might contribute to the onset and progression of liver steatosis, fibrosis, and even carcinogenesis. In summary, these findings call for a comprehensive study of the function and mechanisms of hepatic circadian clock to gain better understanding of liver physiology and diseases.
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An In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of the Mutual Interactions between the Lung and the Large Intestine.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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One of the most important theories of the traditional Chinese medicine is the exterior-interior relationship between the lung and the large intestine; so far, little direct experimental evidence has been reported to support such relationship. Here we for the first time investigated the mutual interactions between the lung and the large intestine by examining the relevancies between the pulmonary functions and the rectal resting pressure in the rat models of asthma and constipation. We also evaluated the effects of the lung homogenate and the large intestine homogenate on the isolated large intestine muscle strip and the isolated tracheal spiral, respectively. Our results showed that the pulmonary resistance and pulmonary compliance were closely related to the rectal resting pressure in the asthmatic rat model, while the rectal resting pressure was much correlated with the pulmonary resistance in the rat model of constipation. Moreover, it was shown that the lung homogenate could specifically contract the isolated large intestine muscle strip. Overall, this study provided new lines of evidence for the theory and highlighted the potential application in the treatment of the corresponding diseases.
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Holmium laser versus conventional transurethral resection of the bladder tumor.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) remains the gold standard for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Laser techniques have been widely used in urology. This analysis aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of holmium resection of the bladder tumor (HoLRBT) vs. TURBT.
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Role of hypoxia in viability and endothelial differentiation potential of UC-MSCs and VEGF interference.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To investigate the effect of hypoxia on cell viability and the endothelial differentiation potential in human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), and to assess the in vitro protective role of VEGF under low oxygen tension.
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous quantitation of five components of Ixeris sonchifoliain (Bge.) Hance in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of five major active ingredients of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance in rat plasma has been developed and validated. After liquid-liquid extraction of 50?L plasma with ethyl acetate, analytes and internal standard (I.S.), astilbin, were chromatographed on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5?m) using acetonitrile - 10mM ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v, pH 5.6) as mobile phase. The five analytes: chicoric acid, luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-?-d-glucuronide and I.S., were detected by negative ion electrospray ionization followed by multiple reaction monitoring of the ions with m/z 473.0?311.0, 461.0?285.0, 447.0?285.0, 609.1?285.0, 445.1?269.0 and 449.1?150.9, respectively. The method was linear for all analytes in the concentration range 10-3000ng/mL with intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation) ?8.99% and accuracy (as relative error) ?4.00%. The limits of detection (LOD) were 5, 1, 5, 5, 2ng/mL for chicoric acid, luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-?-d-glucuronide, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the five analytes in rat after a single intravenous dose of Kudiezi Injection.
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Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.
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Exendin-4 ameliorates oxidized-LDL-induced inhibition of macrophage migration in vitro via the NF-?B pathway.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Aim:To investigate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exendin-4 on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced inhibition of macrophage migration and the mechanisms underlying the effects of exendin-4.Methods:Primary peritoneal macrophages were extracted from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with 3% thioglycollate (2 mL, ip). Migration of the macrophages was examined using a cell migration assay. Macrophage migration-related factors including leptin-like ox-LDL receptor (LOX-1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin-1 (IL-1)?, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of MIF and ICAM-1 proteins was examined with ELISA. Gelatin zymography was used to evaluate the activity of MMP-9. Activation of the NF-?B pathway was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy.Results:Treatment of the macrophages with ox-LDL (50 ?g/mL) markedly suppressed the macrophage migration. Furthermore, ox-LDL treatment substantially increased the expression of the macrophage migration-related factors, the activity of MMP-9 and the translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit. These effects of ox-LDL were significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with the specific NF-?B inhibitor ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (100 ?mol/L). These effects of ox-LDL were also significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with exendin-4 (25 and 50 nmol/L).Conclusion:Exendin-4 ameliorates the inhibition of ox-LDL on macrophage migration in vitro, via suppressing ox-LDL-induced expression of ICAM-1 and MIF, which is probably mediated by the NF-?B pathway.
