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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Levonorgestrel decreased cilia beat frequency of human fallopian tubes and rat oviducts without changing the morphological structure.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Levonorgestrel, a derivative of progesterone, effectively protects women from unwanted pregnancy as an emergency contraceptive. Previous studies have not successfully determined the mechanism by which levonorgestrel acts. Here we analyzed cilia beat action and cilia morphology under levonorgestrel exposure in vitro and in vivo using both light and electron microscopy. There was a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human fallopian tubes between the mucosal explants bathed in 5 ?M levonorgestrel compared with those bathed in medium alone (P < 0.05). The CBF tended to decrease more in the ampulla relative to the isthmus but did not differ between the proliferative phase and secretory phase. In rat oviducts, levonorgestrel resulted in a similar reduction in the CBF (~10%) compared with the saline control group (P < 0.05). Histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated no changes in the percentage of ciliated cells or to the classic "9 + 2" structure of cilia by levonorgestrel treatment in either system. Thus levonorgestrel reduced the CBF without damaging cilia morphology. Decreases in the CBF may indicate a pathological role for levonorgestrel in the transportation of the ovum and zygote in the fallopian tube. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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[The study of stomatognathic muscles morphological changes after zygomatic plasty combined with mandibular angel plasty].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To investigate the morphology change of stomatognathic muscles after zygomatic plasty combined with mandibular angel plasty.
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SOX10, a novel HMG-box-containing tumor suppressor, inhibits growth and metastasis of digestive cancers by suppressing the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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SOX10 was identified as a methylated gene in our previous cancer methylome study. Here we further analyzed its epigenetic inactivation, biological functions and related cell signaling in digestive cancers (colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers) in detail. SOX10 expression was decreased in multiple digestive cancer cell lines as well as primary tumors due to its promoter methylation. Pharmacologic or genetic demethylation reversed SOX10 silencing. Ectopic expression of SOX10in SOX10-deficient cancer cells inhibits their proliferation, tumorigenicity, and metastatic potentials in vitro and in vivo. SOX10 also suppressed the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness properties of digestive tumor cells. Mechanistically, SOX10 competes with TCF4 to bind ?-catenin and transrepresses its downstream target genes via its own DNA-binding property. SOX10 mutations that disrupt the SOX10-?-catenin interaction partially prevented tumor suppression. SOX10is thus a commonly inactivated tumor suppressor that antagonizes Wnt/?-catenin signaling in cancer cells from different digestive tissues.
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[A new lanostane-type triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To study the chemical constituents of Cymbopogon citratus, isolation and purification of constituents were carried out on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and prepatative HPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified by physicchemical properties and spectral data analysis. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as 3beta-methoxy lanosta-9(11)-en-27-ol (1), 3beta-hydroxylanosta-9 (11)-en (2), (24S) -3beta-methoxylanosta-9(11), 25-dien-24-ol (3), 8-hydroxyl-neo-menthol (4), (2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-1, 6-diol (5), (+)-citronellol (6), 7-hydroxymenthol (7) and ethyl nonadecanoate(8). Compounds 1 is a new one. Compounds 2-3 are obtained from C. citratus for the first time.
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3?D Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Aerogels as Pt-Free Transparent Counter Electrodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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3D single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/graphene aerogel (NGS) was synthesized and used as an alternative to platinized fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An island-like structure formed on the FTO using the spin-coating method, leading to a transmittance (49.86?% at 671?nm). The resulting NGS-based counter electrodes (CEs) exhibited excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) (8.31?%) compared to Pt (7.56?%). Surprisingly, PCE increased to 9.64?% under assisted by a mirror; The excellent performance of DSSCs can be attributed to the high electrical conductivity and good electrocatalytic activity induced by the SWCNTs and the excellent catalytic properties of graphene, coupled with the 3D structure with a larger surface area and good surface hydrophilicity for increased electrolyte-electrode interactions and electrolyte/reactant diffusion. Hence, our results demonstrate that 3D-NGS materials have considerable potential for DSSC-related applications and merit further investigation.
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Meibomian gland dysfunction determines the severity of the dry eye conditions in visual display terminal workers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT) workers.
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Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in women with planned pregnancy: a case-control study.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To explore the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) in women with planned pregnancy.
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[Study and analysis of light infrared detection system with dual spectrum and wide temperature range].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Because harmonic diffractive optics elements has special achromatism, athermalization and arbitrary phase modulation characteristics, an infrared detection system method with dual spectrum and wide temperature range was presented based on the most advanced infrared dual color detector which had a format of 320 X 240 and the pixel pitch of 30 microm. A hybrid refractive/ harmonic diffractive infrared detection system with dual spectrum and wide temperature range was designed. The working wavelength range was 3. 8 - 4. 2 and 8. 8 -11. 2 microm. The system was only consisted of three lenses, including one aspheric surfaces and a harmonic diffraction surface, which made the system have compact structure and light weight. In the temperature range -120 -200 degreesC, the RMS radius of spot diagram in 3. 8 approximately 4. 2 and 8. 8-11. 2 pm was 19. 07 and 17. 75 microm respectively, which is less than the pixel size of infrared detector with 30 m, the enclosed energy in 30 microm, the enclosed energy in 3. 8-4. 2 and 8. 8-11. 2 microm is 88. 7% and 82. 4% in two pixel size. The method and structure was convenient and predominant. It was proved that the design was feasible.
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Rydberg dressing evolution via Rabi frequency control in thermal atomic vapors.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We report for the first time the theoretical and experimental research on Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency and second-order fluorescence dressing evolution by Rabi frequency control in thermal atomic vapors, in which the controlled results are well explained by the dressing effect and the Rydberg excitation blockade. Based on the certification of the Rydberg excitation blockade fraction through the dependence on principle quantum number n, we obtain dressing evolution curves, consisting of single-dressing and double-dressing in local and nonlocal blockade samples by scanning the probe and dressing fields. In addition, the competition between the Rydberg dressing second-order fluorescence and fourth-order fluorescence is first investigated. A corresponding theory is presented, which is consistent with the experimental results. Such blockade evolution regularity has potential applications in quantum control, and the Rydberg dressing may be useful for investigating multiple-body interactions, as well as for inducing short range interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates.
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Determination of five sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental waters and soil by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after extraction using graphene.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A fast and novel analytical method was developed for the determination of trace levels of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples. Graphene was used as a sorbent for extraction, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification. Five sulfonylurea herbicides were preconcentrated from water samples using a graphene-loaded packed cartridge, while extraction from soil samples was performed in a single step using graphene-supported matrix solid-phase dispersion. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration plots were linear in the range between 5 and 1000 ng/L for water samples, and between 1 and 200 ng/g for soil samples. All correlation coefficients (R) were >0.99. The limits of detection for water and soil samples were 0.28-0.53 ng/L and 0.08-0.26 ng/g, respectively. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked samples of environmental water and soil, with recoveries ranging from 84.2-109.3 and 86.12-103.2%, respectively, all with relative standard deviations of <10%.
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Hyaluronic acid-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids as nanocarriers for targeted and pH-responsive anticancer drug delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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A novel nanohybrid of hyaluronic acid (HA)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated as a targeted and pH-responsive drug delivery system for controlling the release of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for tumor therapy. For the preparation, DOX was first loaded onto GO nanocarriers via ?-? stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and then it was decorated with HA to produce HA-GO-DOX nanohybrids via H-bonding interactions. In this strategy, HA served as both a targeting moiety and a hydrophilic group, making the as-prepared nanohybrids targeting, stable, and disperse. A high loading efficiency (42.9%) of DOX on the nanohybrids was also obtained. Cumulative DOX release from HA-GO-DOX was faster in pH 5.3 phosphate-buffered saline solution than that in pH 7.4, providing the basis for pH-response DOX release in the slightly acidic environment of tumor cells, while the much-slower DOX release from HA-GO-DOX than DOX showed the sustained drug-release capability of the nanohybrids. Fluorescent images of cellular uptake and cell viability analysis studies illustrated that these HA-GO-DOX nanohybrids significantly enhanced DOX accumulation in HA-targeted HepG2 cancer cells compared to HA-nontargeted RBMEC cells and subsequently induced selective cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. In vivo antitumor efficiency of HA-GO-DOX nanohybrids showed obviously enhanced tumor inhibition rate for H22 hepatic cancer cell-bearing mice compared with free DOX and the GO-DOX formulation. These studies suggest that the HA-GO-DOX nanohybrids have potential clinical applications for anticancer drug delivery.
