JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Melatonin administered during the fetal stage affects circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus but not in the liver.
Dev Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mammalian circadian system develops gradually during ontogenesis, and after birth, the system is already set to a phase of the mothers. The role of maternal melatonin in the entrainment of fetal circadian clocks has been suggested, but direct evidence is lacking. In our study, intact or pinealectomized pregnant rats were exposed to constant light (LL) throughout pregnancy to suppress the endogenous melatonin and behavioral rhythms. During the last 5 days of gestation, the rats were injected with melatonin or vehicle or were left untreated. After delivery, daily expression profiles of c-fos and Avp in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), and Per1, Per2, Rev-erb?, and Bmal1 in the liver were measured in 1-day-old pups. Due to the LL exposure, no gene expression rhythms were detected in the SCN of untreated pregnant rats or in the SCN and liver of the pups. The administration of melatonin to pregnant rats entrained the pups' gene expression profiles in the SCN, but not in the liver. Melatonin did not affect the maternal behavior during pregnancy. Vehicle injections also synchronized the gene expression in the SCN but not in the liver. Melatonin and vehicle entrained the gene expression profiles to different phases, demonstrating that the effect of melatonin was apparently not due to the treatment procedure per se. The data demonstrate that in pregnant rats with suppressed endogenous melatonin levels, pharmacological doses of melatonin affect the fetal clock in the SCN but not in the liver. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2014.
Related JoVE Video
Development and entrainment of the colonic circadian clock during ontogenesis.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colonic morphology and function change significantly during ontogenesis. In mammals, many colonic physiological functions are temporally controlled by the circadian clock in the colon, which is entrained by the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The aim of this present study was to ascertain when and how the circadian clock in the colon develops during the perinatal period and whether maternal cues and/or the developing pup SCN may influence the ontogenesis of the colonic clock. Daily profiles of clock genes Per1, Per2, Cry1, Cry2, Rev-erb?, Bmal1 and Clock expression in the colon underwent significant modifications since embryonic day 20 (E20) through postnatal days (P) 2, 10, 20 and 30 via changes in the mutual phasing among the individual clock gene expression rhythms, their relative phasing to the light/dark regime, and their amplitudes. An adult-like state was achieved around P20. The foster study revealed that during the prenatal period, the maternal circadian phase may partially modulate development of the colonic clock. Postnatally, the absence and/or presence of rhythmic maternal care affected the phasing of the clock gene expression profiles in pups at P10 and P20. A reversal in the colonic clock phase between P10 and P20 occurred in absence of rhythmic signals from the pup SCN. The data demonstrate ontogenetic maturation of the colonic clock and stress the importance of prenatal and postnatal maternal rhythmic signals for its development. These data may contribute to the understanding of colonic function-related diseases in newborn children.
Related JoVE Video
Increased sensitivity of the circadian system to temporal changes in the feeding regime of spontaneously hypertensive rats - a potential role for bmal2 in the liver.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mammalian timekeeping system generates circadian oscillations that rhythmically drive various functions in the body, including metabolic processes. In the liver, circadian clocks may respond both to actual feeding conditions and to the metabolic state. The temporal restriction of food availability to improper times of day (restricted feeding, RF) leads to the development of food anticipatory activity (FAA) and resets the hepatic clock accordingly. The aim of this study was to assess this response in a rat strain exhibiting complex pathophysiological symptoms involving spontaneous hypertension, an abnormal metabolic state and changes in the circadian system, i.e., in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The results revealed that SHR were more sensitive to RF compared with control rats, developing earlier and more pronounced FAA. Whereas in control rats, the RF only redistributed the activity profiles into two bouts (one corresponding to FAA and the other corresponding to the dark phase), in SHR the RF completely phase-advanced the locomotor activity according to the time of food presentation. The higher behavioral sensitivity to RF was correlated with larger phase advances of the hepatic clock in response to RF in SHR. Moreover, in contrast to the controls, RF did not suppress the amplitude of the hepatic clock oscillation in SHR. In the colon, no significant differences in response to RF between the two rat strains were detected. The results suggested the possible involvement of the Bmal2 gene in the higher sensitivity of the hepatic clock to RF in SHR because, in contrast to the Wistar rats, the rhythm of Bmal2 expression was advanced similarly to that of Bmal1 under RF. Altogether, the data demonstrate a higher behavioral and circadian responsiveness to RF in the rat strain with a cardiovascular and metabolic pathology and suggest a likely functional role for the Bmal2 gene within the circadian clock.