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Recombinant rat CC10 protein inhibits PDGF-induced airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Abnormal migration and proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in the airway cause airway wall thickening, which is strongly related with the development of airway remodeling in asthma. Clara cell 10?kDa protein (CC10), which is secreted by the epithelial clara cells of the pulmonary airways, plays an important role in the regulation of immunological and inflammatory processes. Previous studies suggested that CC10 protein had great protective effects against inflammation in asthma. However, the effects of CC10 protein on ASMCs migration and proliferation in airway remodeling were poorly understood. In this study, we constructed the pET-22b-CC10 recombinant plasmid, induced expression and purified the recombinant rat CC10 protein from E. coli by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography purification. We investigated the effect of recombinant rat CC10 protein on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation and migration. Our results demonstrated that the recombinant CC10 protein could inhibit PDGF-BB-induced cell viability, proliferation and migration. Western blot analysis showed that PDGF-BB-induced activation of cyclin D1 was inhibited by CC10. These findings implicated that CC10 could inhibit increased ASMCs proliferation, and migration induced by PDGF-BB, and this suppression effect might be associated with inhibition of cyclin D1 expression, which might offer hope for the future treatment of airway remodeling.
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Inhibition of retinal ganglion cell axonal outgrowth through the Amino-Nogo-A signaling pathway.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Nogo-A is a myelin-derived inhibitor playing a pivotal role in the prevention of axonal regeneration. A functional domain of Nogo-A, Amino-Nogo, exerts an inhibitory effect on axonal regeneration, although the mechanism is unclear. The present study investigated the role of the Amino-Nogo-integrin signaling pathway in primary retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with respect to axonal outgrowth, which is required for axonal regeneration. Immunohistochemistry showed that integrin ?v, integrin ?5 and FAK were widely expressed in the visual system. Thy-1 and GAP-43 immunofluorescence showed that axonal outgrowth of RGCs was promoted by Nogo-A siRNA and a peptide antagonist of the Nogo-66 functional domain of Nogo-A (Nep1-40), and inhibited by a recombinant rat Nogo-A-Fc chimeric protein (?20). Western blotting revealed increased integrin ?v and p-FAK expression in Nogo-A siRNA group, decreased integrin ?v expression in ?20 group and decreased p-FAK expression in Nep1-40 group. Integrin ?5 expression was not changed in any group. RhoA G-LISA showed that RhoA activation was inhibited by Nogo-A siRNA and ?20, but increased by Nep1-40 treatment. These results suggest that Amino-Nogo inhibits RGC axonal outgrowth primarily through the integrin ?v signaling pathway.
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A novel 99mTc-labeled molecular probe for tumor angiogenesis imaging in hepatoma xenografts model: a pilot study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Visualization of tumor angiogenesis using radionuclide targeting provides important diagnostic information. In previous study, we proved that an arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) peptide should be a tumor endothelial cell specific binding sequence. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate whether (99m)Tc-radiolabeled RRL could be noninvasively used for imaging of malignant tumors in vivo, and act as a new molecular probe targeting tumor angiogenesis.