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Effect of Anterior Thoracoscopic Release Combined with the Posterior Correction Operation on the Pulmonary Function of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Background?Anterior thoracoscopic release combined with posterior correction is a common surgery to treat idiopathic scoliosis (IS). However, whether it has detrimental effects on pulmonary function is still unknown. Aim?The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of anterior thoracoscopic release combined with posterior correction on the pulmonary function. Materials and Methods?A retrospective study of 28 (12 male, 16 female) patients with IS undergoing anterior thoracoscopic release combined with posterior correction from 2009 to 2011 was performed. The radiographic and pulmonary function evaluations were performed preoperatively and at 24 months postoperatively. Results?The average coronal Cobb angle was corrected from 88.36?±?25.6 degrees to 49.8?±?11.8 degrees, and average sagittal Cobb angle was corrected from 57.5?±?17.2 degrees to 26.3?±?4.7 degrees. The measured forced vital capacity (FVC) and total lung capacity (TLC) were significantly increased at 2 years postoperatively (3.21?±?1.18 versus 2.47?±?0.33; 4.32?±?1.41 versus 3.68?±?0.36; p?
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[Inhibition effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Microcystis aeruginosa].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To research the inhibitory effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Microcystis aeruginosa.
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Observation of ?'??+ ? ?+ ?- and ?'??+?- ?0 ?0.
M Ablikim, M N Achasov, X C Ai, O Albayrak, M Albrecht, D J Ambrose, F F An, Q An, J Z Bai, R Baldini Ferroli, Y Ban, J V Bennett, M Bertani, J M Bian, E Boger, O Bondarenko, I Boyko, S Braun, R A Briere, H Cai, X Cai, O Cakir, A Calcaterra, G F Cao, S A Cetin, J F Chang, G Chelkov, G Chen, H S Chen, J C Chen, M L Chen, S J Chen, X Chen, X R Chen, Y B Chen, H P Cheng, X K Chu, Y P Chu, D Cronin-Hennessy, H L Dai, J P Dai, D Dedovich, Z Y Deng, A Denig, I Denysenko, M Destefanis, W M Ding, Y Ding, C Dong, J Dong, L Y Dong, M Y Dong, S X Du, J Z Fan, J Fang, S S Fang, Y Fang, L Fava, C Q Feng, C D Fu, O Fuks, Q Gao, Y Gao, C Geng, K Goetzen, W X Gong, W Gradl, M Greco, M H Gu, Y T Gu, Y H Guan, A Q Guo, L B Guo, T Guo, Y P Guo, Y L Han, F A Harris, K L He, M He, Z Y He, T Held, Y K Heng, Z L Hou, C Hu, H M Hu, J F Hu, T Hu, G M Huang, G S Huang, H P Huang, J S Huang, L Huang, X T Huang, Y Huang, T Hussain, C S Ji, Q Ji, Q P Ji, X B Ji, X L Ji, L L Jiang, L W Jiang, X S Jiang, J B Jiao, Z Jiao, D P Jin, S Jin, T Johansson, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, X L Kang, X S Kang, M Kavatsyuk, B Kloss, B Kopf, M Kornicer, W Kuehn, A Kupsc, W Lai, J S Lange, M Lara, P Larin, M Leyhe, C H Li, Cheng Li, Cui Li, D Li, D M Li, F Li, G Li, H B Li, H J Li, J C Li, K Li, Lei Li, P R Li, Q J Li, T Li, W D Li, W G Li, X L Li, X N Li, X Q Li, Z B Li, H Liang, Y F Liang, Y T Liang, D X Lin, B J Liu, C L Liu, C X Liu, F H Liu, Fang Liu, Feng Liu, H B Liu, H H Liu, H M Liu, J Liu, J P Liu, K Liu, K Y Liu, P L Liu, Q Liu, S B Liu, X Liu, Y B Liu, Z A Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhiqing Liu, H Loehner, X C Lou, G R Lu, H J Lu, H L Lu, J G Lu, X R Lu, Y Lu, Y P Lu, C L Luo, M X Luo, T Luo, X L Luo, M Lv, F C Ma, H L Ma, Q M Ma, S Ma, T Ma, X Y Ma, F E Maas, M Maggiora, Q A Malik, Y J Mao, Z P Mao, J G Messchendorp, J Min, T J Min, R E Mitchell, X H Mo, Y J Mo, H Moeini, C Morales Morales, K Moriya, N Yu Muchnoi, H Muramatsu, Y Nefedov, I B Nikolaev, Z Ning, S Nisar, X Y Niu, S L Olsen, Q Ouyang, S Pacetti, M Pelizaeus, H P Peng, K Peters, J L Ping, R G Ping, R Poling, N Q, M Qi, S Qian, C F Qiao, L Q Qin, X S Qin, Y Qin, Z H Qin, J F Qiu, K H Rashid, C F Redmer, M Ripka, G Rong, X D Ruan, A Sarantsev, K Schoenning, S Schumann, W Shan, M Shao, C P Shen, X Y Shen, H Y Sheng, M R Shepherd, W M Song, X Y Song, S Spataro, B Spruck, G X Sun, J F Sun, S S Sun, Y J Sun, Y Z Sun, Z J Sun, Z T Sun, C J Tang, X Tang, I Tapan, E H Thorndike, D Toth, M Ullrich, I Uman, G S Varner, B Wang, D Wang, D Y Wang, K Wang, L L Wang, L S Wang, M Wang, P Wang, P L Wang, Q J Wang, S G Wang, W Wang, X F Wang, Y D Wang, Y F Wang, Y Q Wang, Z Wang, Z G Wang, Z H Wang, Z Y Wang, D H Wei, J B Wei, P Weidenkaff, S P Wen, M Werner, U Wiedner, M Wolke, L H Wu, N Wu, Z Wu, L G Xia, Y Xia, D Xiao, Z J Xiao, Y G Xie, Q L Xiu, G F Xu, L Xu, Q J Xu, Q N Xu, X P Xu, Z Xue, L Yan, W B Yan, W C Yan, Y H Yan, H X Yang, L Yang, Y Yang, Y X Yang, H Ye, M Ye, M H Ye, B X Yu, C X Yu, H W Yu, J S Yu, S P Yu, C Z Yuan, W L Yuan, Y Yuan, A A Zafar, A Zallo, S L Zang, Y Zeng, B X Zhang, B Y Zhang, C Zhang, C B Zhang, C C Zhang, D H Zhang, H H Zhang, H Y Zhang, J J Zhang, J Q Zhang, J W Zhang, J Y Zhang, J Z Zhang, S H Zhang, X J Zhang, X Y Zhang, Y Zhang, Y H Zhang, Z H Zhang, Z P Zhang, Z Y Zhang, G Zhao, J W Zhao, Lei Zhao, Ling Zhao, M G Zhao, Q Zhao, Q W Zhao, S J Zhao, T C Zhao, X H Zhao, Y B Zhao, Z G Zhao, A Zhemchugov, B Zheng, J P Zheng, Y H Zheng, B Zhong, L Zhou, Li Zhou, X Zhou, X K Zhou, X R Zhou, X Y Zhou, K Zhu, K J Zhu, X L Zhu, Y C Zhu, Y S Zhu, Z A Zhu, J Zhuang, B S Zou, J H Zou.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Using a sample of 1.3 × 10(9)??J/? events collected with the BESIII detector, we report the first observation of ?(')??(+)?(-)?(+)?(-) and ?(')??(+)?(-)?(0)?(0). The measured branching fractions are B(?(')??(+)?(-)?(+)?(-)) = [8.53 ± 0.69(stat.) ± 0.64(syst.)]×10(-5) and B(?(')??(+)?(-)?(0) ?(0)) = [1.82 ± 0.35(stat.) ± 0.18(syst.)] × 10(-4), which are consistent with theoretical predictions based on a combination of chiral perturbation theory and vector-meson dominance.
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Quantitative group testing-based overlapping pool sequencing to identify rare variant carriers.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have revealed that rare variants are responsible for a large portion of the heritability of some complex human diseases. This highlights the increasing importance of detecting and screening for rare variants. Although the massively parallel sequencing technologies have greatly reduced the cost of DNA sequencing, the identification of rare variant carriers by large-scale re-sequencing remains prohibitively expensive because of the huge challenge of constructing libraries for thousands of samples. Recently, several studies have reported that techniques from group testing theory and compressed sensing could help identify rare variant carriers in large-scale samples with few pooled sequencing experiments and a dramatically reduced cost.