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatic, duodenal, and colonic circadian clocks differ in their persistence under conditions of constant light and in their entrainment by restricted feeding.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are temporally controlled such that they exhibit circadian rhythms. The circadian rhythms are synchronized with the environmental light-dark cycle via signaling from the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and by food intake. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which disturbance in the SCN signaling via prolonged exposure to constant light affects circadian rhythms in the liver, duodenum, and colon, as well as to determine whether and to what extent food intake can restore rhythmicity in individual parts of the GIT. Adult male rats were maintained in constant light (LL) for 30 days and fed ad libitum throughout the entire interval or exposed to a restricted feeding (RF) regime for the last 14 days in LL. Locomotor and feeding behaviors were recorded throughout the experiment. On the 30th day, daily expression profiles of clock genes (Per1, Per2, Rev-erb?, and Bmal1) and of clock-controlled genes (Wee1 and Dbp) were measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the duodenum, colon, and liver. By the end of the LL exposure, rats fed ad libitum had completely lost their circadian rhythms in activity and food intake. Daily expression profiles of clock genes and clock-controlled genes in the GIT were impaired to an extent depending on the tissue and gene studied, but not completely abolished. In the liver and colon, exposure to LL abolished circadian rhythms in expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Wee1, whereas it impaired, but preserved, rhythms in expression of Rev-erb? and Dbp. In the duodenum, all but Wee1 expression rhythms were preserved. Restricted feeding restored the rhythms to a degree that varied with the tissue and gene studied. Whereas in the liver and duodenum the profiles of all clock genes and clock-controlled genes became rhythmic, in the colon only Per1, Bmal1, and Rev-erb?-but not Per2, Wee1, and Dbp-were expressed rhythmically. The data demonstrate a greater persistence of the rhythmicity of the circadian clocks in the duodenum compared with that in the liver and colon under conditions when signaling from the SCN is disrupted. Moreover, disrupted rhythmicity may be restored more effectively by a feeding regime in the duodenum and liver compared to the colon.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal gradient in the clock gene and cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Wee1 expression along the gut.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circadian clocks were recently discovered in the rat and mouse colon as well as mouse stomach and jejunum. The aim of this study was to determine whether clocks in the upper part of the gut are synchronized with those in the lower part, or whether there is a difference in their circadian phases. Moreover, the profiles of core clock-gene expression were compared with the profiles of the clock-driven Wee1 gene expression in the upper and lower parts of the gut. Adult rats were transferred to constant darkness on the day of sampling. 24 h expression profiles of the clock genes Per1, Per2, Rev-erbalpha, and Bmal1 and the cell-cycle regulator Wee1 were examined by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction within the epithelium of the rat duodenum, ileum, jejunum, and colon. In contrast to the duodenum, the rhythms in expression of all genes but Rev-erbalpha and Bmal1 in the colon exhibited non-sinusoidal profiles. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the gene expression every 1 h within the 12 h interval corresponding to the previous lights-on was performed. The data demonstrate that rhythmic profiles of the clock gene Per1, Per2, Bmal1, Rev-erbalpha, and clock-driven Wee1 expression within the epithelium from different parts of the rat gut exhibited a difference in phasing, such that the upper part of the gut, as represented by the duodenum, was phase-advanced to the lower part, as represented by the distal colon. Our data demonstrate that the circadian clocks within each part of the gut are mutually synchronized with a phase delay in the cranio-caudal axis. Moreover, they support the view that the individual circadian clocks may control the timing of cell cycle within different regions of the gut.
Related JoVE Video
An association between clock genes and clock-controlled cell cycle genes in murine colorectal tumors.