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Validation study of ¹³¹I-RRL: assessment of biodistribution, SPECT imaging and radiation dosimetry in mice.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Tumor angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastasis of malignant tumors. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) peptide is a tumor endothelial cell-specific binding sequence that may be used as a molecular probe for the imaging of malignant tumors in vivo. The aim of the present study was to further explore the characteristics of 131I?RRL by biodistribution tests, and to estimate the radiation dosimetry of 131I?RRL for humans using mice data. The RRL peptide was radiolabeled with 131I by a chloramine-T (CH-T) method. The radiolabeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were then characterized in vitro. 131I?RRL was injected intravenously into B16 xenograft-bearing Kunming mice. Biodistribution analysis and in vivo imaging were performed periodically. The radiation dosimetry in humans was calculated according to the organ distribution and the standard medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method in mice. All data were analyzed by statistical and MIRDOSE 3.1 software. The labeling efficiency of 131I?RRL reached 70.0±2.91% (n=5), and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95% following purification. In mice bearing B16 xenografts, 131I?RRL rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidneys, the stomach and the tumor tissue. The specific uptake of 131I?RRL in the tumor increased over time and was significantly higher than that of the other organs, 24-72 h following injection (P<0.05). The ratio of tumor-to-skeletal muscle (T/SM) tissue exceeded 4.75, and the ratio of the tumor-to-blood (T/B) tissue peaked at 3.36. In the single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of Kunming mice bearing B16 xenografts, the tumors were clearly identifiable at 6 h, and significant uptake was evident 24-72 h following administration of 131I?RRL. The effective dose for the adult male dosimetric model was estimated to be 0.0293 mSv/MBq. Higher absorbed doses were estimated for the stomach (0.102 mGy/MBq), the small intestines (0.0699 mGy/MBq), the kidneys (0.0611 mGy/MBq) and the liver (0.055 mGy/MBq). These results highlight the potential of 131I?RRL as a ligand for the SPECT imaging of tumors. Administration of 131I?RRL led to a reasonable radiation dose burden and was safe for human use.
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Association of rs7903146 (IVS3C/T) and rs290487 (IVS3C/T) polymorphisms in TCF7L2 with type 2 diabetes in 9,619 Han Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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We aimed to replicate the association of the rs290487 (IVS3C/T) and rs7903146 (IVS3C/T) polymorphisms of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Han Chinese people in Henan province, China.
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Retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma during pregnancy.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) during pregnancy is rare. We present a case of retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for RCC in a 32-year-old pregnant female. The tumor was excised en bloc. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy appears to be a feasible and safe treatment option for RCC in pregnancy.
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Differentiation of hUC-MSC into dopaminergic-like cells after transduction with hepatocyte growth factor.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative condition causing significant disability and thus negatively impacting quality of life. The recent advent of stem cell-based therapy has heralded the prospect of a potential restorative treatment option for PD. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (hUC-MSCs) have great potential for developing a therapeutic agent as such. Furthermore, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which shows mitogenic and morphogenetic activities in a variety of cells, including MSC, and may be implicated in the pathophysiology of PD. As such, HGF may represent a new therapeutic target for the disease. In this study, we successfully isolated and facilitated the transduction of an adenoviral vector expressing HGF (Ad-HGF) into isolated hUC-MSCs. Following transduction, the hUC-MSCs can differentiate into dopaminergic neuron-like cells secreting dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine transporter. Our data suggest that hUC-MSCs have the ability to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons after transduction with Ad-HGF, providing encouraging evidence to further explore this approach to the treatment of PD.
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Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate versus transurethral resection of the prostate: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) versus transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for relief of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
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Expression of the ghrelin receptor gene in neurons of the medulla oblongata of the rat.
J. Comp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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There is ambiguity concerning the distribution of neurons that express the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the medulla oblongata. In the current study we used a sensitive nonradioactive method to investigate GHSR mRNA distribution by in situ hybridization. Strong expression of the GHSR gene was confirmed in neurons of the facial nucleus (FacN, 7), the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), and the semicompact (but not compact) nucleus ambiguus (AmbSC and AmbC). In addition, expression of GHSR was found in other regions, where it had not been described before. GHSR-positive neurons were observed in the gustatory rostral nucleus tractus solitarius and in areas involved in vestibulo-ocular processing (such as the medial vestibular nucleus and the nucleus abducens). GHSR expression was also noted in ventral areas associated with cardiorespiratory control, including the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla, the (pre)-Bötzinger complex, and the rostral and caudal ventrolateral respiratory group. However, GHSR-positive neurons in ventrolateral areas did not express markers for cardiovascular presympathetic vasomotor neurons, respiratory propriobulbar rhythmogenic neurons, or sensory interneurons. GHSR-positive cells were intermingled with catecholamine neurons in the dorsal vagal complex but these populations did not overlap. Thus, the ghrelin receptor occurs in the medulla oblongata in 1) second-order sensory neurons processing gustatory, vestibulo-ocular, and visceral sensation; 2) cholinergic somatomotor neurons of the FacN and autonomic preganglionic neurons of the DMNX and AmbSC; 3) cardiovascular neurons in the DVC, Gi, and LPGi; 4) neurons of as yet unknown function in the ventrolateral medulla.