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Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) induces the expression of chondrogenesis-related genes through TGF-? receptor II (TGFRII)-AKT-mTOR signaling in primary cultured mouse precartilaginous stem cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs) are adult stem cells which could initiate chondrocytes and bone growth. In the current study, we purified PSCs from the neonate mice' perichondrial mesenchyme through immunomagnetic beads with the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) antibody. Mouse PSCs were seeded and cultured, and their phenotype was confirmed by FGFR-3 over-expression. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) was added to induce PSCs differentiation. TGF-? increased mRNA expression of chondrogenesis-related genes (collagen type II, Sox 9, and aggrecan) in the cultured PSCs, which was abolished by TGF-? receptor II (TGFRII) lentiviral shRNA depletion. TGF-? induced AKT activation in mouse PSCs, while the PI3K/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) and the AKT specific inhibitors (perifosine and MK-2206) largely suppressed TGF-?-induced collagen II, Sox 9, and aggrecan mRNA expression. Meanwhile, the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) blocker RAD001 or the mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD-2014 also alleviated TGF-?-induced chondrogenesis-associated genes expression. Further, lentiviral shRNA depletion of SIN1 (a mTORC2 component) or mTOR inhibited TGF-?'s effect in the mouse PSCs. In conclusion, our evidence suggests that TGF-? induces the expression of chondrogenesis-related genes through TGFRII-AKT-mTOR signaling in cultured mouse PSCs.
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High transfection efficiency of quantum dot-antisense oligonucleotide nanoparticles in cancer cells through dual-receptor synergistic targeting.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Incorporating ligands with nanoparticle-based carriers for specific delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (such as antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA) to tumor sites is a promising approach in anti-cancer strategies. However, nanoparticle-based carriers remain insufficient in terms of the selectivity and transfection efficiency. In this paper, we designed a dual receptor-targeted QDs gene carrier QD-(AS-ODN+GE11+c(RGDfK)) which could increase the cellular uptake efficiency and further enhance the transfection efficiency. Here, the targeting ligands used were peptides GE11 and c(RGDfK) which could recognize epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and integrin ???3 receptors, respectively. Quantitative flow cytometry and ICP/MS showed that the synergistic effect between EGFR and integrin ???3 increased the cellular uptake of QDs carriers. The effects of inhibition agents showed the endocytosis pathway of QD-(AS-ODN+GE11+c(RGDfK)) probe was mainly clathrin-mediated. Western blot confirmed that QD-(AS-ODN+GE11+c(RGDfK)) could further enhance gene silencing efficiency compared to QD-(AS-ODN+GE11) and QD-(AS-ODN+c(RGDfK)), suggesting this dual receptor-targeted gene carrier achieved desired transfection efficiency. In this gene delivery system, QDs could not only be used as a gene vehicle but also as fluorescence probe, allowing for localization and tracking during the delivery process. This transport model is very well referenced for non-viral gene carriers to enhance the targeting ability and transfection efficiency.
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Recessive mutation identifies auxin-repressed protein ARP1, which regulates growth and disease resistance in tobacco.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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To study the molecular mechanism that underpins crosstalk between plant growth and disease resistance, we performed a mutant screening on tobacco and created a recessive mutation that caused the phenotype of growth enhancement and resistance impairment (geri1). In the geri1 mutant, growth enhancement accompanies promoted expression of growth-promoting genes, whereas repressed expression of defense response genes is consistent with impaired resistance to diseases caused by viral, bacterial, and oomycete pathogens. The geri1 allele identifies a single genetic locus hypothetically containing the tagged GERI1 gene. The isolated GERI1 gene was predicted to encode auxin-repressed protein ARP1, which was determined to be 13.5 kDa in size. The ARP1/GERI1 gene was further characterized as a repressor of plant growth and an activator of disease resistance based on genetic complementation, gene silencing, and overexpression analyses. ARP1/GERI1 resembles pathogen-associated molecular patterns and is required for them to repress plant growth and activate plant immunity responses. ARP1/GERI1 represses growth by inhibiting the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR gene ARF8, and ARP1/GERI1 recruits the NPR1 gene, which is essential for the salicylic-acid-mediated defense, to coregulate disease resistance. In conclusion, ARP1/GERI1 is an integral regulator for crosstalk between growth and disease resistance in the plant.
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[Effect of salicylic acid on polysaccharide and microcystin contents in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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To study the variation of polysaccharide (PS), which can be classified as capsule polysaccharide (EPS) and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) content of Microsystis aeruginosa under the stress of salicylic acid (SA).
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Effects of muscarinic receptor modulators on ocular biometry of guinea pigs.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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This study investigated whether pilocarpine and cyclopentolate induce changes in ocular biometry of guinea pigs, in order to understand if guinea pigs have a similar response to these two agents as humans do.
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Graphene earphones: entertainment for both humans and animals.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The human hearing range is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. However, many animals can hear much higher sound frequencies. Dolphins, especially, have a hearing range up to 300 kHz. To our knowledge, there is no data of a reported wide-band sound frequency earphone to satisfy both humans and animals. Here, we show that graphene earphones, packaged into commercial earphone casings can play sounds ranging from 100 Hz to 50 kHz. By using a one-step laser scribing technology, wafer-scale flexible graphene earphones can be obtained in 25 min. Compared with a normal commercial earphone, the graphene earphone has a wider frequency response (100 Hz to 50 kHz) and a three times lower fluctuation (±10 dB). A nonlinear effect exists in the graphene-generated sound frequency spectrum. This effect could be explained by the DC bias added to the input sine waves which may induce higher harmonics. Our numerical calculations show that the sound frequency emitted by graphene could reach up to 1 MHz. In addition, we have demonstrated that a dog wearing a graphene earphone could also be trained and controlled by 35 kHz sound waves. Our results show that graphene could be widely used to produce earphones for both humans and animals.
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Printed multilayer microtaggants with phase change nanoparticles for enhanced labeling security.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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There is an urgent need to develop taggants that can be used to identify objects, prevent fraud, and deter counterfeiting with high reliability, high capacity, and minimal effort. This paper describes a new multilayer covert taggant based on phase change nanoparticles (metals and eutectic alloys). A panel of selected nanoparticles with different melting temperatures have been added in matrix materials together with fluorescent dye and printed on substrates to form micro-/macrofeatures that contain thermal, fluorescence signature, and structural components. The multilayer taggants can greatly enhance security level for many commercial and forensic applications by their extremely large labeling capacity, coding readiness, and covertness.
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Built-in potential shift and Schottky-barrier narrowing in organic solar cells with UV-sensitive electron transport layers.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The performance of organic solar cells incorporating solution-processed titanium suboxide (TiOx) as electron-collecting layers can be improved by UV illumination. We study the mechanism of this improvement using electrical measurements and electroabsorption spectroscopy. We propose a model in which UV illumination modifies the effective work function of the oxide layer through a significant increase in its free electron density. This leads to a dramatic improvement in device power conversion efficiency through several mechanisms - increasing the built-in potential by 0.3 V, increasing the conductivity of the TiOx layer and narrowing the interfacial Schottky barrier between the suboxide and the underlying transparent electrode. This work highlights the importance of considering Fermi-level equilibration when designing multi-layer transparent electrodes.
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Cost-effective, transfer-free, flexible resistive random access memory using laser-scribed reduced graphene oxide patterning technology.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Laser scribing is an attractive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) growth and patterning technology because the process is low-cost, time-efficient, transfer-free, and flexible. Various laser-scribed rGO (LSG) components such as capacitors, gas sensors, and strain sensors have been demonstrated. However, obstacles remain toward practical application of the technology where all the components of a system are fabricated using laser scribing. Memory components, if developed, will substantially broaden the application space of low-cost, flexible electronic systems. For the first time, a low-cost approach to fabricate resistive random access memory (ReRAM) using laser-scribed rGO as the bottom electrode is experimentally demonstrated. The one-step laser scribing technology allows transfer-free rGO synthesis directly on flexible substrates or non-flat substrates. Using this time-efficient laser-scribing technology, the patterning of a memory-array area up to 100 cm(2) can be completed in 25 min. Without requiring the photoresist coating for lithography, the surface of patterned rGO remains as clean as its pristine state. Ag/HfOx/LSG ReRAM using laser-scribing technology is fabricated in this work. Comprehensive electrical characteristics are presented including forming-free behavior, stable switching, reasonable reliability performance and potential for 2-bit storage per memory cell. The results suggest that laser-scribing technology can potentially produce more cost-effective and time-effective rGO-based circuits and systems for practical applications.