Int. J. Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disruption of circadian machinery appears to be associated with the acceleration of tumor development. To evaluate the function of the circadian clock during neoplastic transformation, the daily profiles of the core clock genes Per1, Per2, Rev-Erb? and Bmal1, the clock-controlled gene Dbp and the clock-controlled cell cycle genes Wee1, c-Myc and p21 were detected by real-time RT-PCR in chemically induced primary colorectal tumors, the surrounding normal tissue and in the liver. The circadian rhythmicity of Per1, Per2, Rev-Erb? and Dbp was significantly reduced in tumor compared with healthy colon and the rhythmicity of Bmal1 was completely abolished. Interestingly, the circadian expression of Per1, Per2, Rev-Erb? and Dbp persisted in the colonic tissue surrounding the tumor but the rhythmic expression of Bmal1 was also abolished. Daily profiles of Wee1, c-Myc and p21 did not exhibit any rhythmicity either in tumors or in the colon of healthy animals. The absence of diurnal rhythmicity of cell cycle genes was partially associated with ageing, because young healthy mice showed rhythmicity in the core clock genes as well as in the Wee1 and p21. In the liver of tumor-bearing mice the clock gene rhythms were temporally shifted. The data suggest that the circadian regulation is distorted in colonic neoplastic tissue and that the gene-specific disruption may be also observed in the non-neoplastic tissues. These findings reinforce the role of peripheral circadian clockwork disruption for carcinogenesis and tumor progression.
Related JoVE Video
Circadian system from conception till adulthood.
Prog. Brain Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In mammals, the circadian system is composed of the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and of peripheral clocks that are located in other neural structures and in cells of the peripheral tissues and organs. In adults, the system is hierarchically organized so that the central clock provides the other clocks in the body with information about the time of day. This information is needed for the adaptation of their functions to cyclically changing external conditions. During ontogenesis, the system undergoes substantial development and its sensitivity to external signals changes. Perinatally, maternal cues are responsible for setting the phase of the developing clock, while later postnatally, the LD cycle is dominant. The central clock attains its functional properties during a gradual and programmed process. Peripheral clocks begin to exhibit rhythmicity independent of each other at various developmental stages. During the early developmental stages, the peripheral clocks are set or driven by maternal feeding, but later the central clock becomes fully functional and begins to entrain the periphery. During the perinatal period, the central and peripheral clocks seem to be vulnerable to disturbances in external conditions. Further studies are needed to understand the processes of how the circadian system develops and what degree of plasticity and resilience it possesses during ontogenesis. These data may lead to an assessment of the contribution of disturbances of the circadian system during early ontogenesis to the occurrence of circadian diseases in adulthood.
Related JoVE Video
Early chronotype and tissue-specific alterations of circadian clock function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malfunction of the circadian timing system may result in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and conversely, these diseases can impair the circadian system. The aim of this study was to reveal whether the functional state of the circadian system of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) differs from that of control Wistar rat. This study is the first to analyze the function of the circadian system of SHR in its complexity, i.e., of the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) as well as of the peripheral clocks. The functional properties of the SCN clock were estimated by behavioral output rhythm in locomotor activity and daily profiles of clock gene expression in the SCN determined by in situ hybridization. The function of the peripheral clocks was assessed by daily profiles of clock gene expression in the liver and colon by RT-PCR and in vitro using real time recording of Bmal1-dLuc reporter. The potential impact of the SHR phenotype on circadian control of the metabolic pathways was estimated by daily profiles of metabolism-relevant gene expression in the liver and colon. The results revealed that SHR exhibited an early chronotype, because the central SCN clock was phase advanced relative to light/dark cycle and the SCN driven output rhythm ran faster compared to Wistar rats. Moreover, the output rhythm was dampened. The SHR peripheral clock reacted to the dampened SCN output with tissue-specific consequences. In the colon of SHR the clock function was severely altered, whereas the differences are only marginal in the liver. These changes may likely result in a mutual desynchrony of circadian oscillators within the circadian system of SHR, thereby potentially contributing to metabolic pathology of the strain. The SHR may thus serve as a valuable model of human circadian disorders originating in poor synchrony of the circadian system with external light/dark regime.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.