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Development of ceftriaxone resistance affects the virulence properties of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Development of antibiotic resistance may alter the virulence properties of bacterial organisms. In this study, nine clinical ceftriaxone-susceptible Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of ceftriaxone in culture media. Mutations in virulence-associated genes and antibiotic efflux genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The expression levels of virulence genes invA and stn as well as efflux pump genes tolC, arcA, and arcB before and after the selection were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The stepwise selection resulted in the development of Salmonella strains that were highly resistant to ceftriaxone. Sequence analysis did not reveal any mutations or deletions in the examined virulence genes and regulatory gene, but a silent mutation (T423C) in acrR (encoding a repressor for the efflux pump) was detected in most of the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. The qRT-PCR revealed increased expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and decreased expression of invA and stn in the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. Moreover, decreased invasion into cultured epithelial cells and reduced growth rates were observed with the resistant strains. These results suggest that acquisition of ceftriaxone resistance is associated with the overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and leads to reduced virulence in Salmonella Typhimurium.
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Recognition of self and altered self by T cells in autoimmunity and allergy.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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T cell recognition of foreign peptide antigen and tolerance to self peptides is key to the proper function of the immune system. Usually, in the thymus T cells that recognize self MHC + self peptides are deleted and those with the potential to recognize self MHC + foreign peptides are selected to mature. However there are exceptions to these rules. Autoimmunity and allergy are two of the most common immune diseases that can be related to recognition of self. Many genes work together to lead to autoimmunity. Of those, particular MHC alleles are the most strongly associated, reflecting the key importance of MHC presentation of self peptides in autoimmunity. T cells specific for combinations of self MHC and self peptides may escape thymus deletion, and thus be able to drive autoimmunity, for several reasons: the relevant self peptide may be presented at low abundance in the thymus but at high level in particular peripheral tissues; the relevant self peptide may bind to MHC in an unusual register, not present in the thymus but apparent elsewhere; finally the relevant self peptide may be post translationally modified in a tissue specific fashion. In some types of allergy, the peptide + MHC combination may also be fully derived from self. However the combination in question may be modified by the presence of other ligands, such as small drug molecules or metal ions. Thus these types of allergies may act like the post translationally modified peptides involved some types of autoimmunity.
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Meta-analysis of associations between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Associations between transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been evaluated extensively in multiple ethnic groups. TCF7L2 has emerged as the strongest T2DM susceptibility gene in Europeans, but the findings have been inconsistent in the Chinese population. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the associations between TCF7L2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and T2DM risk in the Chinese population.
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Recruitment of histone methyltransferase G9a mediates transcriptional repression of Fgf21 gene by E4BP4 protein.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The liver responds to fasting-refeeding cycles by reprogramming expression of metabolic genes. Fasting potently induces one of the key hepatic hormones, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), to promote lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis, whereas refeeding suppresses its expression. We previously reported that the basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 (E4 binding protein 4) represses Fgf21 expression and disrupts its circadian oscillations in cultured hepatocytes. However, the epigenetic mechanism for E4BP4-dependent suppression of Fgf21 has not yet been addressed. Here we present evidence that histone methyltransferase G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent repression of Fgf21 during refeeding by promoting repressive histone modification. We find that Fgf21 expression is up-regulated in E4bp4 knock-out mouse liver. We demonstrate that the G9a-specific inhibitor BIX01294 abolishes suppression of the Fgf21 promoter activity by E4BP4, whereas overexpression of E4bp4 leads to increased levels of dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) around the Fgf21 promoter region. Furthermore, we also show that E4BP4 interacts with G9a, and knockdown of G9a blocks repression of Fgf21 promoter activity and expression in cells overexpressing E4bp4. A G9a mutant lacking catalytic activity, due to deletion of the SET domain, fails to inhibit the Fgf21 promoter activity. Importantly, acute hepatic knockdown by adenoviral shRNA targeting G9a abolishes Fgf21 repression by refeeding, concomitant with decreased levels of H3K9me2 around the Fgf21 promoter region. In summary, we show that G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent suppression of hepatic Fgf21 by enhancing histone methylation (H3K9me2) of the Fgf21 promoter.