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A novel breast ultrasound system for providing coronal images: System development and feasibility study.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Breast ultrasound images along coronal plane contain important diagnosis information. However, conventional clinical 2D ultrasound cannot provide such images. In order to solve this problem, we developed a novel ultrasound system aimed at providing breast coronal images. In this system, a spatial sensor was fixed on an ultrasound probe to obtain the image spatial data. A narrow-band rendering method was used to form coronal images based on B-mode images and their corresponding spatial data. Software was developed for data acquisition, processing, rendering and visualization. In phantom experiments, 20 inclusions with different size (5-20mm) were measured using this new system. The results obtained by the new method well correlated with those measured by a micrometer (y=1.0147x, R(2)=0.9927). The phantom tests also showed that this system had excellent intra- and inter-operator repeatability (ICC>0.995). Three subjects with breast lesions were scanned in vivo using this new system and a commercially available three-dimensional (3D) probe. The average scanning times for the two systems were 64s and 74s, respectively. The results revealed that this new method required shorter scanning time. The tumor sizes measured on the coronal plane provided by the new method were smaller by 5.6-11.9% in comparison with the results of the 3D probe. The phantom tests and preliminary subject tests indicated the feasibility of this system for clinical applications by providing additional information for clinical breast ultrasound diagnosis.
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Cortical bone water concentration: dependence of MR imaging measures on age and pore volume fraction.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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To quantify bulk bone water to test the hypothesis that bone water concentration (BWC) is negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and is positively correlated with age, and to propose the suppression ratio (SR) (the ratio of signal amplitude without to that with long-T2 suppression) as a potentially stronger surrogate measure of porosity, which is evaluated ex vivo and in vivo.
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Selective detection of endogenous H?S in living cells and the mouse hippocampus using a ratiometric fluorescent probe.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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As one of three gasotransmitters, the fundamental signalling roles of hydrogen sulphide are receiving increasing attention. New tools for the accurate detection of hydrogen sulphide in cells and tissues are in demand to probe its biological functions. We report the p-nitrobenzyl-based ratiometric fluorescent probe RHP-2, which features a low detection limit, high selectivity and good photostability. The emission intensity ratios had a good linear relationship with the sulphide concentrations in PBS buffer and bovine serum. Our probe was applied to the ratiometric determination and imaging of endogenous H2S in living cells. Furthermore, RHP-2 was used as an effective tool to measure endogenous H2S in the mouse hippocampus. We observed a significant reduction in sulphide concentrations and downregulated expression of cystathionine ?-synthetase (CBS) mRNA and CBS protein in the mouse hippocampus in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression model. These data suggested that decreased concentrations of endogenous H2S may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic stress depression.
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Correction of excitation profile in Zero Echo Time (ZTE) imaging using quadratic phase-modulated RF pulse excitation and iterative reconstruction.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Zero-echo Time (ZTE) imaging is a promising technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of short-T2 tissue nuclei in tissues. A problem inherent to the method currently hindering its translation to the clinic is the presence of a spatial encoding gradient during excitation, which causes the hard pulse to become spatially selective, resulting in blurring and shadow artifacts in the image. While shortening radio-frequency (RF) pulse duration alleviates this problem the resulting elevated RF peak power and specific absorption rate (SAR) in practice impede such a solution. In this work, an approach is described to correct the artifacts by applying quadratic phase-modulated RF excitation and iteratively solving an inverse problem formulated from the signal model of ZTE imaging. A simple pulse sequence is also developed to measure the excitation profile of the RF pulse. Results from simulations, phantom and in vivo studies, demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in correcting image artifacts caused by inhomogeneous excitation. The proposed method may contribute toward establishing ZTE MRI as a routine 3D pulse sequence for imaging protons and other nuclei with quasi solid-state behavior on clinical scanners.
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Observation of a charged charmoniumlike structure in e+ e- ? (D* D*)± ?? at ?s = 4.26??GeV.
M Ablikim, M N Achasov, O Albayrak, D J Ambrose, F F An, Q An, J Z Bai, R Baldini Ferroli, Y Ban, J Becker, J V Bennett, M Bertani, J M Bian, E Boger, O Bondarenko, I Boyko, S Braun, R A Briere, V Bytev, H Cai, X Cai, O Cakir, A Calcaterra, G F Cao, S A Cetin, J F Chang, G Chelkov, G Chen, H S Chen, J C Chen, M L Chen, S J Chen, X R Chen, Y B Chen, H P Cheng, Y P Chu, D Cronin-Hennessy, H L Dai, J P Dai, D Dedovich, Z Y Deng, A Denig, I Denysenko, M Destefanis, W M Ding, Y Ding, L Y Dong, M Y Dong, S X Du, J Fang, S S Fang, L Fava, C Q Feng, P Friedel, C D Fu, J L Fu, O Fuks, Y Gao, C Geng, K Goetzen, W X Gong, W Gradl, M Greco, M H Gu, Y T Gu, Y H Guan, A Q Guo, L B Guo, T Guo, Y P Guo, Y L Han, F A Harris, K L He, M He, Z Y He, T Held, Y K Heng, Z L Hou, C Hu, H M Hu, J F Hu, T Hu, G M Huang, G S Huang, J S Huang, L Huang, X T Huang, Y Huang, T Hussain, C S Ji, Q Ji, Q P Ji, X B Ji, X L Ji, L L Jiang, X S Jiang, J B Jiao, Z Jiao, D P Jin, S Jin, F F Jing, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, M Kavatsyuk, B Kloss, B Kopf, M Kornicer, W Kuehn, W Lai, J S Lange, M Lara, P Larin, M Leyhe, C H Li, Cheng Li, Cui Li, D M Li, F Li, G Li, H B Li, J C Li, K Li, Lei Li, P R Li, Q J Li, W D Li, W G Li, X L Li, X N Li, X Q Li, X R Li, Z B Li, H Liang, Y F Liang, Y T Liang, G R Liao, X T Liao, D X Lin, B J Liu, C L Liu, C X Liu, F H Liu, Fang Liu, Feng Liu, H Liu, H B Liu, H H Liu, H M Liu, H W Liu, J P Liu, K Liu, K Y Liu, L D Liu, P L Liu, Q Liu, S B Liu, X Liu, Y B Liu, Z A Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhiqing Liu, H Loehner, X C Lou, G R Lu, H J Lu, J G Lu, X R Lu, Y P Lu, C L Luo, M X Luo, T Luo, X L Luo, M Lv, F C Ma, H L Ma, Q M Ma, S Ma, T Ma, X Y Ma, F E Maas, M Maggiora, Q A Malik, Y J Mao, Z P Mao, J G Messchendorp, J Min, T J Min, R E Mitchell, X H Mo, H Moeini, C Morales Morales, K Moriya, N Yu Muchnoi, H Muramatsu, Y Nefedov, I B Nikolaev, Z Ning, S L Olsen, Q Ouyang, S Pacetti, J W Park, M Pelizaeus, H P Peng, K Peters, J L Ping, R G Ping, R Poling, E Prencipe, M Qi, S Qian, C F Qiao, L Q Qin, X S Qin, Y Qin, Z H Qin, J F Qiu, K H Rashid, C F Redmer, G Rong, X D Ruan, A Sarantsev, M Shao, C P Shen, X Y Shen, H Y Sheng, M R Shepherd, W M Song, X Y Song, S Spataro, B Spruck, D H Sun, G X Sun, J F Sun, S S Sun, Y J Sun, Y Z Sun, Z J Sun, Z T Sun, C J Tang, X Tang, I Tapan, E H Thorndike, D Toth, M Ullrich, I Uman, G S Varner, B Wang, D Wang, D Y Wang, K Wang, L L Wang, L S Wang, M Wang, P Wang, P L Wang, Q J Wang, S G Wang, X F Wang, X L Wang, Y D Wang, Y F Wang, Y Q Wang, Z Wang, Z G Wang, Z Y Wang, D H Wei, J B Wei, P Weidenkaff, Q G Wen, S P Wen, M Werner, U Wiedner, L H Wu, N Wu, S X Wu, W Wu, Z Wu, L G Xia, Y X Xia, Z J Xiao, Y G Xie, Q L Xiu, G F Xu, Q J Xu, Q N Xu, X P Xu, Z R Xu, Z Xue, L Yan, W B Yan, Y H Yan, H X Yang, Y Yang, Y X Yang, H Ye, M Ye, M H Ye, B X Yu, C X Yu, H W Yu, J S Yu, S P Yu, C Z Yuan, Y Yuan, A A Zafar, A Zallo, S L Zang, Y Zeng, B X Zhang, B Y Zhang, C Zhang, C C Zhang, D H Zhang, H H Zhang, H Y Zhang, L Zhang, J Q Zhang, J W Zhang, J Y Zhang, J Z Zhang, R Zhang, S H Zhang, X J Zhang, X Y Zhang, Y Zhang, Y H Zhang, Z H Zhang, Z P Zhang, Z Y Zhang, G Zhao, H S Zhao, J W Zhao, Lei Zhao, Ling Zhao, M G Zhao, Q Zhao, S J Zhao, T C Zhao, X H Zhao, Y B Zhao, Z G Zhao, A Zhemchugov, B Zheng, J P Zheng, Y H Zheng, B Zhong, L Zhou, X Zhou, X K Zhou, X R Zhou, C Zhu, K Zhu, K J Zhu, S H Zhu, X L Zhu, Y C Zhu, Y S Zhu, Z A Zhu, J Zhuang, B S Zou, J H Zou, .
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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We study the process e+ e- ?(D* D*)± ?? at a center-of-mass energy of 4.26 GeV using a 827??pb(-1) data sample obtained with the BESIII detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider. Based on a partial reconstruction technique, the Born cross section is measured to be (137±9±15)??pb. We observe a structure near the (D* D*)± threshold in the ?? recoil mass spectrum, which we denote as the Zc±(4025). The measured mass and width of the structure are (4026.3±2.6±3.7)??MeV/c2 and (24.8±5.6±7.7)??MeV, respectively. Its production ratio ?(e+ e- ? Zc±(4025)?? ? (D* D*)± ??)/?(e+ e- ? (D* D*)± ??) is determined to be 0.65±0.09±0.06. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.
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A robust algorithm for thickness computation at low resolution and its application to in vivo trabecular bone CT imaging.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Adult bone diseases, especially osteoporosis, lead to increased risk of fracture which in turn is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Clinically, osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density; however, increasing evidence suggests that the microarchitectural quality of trabecular bone (TB) is an important determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. Accurate measures of TB thickness and marrow spacing is of significant interest for early diagnosis of osteoporosis or treatment effects. Here, we present a new robust algorithm for computing TB thickness and marrow spacing at a low resolution achievable in vivo. The method uses a star-line tracing technique that effectively deals with partial voluming effects of in vivo imaging with voxel size comparable to TB thickness. Also, the method avoids the problem of digitization associated with conventional algorithms based on sampling distance transform along skeletons. Accuracy of the method was examined using computer-generated phantom images, while the robustness of the method was evaluated on human ankle specimens in terms of stability across a wide range of voxel sizes, repeat scan reproducibility under in vivo conditions, and correlation between thickness values computed at ex vivo and in vivo imaging resolutions. Also, the sensitivity of the method was examined by evaluating its ability to predict the bone strength of cadaveric specimens. Finally, the method was evaluated in a human study involving 40 healthy young-adult volunteers (age: 19-21 years; 20 males and 20 females) and ten athletes (age: 19-21 years; six males and four females). Across a wide range of voxel sizes, the new method is significantly more accurate and robust as compared to conventional methods. Both TB thickness and marrow spacing measures computed using the new method demonstrated strong associations (R2 ? [0.83, 0.87]) with bone strength. Also, the TB thickness and marrow spacing measures allowed discrimination between male and female volunteers (p ? [0.01, 0.04]) as well as between athletes and nonathletes (p ? [0.005, 0.03]).
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The nicotinic cholinergic system is affected in rats with delayed carbon monoxide encephalopathy.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Delayed carbon monoxide (CO) encephalopathy may occur following recovery from acute CO poisoning. However, the mechanism of delayed neuronal injury remains unknown. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been suggested to play a role in cognitive status in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the effect of delayed neuronal CO poisoning on gene expression of nAChRs in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Behavioral effects (measured by the passive-avoidance test) and histological analyses (hematoxylin-eosin-stained hippocampal cell counts and cell death observations) were also investigated, 21 days after CO exposure for 1h (1000ppm for 40min+3000ppm for 20min). Our findings show cognitive impairment and hippocampal cell death, suggesting our rat model is suitable for studying delayed CO encephalopathy. Expression of nAChR (Chrna3, Chrna4, Chnra7, and Chrnb2) mRNA was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hippocampal Chrna3 expression was significantly decreased, and cerebellar Chrna7 expression significantly increased, in the delayed CO encephalopathy rat model. Thus, the nicotinic cholinergic system may be affected in delayed CO encephalopathy.
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Functional status of fracture victims four years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
J Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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To investigate the functional status of fracture victims 4 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
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Discovery of SCH 900188: A Potent Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase Inhibitor Prodrug As a Development Candidate.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Starting from indole-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor lead compound 1, structure modifications were performed at multiple indole substituents to improve potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Bicyclic quinazolinone was found to be the best substituent at indole nitrogen, while 4,5-furanylindole was identified as the best core. Compound 11 demonstrated excellent potency. Its C2 N,N-dimethylaminoethyl ester prodrug 12 (SCH 900188) demonstrated significant improvement in PK and was selected as the development candidate.
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Comparison of MRI methods for measuring whole-brain venous oxygen saturation.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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In this work, we compare susceptometry-based oximetry (SBO) and two T2 -based methods for estimating resting baseline SvO2 in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS).
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Observation of e+e- ? ?X(3872) at BESIII.
M Ablikim, M N Achasov, X C Ai, O Albayrak, D J Ambrose, F F An, Q An, J Z Bai, R Baldini Ferroli, Y Ban, J V Bennett, M Bertani, J M Bian, E Boger, O Bondarenko, I Boyko, S Braun, R A Briere, H Cai, X Cai, O Cakir, A Calcaterra, G F Cao, S A Cetin, J F Chang, G Chelkov, G Chen, H S Chen, J C Chen, M L Chen, S J Chen, X Chen, X R Chen, Y B Chen, H P Cheng, X K Chu, Y P Chu, D Cronin-Hennessy, H L Dai, J P Dai, D Dedovich, Z Y Deng, A Denig, I Denysenko, M Destefanis, W M Ding, Y Ding, C Dong, J Dong, L Y Dong, M Y Dong, S X Du, J Z Fan, J Fang, S S Fang, Y Fang, L Fava, C Q Feng, C D Fu, J L Fu, O Fuks, Q Gao, Y Gao, C Geng, K Goetzen, W X Gong, W Gradl, M Greco, M H Gu, Y T Gu, Y H Guan, A Q Guo, L B Guo, T Guo, Y P Guo, Y L Han, F A Harris, K L He, M He, Z Y He, T Held, Y K Heng, Z L Hou, C Hu, H M Hu, J F Hu, T Hu, G M Huang, G S Huang, J S Huang, L Huang, X T Huang, Y Huang, T Hussain, C S Ji, Q Ji, Q P Ji, X B Ji, X L Ji, L L Jiang, X S Jiang, J B Jiao, Z Jiao, D P Jin, S Jin, T Johansson, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, X L Kang, X S Kang, M Kavatsyuk, B Kloss, B Kopf, M Kornicer, W Kuehn, A Kupsc, W Lai, J S Lange, M Lara, P Larin, M Leyhe, C H Li, Cheng Li, Cui Li, D Li, D M Li, F Li, G Li, H B Li, J C Li, K Li, Lei Li, P R Li, Q J Li, T Li, W D Li, W G Li, X L Li, X N Li, X Q Li, X R Li, Z B Li, H Liang, Y F Liang, Y T Liang, D X Lin, B J Liu, C L Liu, C X Liu, F H Liu, Fang Liu, Feng Liu, H B Liu, H H Liu, H M Liu, J Liu, J P Liu, K Liu, K Y Liu, P L Liu, Q Liu, S B Liu, X Liu, Y B Liu, Z A Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhiqing Liu, H Loehner, X C Lou, G R Lu, H J Lu, H L Lu, J G Lu, X R Lu, Y Lu, Y P Lu, C L Luo, M X Luo, T Luo, X L Luo, M Lv, F C Ma, H L Ma, Q M Ma, S Ma, T Ma, X Y Ma, F E Maas, M Maggiora, Q A Malik, Y J Mao, Z P Mao, J G Messchendorp, J Min, T J Min, R E Mitchell, X H Mo, Y J Mo, H Moeini, C Morales Morales, K Moriya, N Yu Muchnoi, H Muramatsu, Y Nefedov, I B Nikolaev, Z Ning, S Nisar, X Y Niu, S L Olsen, Q Ouyang, S Pacetti, M Pelizaeus, H P Peng, K Peters, J L Ping, R G Ping, R Poling, E Prencipe, M Qi, S Qian, C F Qiao, L Q Qin, X S Qin, Y Qin, Z H Qin, J F Qiu, K H Rashid, C F Redmer, M Ripka, G Rong, X D Ruan, A Sarantsev, K Schoenning, S Schumann, W Shan, M Shao, C P Shen, X Y Shen, H Y Sheng, M R Shepherd, W M Song, X Y Song, S Spataro, B Spruck, G X Sun, J F Sun, S S Sun, Y J Sun, Y Z Sun, Z J Sun, Z T Sun, C J Tang, X Tang, I Tapan, E H Thorndike, D Toth, M Ullrich, I Uman, G S Varner, B Wang, D Wang, D Y Wang, K Wang, L L Wang, L S Wang, M Wang, P Wang, P L Wang, Q J Wang, S G Wang, W Wang, X F Wang, Y D Wang, Y F Wang, Y Q Wang, Z Wang, Z G Wang, Z H Wang, Z Y Wang, D H Wei, J B Wei, P Weidenkaff, S P Wen, M Werner, U Wiedner, M Wolke, L H Wu, N Wu, Z Wu, L G Xia, Y Xia, D Xiao, Z J Xiao, Y G Xie, Q L Xiu, G F Xu, L Xu, Q J Xu, Q N Xu, X P Xu, Z Xue, L Yan, W B Yan, W C Yan, Y H Yan, H X Yang, Y Yang, Y X Yang, H Ye, M Ye, M H Ye, B X Yu, C X Yu, H W Yu, J S Yu, S P Yu, C Z Yuan, W L Yuan, Y Yuan, A A Zafar, A Zallo, S L Zang, Y Zeng, B X Zhang, B Y Zhang, C Zhang, C B Zhang, C C Zhang, D H Zhang, H H Zhang, H Y Zhang, J J Zhang, J Q Zhang, J W Zhang, J Y Zhang, J Z Zhang, S H Zhang, X J Zhang, X Y Zhang, Y Zhang, Y H Zhang, Z H Zhang, Z P Zhang, Z Y Zhang, G Zhao, J W Zhao, Lei Zhao, Ling Zhao, M G Zhao, Q Zhao, Q W Zhao, S J Zhao, T C Zhao, X H Zhao, Y B Zhao, Z G Zhao, A Zhemchugov, B Zheng, J P Zheng, Y H Zheng, B Zhong, L Zhou, Li Zhou, X Zhou, X K Zhou, X R Zhou, X Y Zhou, K Zhu, K J Zhu, X L Zhu, Y C Zhu, Y S Zhu, Z A Zhu, J Zhuang, B S Zou, J H Zou, .