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An experimental study on (131)I-CHIBA-1001: a radioligand for ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimers disease and depression. However, there is currently no suitable positron emission tomography (PET) or Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radioligands for imaging ?7 nAChRs in brain. Here our aim is to radiosynthesize a novel SPECT radioligand (131)I-CHIBA-1001 for whole body biodistribution study and in vivo imaging of ?7 nAChRs in brain.
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Novel mutations in the SCNN1A gene causing Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare inherited disease characterized by resistance to the actions of aldosterone. Mutations in the subunit genes (SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G) of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the NR3C2 gene encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor, result in systemic PHA1 and renal PHA1 respectively. Common clinical manifestations of PHA1 include salt wasting, hyperkalaemia, metabolic acidosis and elevated plasma aldosterone levels in the neonatal period. In this study, we describe the clinical and biochemical manifestations in two Chinese patients with systemic PHA1. Sequence analysis of the SCNN1A gene revealed a compound heterozygous mutation (c.1311delG and c.1439+1G>C) in one patient and a homozygous mutation (c.814_815insG) in another patient, all three variants are novel. Further analysis of the splicing pattern in a minigene construct showed that the c.1439+1G>C mutation can lead to the retainment of intron 9 as the 5-donor splice site disappears during post-transcriptional processing of mRNA. In conclusion, our study identified three novel SCNN1A gene mutations in two Chinese patients with systemic PHA1.
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Comparative effectiveness of cryotherapy vs brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Despite the increased popularity of emerging therapies for localised prostate cancer, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, outcomes data remains sparse beyond single-centre comparative studies. The present study identified that although less costly, cryotherapy was associated with more urinary and ED complications and a greater need for salvage ADT. Conversely, cryotherapy was associated with fewer bowel complications. Patients and providers alike should consider these population-based outcomes when discussing therapeutic options for localised prostate cancer.
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Experimental and theoretical study of a laser-diode-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4/KTP red laser with V:YAG saturable absorber.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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A laser-diode-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4/KTP red laser with V:YAG saturable absorber is realized in a V-type resonator. The dependences of the pulse repetition rate, pulse width, single-pulse energy, and peak power on the incident pump power are measured and contrasted. By assuming the intracavity photon density and the initial population-inversion density to be Gaussian spatial distributions, the space-dependent rate equations of this laser are given. The numerical solutions of the rate equations are consistent with the experimental results. In order to optimize the described system, the variations of the pulse width, peak power, single-pulse energy, and laser efficiency with the initial transmission of the saturable absorber and the ratio of the laser beam radius to the pump beam radius are also calculated, respectively.
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Applications of upconversion nanoparticles in imaging, detection and therapy.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) are an emerging class of luminescent nanomaterials, exhibiting many advantages over conventional fluorophores, such as high signal-to-noise ratio and superior photostability. The near-infrared excitation wavelengths of these particles offer additional advantages such as deep tissue penetration and low photodamage to biological samples. In the last 5 years, with the advances in nanoparticles synthesis and modification technology, much research has been performed to exploit UCNs advantages and integrate them into various biological applications. This review focuses on the recent developments of UCNs as imaging, detection and therapeutic tools, highlighting the respective strategies adopted.
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Primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic challenge.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Due to the rarity of primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), the natural history, optimal management and prognosis are poorly characterized.