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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With data samples collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring at center-of-mass energies from 4.009 to 4.420 GeV, the process e+e-? ?X(3872) is observed for the first time with a statistical significance of 6.3?. The measured mass of the X(3872) is (3871.9 ± 0.7s tat ± 0.2 syst)??MeV/c(2), in agreement with previous measurements. Measurements of the product of the cross section ?[e+e- ? ?X(3872)] and the branching fraction B[X(3872)??+?-J/?] at center-of-mass energies 4.009, 4.229, 4.260, and 4.360 GeV are reported. Our measurements are consistent with expectations for the radiative transition process Y(4260) ? ?X(3872).
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Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars.
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Luteolin protects against high fat diet-induced cognitive deficits in obesity mice.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The epidemic and experimental studies have confirmed that the obesity can lead to neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and adversely affect cognition. Despite the numerous elucidations on the impact of obesity on cognition decline, the contributors to the impairments in obesity remain unclear. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and then randomized into four groups treated with their respective diets for 4 weeks including control diet (CD); control diet+luteolin (CDL); high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet+luteolin (HFDL). The dose of luteolin was 10mg/kg, oral. We showed that adding luteolin in high-fat diet can significantly reduce body weight gain, food intake and plasma cytokines as well as improving glucose metabolism of mice on HFD. Importantly, we showed that luteolin treatment had the effects of alleviating neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal insulin resistance in the mouse brain, restored blood adipocytokines level to normal. Furthermore, luteolin increased the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the action of synapsin I (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the cortex and hippocampus as to that the behavioral performance in Morris water maze (MWM) and step-through task were significantly improved. These results indicate a previously unrecognized potential of luteolin in alleviating obesity-induced cognitive impairment for type-2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD).
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Bone mineral (31)P and matrix-bound water densities measured by solid-state (31)P and (1)H MRI.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging because of extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors' age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, aged 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31-phosphorus ((31)P) and 1-hydrogen ((1)H) MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-computed tomography (?CT), and apparent mineral density by peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). MRI-derived densities were compared to X-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral (31)P density was 6.74 ± 1.22 mol/l (corresponding to 1129 ± 204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water (1)H density was 31.3 ± 4.2 mol/l (corresponding to 28.3 ± 3.7 %v/v). Both (31)P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity ((31)P: R(2) = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R(2) = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age ((31)P: R(2) = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density ((31)P: R(2) = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of (31)P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware.
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Citreoviridin inhibits cell proliferation and enhances apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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In some areas of China, citreoviridin (CIT) is considered one of the risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Apoptosis of endothelial cell may induce vascular endothelium injury and atherosclerosis, which result in CVD probably. In this study, we investigated the effect of CIT on apoptosis and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The MTT assay was used to determinate HUVECs proliferation. Distribution of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The Annexin-V/PI staining was used to investigate cell apoptosis. Western blotting analysis was used to indicate changes in the expression level of apoptosis-related proteins. The results indicated that CIT inhibited HUVECs proliferation and the cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase, which is associated with decreased levels of cyclinD1 and increased expression of p53 and p21. The apoptosis rate of HUVECs was improved by CIT. The expression of Bcl-2 were down-regulated after CIT treatment, whereas the levels of Bax was significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, CIT-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3, -9. These findings demonstrate that CIT inhibits cell proliferation via DNA synthesis reduction and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in HUVECs. CIT plays a pivotal role in the process of endothelial cell apoptosis, may thereby play an important role in the improvement of CVD in areas of China that have a high prevalence of CIT contamination.
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A facile fabrication of amphiphilic Janus and hollow latex particles by controlling multistage emulsion polymerization.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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In this paper, we found that morphology controllable compound latex particles could be prepared by controlling the multistage emulsion polymerization. Influences of the content of methacrylic acid (MAA) on preparing the hydrophilic cores and the particles were investigated with the observation of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results. The acorn-like latex particles were synthesized by partially encapsulated with hydrophobic polystyrene (PSt)-layer. With adding moderate polarity polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) interlayer, the hydrophilic cores could be fully encapsulated by the hydrophobic PSt-layer, and the core-shell structure formed. After alkali treatment, the acorn-like and core-shell latex particles evolved into amphiphilic Janus and hollow latex particles, respectively. The morphology of latex particles was investigated by TEM, and the forming mechanism of amphiphilic Janus and hollow latex particles was proposed.
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Frontal ostium neo-osteogenesis and patency after Draf III procedure: a computer-assisted study.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Stenosis of the frontal neo-ostium after Draf III procedure has been associated with inflammatory risk factors. However, the degree to which neo-osteogenesis contributes to postsurgical stenosis of the frontal neo-ostium is unclear.
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Chromium (VI) uptake and tolerance potential in cotton cultivars: effect on their root physiology, ultramorphology, and oxidative metabolism.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Chromium (Cr) is present in our environment as a toxic pollutant, which needs to be removed using phytoremediation technology. In present study, two transgenic cotton cultivars (J208, Z905) and their hybrid line (ZD14) were used to explore their Cr uptake and tolerance potential using multiple biomarkers approach. Four different levels of Cr (CK, 10, 50, and 100 ?M) were applied. Cr caused a significant reduction in root/shoot length, number of secondary roots, and root fresh and dry biomasses at 100 ?M. Cr accumulated more in roots and was found higher in hybrid line (ZD14) as compared with its parent lines (J208, Z905) at all Cr stress levels (10, 50, and 100 ?M). Cr translocation was less than 1 in all cultivars. Ultrastructural studies at 100 ?M Cr showed an increase in number of nuclei and vacuoles and presence of Cr dense granules in dead parts of the cell (vacuoles/cell wall). Malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total soluble proteins, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) as a whole were upregulated with elevated levels of Cr. Higher Cr uptake by roots, accelerated metabolism, and Cr sequestration in dead parts of the cell indicate that these cotton cultivars can be useful for Cr accumulation and tolerance.
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Structural and functional brain alterations in end stage renal disease patients on routine hemodialysis: a voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cognitive impairment is a well-described phenomenon in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The primary focus of this study was to examine structural and functional brain deficits in ESRD patients.
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Protective effects of combined intervention with adenovirus vector mediated IL-10 and IGF-1 genes on endogenous islet ? cells in nonobese diabetes mice with onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the protective effects of combined intervention with adenovirus vector mediated interleukin 10 (IL-10) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) genes on islet ? cells in nonobese diabetes (NOD) mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) at early stage.
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Fibrin glue-assisted for the treatment of corneal perforations using glycerin-cryopreserved corneal tissue.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the outcomes and safety of lamellar keratoplasty (LK) assisted by fibrin glue in corneal perforations.
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Association Between p53 Arg72Pro Polymorphism and the Risk of Human Papillomavirus-related Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the association between p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by conducting meta-analysis. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies until May 30, 2013. Relevant studies were selected and data were extracted by two independent authors. Overall, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses were then conducted using the Comprehensive Meta- Analysis v2.2 software. Wild-genotype ArgArg was considered as reference [odds ratio (OR) = 1.00]. Nine studies involving 1071 HNSCC cases were obtained. Meta-analysis results indicated no association between p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of HPV-related HNSCC: for Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg, OR = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-1.98; for Arg/Pro vs. Arg/ Arg, OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.97-1.72; and for (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro) vs. Arg/Arg, OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.95-1.70. These meta-analysis results were supported by subgroup and sensitivity analysis results. In conclusions, p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism is a potential marker of HP infection-related HNSCC rather than a susceptibility gene polymorphism.
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Electromagnetically induced transparency and fluorescence in blockaded Rydberg atomic system.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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We investigate the interaction between dark states and Rydberg excitation blockade by using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), fluorescence, and four-wave mixing (FWM) signals both theoretically and experimentally. By scanning the frequency detunings of the probe and dressing fields, respectively, we first observe these signals (three coexisting EIT windows, two fluorescence signals, and two FWM signals) under Rydberg excitation blockade. Next, frequency detuning dependences of these signals are obtained, in which the modulated results are well explained by introducing the dressing effects (leading to the dark states) with the corrected factor of the Rydberg excitation blockade. In addition, the variations by changing the principal quantum number n of Rydberg state shown some interesting phenomena resulting from Rydberg blockade are observed. The unique nature of such blockaded signals can have potential application in the demonstration of quantum computing.
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Density Sensitive Hashing.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Nearest neighbor search is a fundamental problem in various research fields like machine learning, data mining and pattern recognition. Recently, hashing-based approaches, for example, locality sensitive hashing (LSH), are proved to be effective for scalable high dimensional nearest neighbor search. Many hashing algorithms found their theoretic root in random projection. Since these algorithms generate the hash tables (projections) randomly, a large number of hash tables (i.e., long codewords) are required in order to achieve both high precision and recall. To address this limitation, we propose a novel hashing algorithm called density sensitive hashing (DSH) in this paper. DSH can be regarded as an extension of LSH. By exploring the geometric structure of the data, DSH avoids the purely random projections selection and uses those projective functions which best agree with the distribution of the data. Extensive experimental results on real-world data sets have shown that the proposed method achieves better performance compared to the state-of-the-art hashing approaches.
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Discovery of an irreversible HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The discovery of lead compound 2e was described. Its covalent binding to HCV NS5B polymerase enzyme was investigated by X-ray analysis. The results of distribution, metabolism and pharmacokinetics were reported. Compound 2e was demonstrated to be potent (replicon GT-1b EC50=0.003?M), highly selective, and safe in in vitro and in vivo assays.
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Kalman/Map filtering-aided fast normalized cross correlation-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A Kalman/map filtering (KMF)-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC)-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS) mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF) that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results.
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Optimization of potency and pharmacokinetics of tricyclic indole derived inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase. Identification of ester prodrugs with improved oral pharmacokinetics.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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HCV infections are the leading causes for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation in the United States. Recent advances in drug discovery have identified direct acting antivirals which have significantly improved cure rates in patients. Current efforts are directed towards identification of novel direct acting antiviral targeting different mechanism of actions which could become part of all oral therapies. We recently disclosed the identification of a novel tricyclic indole derived inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase that bound to the enzyme close to the active site. In this manuscript we describe further optimization of potency and pharmacokinetics (PK) of these inhibitors to identify compounds in low nM potency against gt-1b. These analogs also demonstrate excellent PK in rats and monkeys when administered as a dimethyl ethyl amino ester prodrug.
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[Correlation of hepatitis B virus X antigen expression with liver cell apoptosis].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To study the roles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X antigen (HBxAg) in development of HBV-related liver diseases and carcinogenesis.
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[Abnormal epithelial differentiation and tear film alteration in pterygium].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To investigate the differentiation and proliferation of the conjunctival epithelium and tear film function in pterygia.
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The influence of silica nanoparticles on ionic liquid behavior: a clear difference between adsorption and confinement.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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The phase behaviors of ionic liquids (ILs) confined in nanospace and adsorbed on outer surface of nanoparticles are expected to be different from those of the bulk. Anomalous phase behaviors of room temperature ionic liquid tributylhexadecylphosphonium bromide (P?????Br) confined in ordered mesoporous silica nanoparticles with average pore size 3.7 nm and adsorbed on outer surface of the same silica nanoparticles were reported. It was revealed that the melting points (T(m)) of confined and adsorbed ILs depressed significantly in comparison with the bulk one. The T(m) depressions for confined and adsorbed ILs are 8 °C and 14 °C, respectively. For comparison with the phase behavior of confined P?????Br, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BmimBr) was entrapped within silica nanopores, we observed an enhancement of 50 °C in T(m) under otherwise similar conditions. The XRD analysis indicates the formation of crystalline-like phase under confinement, in contrast to the amorphous phase in adsorbed IL. It was confirmed that the behavior of IL has clear difference. Moreover, the complex ?-? stacking and H-bonding do not exist in the newly proposed phosphonium-based IL in comparison with the widely studied imidazolium-based IL. The opposite change in melting point of P?????Br@SiO? and BmimBr@SiO? indicates that the cationic species plays an important role in the variation of melting point.
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Ultrastrong single-walled carbon nanotubes/ graphene oxide nanosheets hybrid network films as flexible electrode for energy storage.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Homogeneous free-standing SWCNT/GO hybrid network films were fabricated using vacuum filtration method and their performances to be used as flexible electrodes in electrochemical capacitors were studied. Firstly, the SWCNT/GO hybrid films were treated under different temperature to investigate the influence of oxygen-containing groups on GO nanosheets on capacitive performance of them. Our results showed that the content of oxygen-containing groups had great influence on the capacitive performance of SWCNT/GO hybrid films and that the film annealed at 250 degrees C under 5% H2/Ar flow displayed an optimal capacitive performance. For the film with SWCNT/GO mass ratio of 1:4, specific capacitances of 171.85, 162.9, 148.98, 133.8, 112.8 and 82.24 F/g corresponding to discharge current of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 A/g, respectively, were achieved. Secondly, the influence of mass ratio of SWCNT/GO on capacitive performance of SWCNT/GO hybrid films was also demonstrated. The hybrid films exhibited extremely high mechanical strength with tensile strength up to 461 MPa and specific capacitance of 105.2 F/g at current density of 5 A/g in case of 1:1 mass ratio of SWCNT/GO. A higher specific capacitance of 206.7 F/s at discharge current of 5A/g was obtained for the films with SWCNT/GO mass ratio of 1:8. Our SWCNT/GO hybrid network films showed good flexibility and durability over 2000 bending cycles test, indicating the potential to be used in flexible energy-storage devices.