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Antenatal depressive symptomatology, family conflict and social support among Chengdu Chinese women.
Matern Child Health J
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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To investigate the association between demo-socio-economic status, obstetric variables, family conflict, social support and antenatal depressive symptoms among 1,609 Chinese women from four regional public hospitals during their second trimester of pregnancy in Chengdu. The vulnerable factors of depressive symptoms were explored in terms of their demo-socio-economic, obstetric, and Chinese family relational aspects, as well as in terms of social support. The women were identified as having depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Marital conflict and parent-in-law conflict were assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Stryker Adjustment Checklist, respectively. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List was used to measure the functional aspects of the perceived availability of social support. The prevalence rates of antenatal mild to severe and severe depressive symptoms were 35.9 and 7.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that participants who had been married for a shorter time, had a single source of financial support, a poor marital and mother-in-law relationship, and who lacked social support were more likely to have mild to severe depressive symptoms (P<0.05). Participants who were younger, who had lived in Chengdu for a shorter period of time, had a shorter duration of marriage, solo financial support, poor marital relationship, and poor social support were more likely to have severe depressive symptoms (P<0.05). The findings provide important information for prenatal screening, public health and social policies to help in the reduction of antenatal depressive symptoms among the Chengdu population.
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[Urothelial hyperplastic lesion with endophytic growth pattern: a clinicopathologic study].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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To study the clinicopathologic features of urothelial hyperplastic lesion with an endophytic growth pattern and the role of immunohistochemistry and multitargeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the differential diagnosis.
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Single plus one port laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a report of 8 cases in one center.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is considered the first treatment of choice for local prostate cancer due to its minimal invasion advantage. To further achieve the goal of minimal invasion, single port laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has been developed to minimize the complications associated with puncture tracks. The aim of this study was to illustrate the technique for single port laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and evaluate its efficacy and safety. We reported 8 cases of radical prostatectomy with excellent early outcome carried out in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital from June 2009 to August 2009 using a home-made multiple instrument access port and adding an additional small incision at McBurney point.
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Identification and phylogenetic characterization of a new subfamily of ?-amylase enzymes from marine microorganisms.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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A gene encoding a starch-hydrolyzing enzyme was isolated from a marine metagenomic library and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme, designated AmyP, shows very low similarity to full-length sequences of known ?-amylases, although a catalytic domain correlated with the ?-amylase superfamily was identified. Based on the range of substrate hydrolysis and the product profile, the protein was clearly defined as a saccharifying-type ?-amylase. Sequence comparison indicated that AmyP was related to four putative glycosidases previously identified only in bacterial genome sequences. They were all from marine bacteria and formed a new subfamily of glycoside hydrolase GH13. Moreover, this subfamily was closely related to the probable genuine bacterial ?-amylases (GH13_19). The results suggested that the subfamily may be an independent clade of ancestral marine bacterial ?-amylases.
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A new subspecies of Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. with very high ethanol tolerance.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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In a search for thermophilic ethanol-tolerant bacteria, water-sediment samples collected at springs in Yunnan province of China were screened by ethanol enrichment. A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain E13(T) , was isolated. It exhibits a unique and remarkable ability to preferably grow in the presence of ethanol and is able to tolerate 13% (v/v) ethanol at 60 °C. The isolate is a facultative aerobic, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming rod that is capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources, such as xylose, arabinose and cellobiose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene similarity showed the strain to be affiliated with the species Anoxybacillus flavithermus (99.2% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 64.8% DNA-DNA relatedness between strain E13(T) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641(T) . On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it was concluded that the isolate merited classification as a novel subspecies of A. flavithermus, for which the name Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is E13(T) (=CCTCC AB2010187(T) =KCTC 13759(T) ).
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Diagnostic difficulties and treatment strategy of hepatic angiomyolipoma.
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Based on a large series of histopathologically confirmed hepatic angiomyolipomas, we retrospectively studied the typical diagnostic features of hepatic angiomyolipoma and proposed a treatment strategy for this disease.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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