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Vessel-wall imaging and quantification of flow-mediated dilation using water-selective 3D SSFP-echo.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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To introduce a new, efficient method for vessel-wall imaging of carotid and peripheral arteries by means of a flow-sensitive 3D water-selective SSFP-echo cardiovascular magnetic resonance pulse sequence.
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Novel analgesic peptides from the tree frog of Hyla japonica.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Two novel analgesic peptides (Analgesin-HJ, FWPVI-NH2 and Analgesin-HJ(I5T), FWPVT-NH2) were identified from the skin of the tree frog, Hyla japonica. There are 171 amino acid residues in the precursor encoding analgesin-HJs. The precursor contains 10 copies of mature peptide, which include 9 copies of analgesin-HJ and one copy of analgesin-HJ(I5T). Results from analgesic experiments using mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking, and thermal pain test indicated that this two peptides exerted comparable analgesic activities with morphine. In addition, they had ability to inhibit inflammatory factor secretion induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Considering their easy production, storage, transfer and potential analgesic activity, analgesin-HJs might be exciting leading compounds or templates for the development of novel analgesic agent. In addition, this study might facilitate to understand skin defensive mechanism of amphibians.
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3D MnO2-graphene composites with large areal capacitance for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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In this paper, we reported an effective and simple strategy to prepare large areal mass loading of MnO2 on porous graphene gel/Ni foam (denoted as MnO2/G-gel/NF) for supercapacitors (SCs). The MnO2/G-gel/NF (MnO2 mass: 13.6 mg cm(-2)) delivered a large areal capacitance of 3.18 F cm(-2) (234.2 F g(-1)) and good rate capability. The prominent electrochemical properties of MnO2/G-gel/NF are attributed to the enhanced conductivities and improved accessible area for ions in electrolytes. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) based on MnO2/G-gel/NF (MnO2 mass: 6.1 mg cm(-2)) as the positive electrode and G-gel/NF as the negative electrode achieved a remarkable energy density of 0.72 mW h cm(-3). Additionally, the fabricated ASC device also exhibited excellent cycling stability, with less than 1.5% decay after 10,000 cycles. The ability to effectively develop SC electrodes with high mass loading should open up new opportunities for SCs with high areal capacitance and high energy density.
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A novel method for preservation of human corneal limbal tissue.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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We investigated the efficacy of low-temperature airlift preservation of human corneal limbal tissue for ex vivo expansion and allograft keratolimbal transplantation.
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Hypoxia affects in vitro proliferation and differentiation of mouse corneal epithelial progenitor cell.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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This study was to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of mouse corneal epithelial progenitor cell in hypoxic airlift culture. Mouse corneal epithelial progenitor cell line progenitor cells were cultured under airlift with normoxic and hypoxic conditions for various durations up to 2 wk. Under normoxic conditions when exposed to air, the hyperproliferation and abnormal epidermal-like differentiation of mouse corneal epithelium was induced, whereas when exposed to air under hypoxic conditions, although we observed augmented proliferation, the abnormal differentiation was inhibited. The mechanism by which hypoxia prevents abnormal differentiation may involve downregulation of Wnt signaling pathways, which were inhibited in cells cultured with hypoxic airlift technique. In conclusion, hypoxia can prevent abnormal differentiation while enhancing the proliferation of corneal epithelial cells by blocking Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
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NEDD9 promotes lung cancer metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Metastasis is the major cause for high mortality of lung cancer with the underlying mechanisms poorly understood. The scaffolding protein neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) has been identified as a pro-metastasis gene in several types of cancers including melanoma and breast cancer. However, the exact role and related mechanism of NEDD9 in regulating lung cancer metastasis still remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that NEDD9 knockdown significantly inhibits migration, invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The pro-metastasis role of Nedd9 in lung cancer is further supported by studies in mice models of spontaneous cancer metastasis. Moreover, we find that NEDD9 promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion through the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) potentially via focal adhesion kinase activation. More importantly, NEDD9 expression inversely correlates with E-cadherin expression in human lung cancer specimens, consistent with the findings from in vitro studies. Taken together, this study highlights that NEDD9 is an important mediator promotes lung cancer metastasis via EMT.
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The shaping and functional consequences of the dosage effect landscape in multiple myeloma.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant proliferation of plasma B cells. Based on recurrent aneuploidy such as copy number alterations (CNAs), myeloma is divided into two subtypes with different CNA patterns and patient survival outcomes. How aneuploidy events arise, and whether they contribute to cancer cell evolution are actively studied. The large amount of transcriptomic changes resultant of CNAs (dosage effect) pose big challenges for identifying functional consequences of CNAs in myeloma in terms of specific driver genes and pathways. In this study, we hypothesize that gene-wise dosage effect varies as a result from complex regulatory networks that translate the impact of CNAs to gene expression, and studying this variation can provide insights into functional effects of CNAs.
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Identification of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes derived from HLA-DO? as a novel target for multiple myeloma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Despite the recent development of effective therapeutic agents against multiple myeloma (MM), new therapeutic approaches, including immunotherapies, remain to be developed. Here we identified novel human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 (HLA-A2)-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from a B cell specific molecule HLA-DO? (DOB) as a potential target for MM. By DNA microarray analysis, the HLA-DOB expression in MM cells was significantly higher than that in normal plasma cells. Twenty-five peptides were predicted to bind to HLA-A2 from the amino acid sequence of HLA-DOB. When screened for the immunogenicity in HLA-A2-transgenic mice immunized with HLA-DOB cDNA, 4 peptides were substantially immunogenic. By mass spectrometry analysis of peptides eluted from HLA-A2-immunoprecipitates of MM cell lines, only two epitopes, HLA-DOB232-240 (FLLGLIFLL) and HLA-DOB185-193 (VMLEMTPEL), were confirmed for their physical presence on cell surface. When healthy donor blood was repeatedly stimulated in vitro with these two peptides and assessed by antigen-specific ?-interferon secretion, HLA-DOB232-240 was more immunogenic than HLA-DOB185-193 . Additionally, the HLA-DOB232-240 -specific CTLs, but not the HLA-DOB185-193 -specific CTLs, displayed an major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted reactivity against MM cell lines expressing both HLA-A2 and HLA-DOB. Taken together, based on the physical presence on tumour cell surface and high immunogenicity, HLA-DOB232-240 might be useful for developing a novel immunotherapy against MM.
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Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID.
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Notch signal regulates corneal endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EnMT) is a cell transformation process involved in both morphogenesis and pathogenesis. EnMT of corneal endothelial cells happens after endothelial injury and during ex vivo culture. Previous studies have shown that the transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway is involved in this transition. In this study, we found that rat corneal endothelial cells could spontaneously undergo EnMT during ex vivo culture. This change in rat corneal endothelial cells was associated with Notch signaling pathway activation after the first passage, which was blocked by the Notch inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). This inhibitor also prevented transforming growth factor ?1-, ?2-, and ?3-induced EnMT and reversed transformed rat corneal endothelial cells to a normal phenotype. Furthermore, DAPT treatment blocked retrocorneal membrane formation in a rat corneal endothelium damage model. Our study indicates that the Notch signaling pathway is involved in the corneal EnMT process, which may be a novel therapeutic target for treating corneal endothelial fibrogenic disorders.
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Charge storage characteristics of Au nanocrystal memory improved by the oxygen vacancy-reduced HfO2 blocking layer.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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This study characterizes the charge storage characteristics of metal/HfO2/Au nanocrystals (NCs)/SiO2/Si and significantly improves memory performance and retention time by annealing the HfO2 blocking layer in O2 ambient at 400°C. Experimental evidence shows that the underlying mechanism can be effectively applied to reduce oxygen vacancy and suppress unwanted electron trap-assisted tunneling. A memory window of 1 V at an applied sweeping voltage of ±2 V is also shown. The low program/erase voltage (±2 V) and the promising retention performances indicate the potential application of NCs in low-voltage, non-volatile memory devices.
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Genetic variants in TERT-CLPTM1L genetic region associated with several types of cancer: a meta-analysis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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TERT-CLPTM1L genomic region has been extensively associated with several types of cancer. However, results were inconsistent. We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the association between TERT (rs2736100, rs2736098), as well as CLPTM1L (rs402710, rs401681) polymorphisms and cancer risk.
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Identifying rare variants with optimal depth of coverage and cost-effective overlapping pool sequencing.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with complex diseases although most variants identified so far explain only a small proportion of heritability, suggesting that rare variants are responsible for missing heritability. Identification of rare variants through large-scale resequencing becomes increasing important but still prohibitively expensive despite the rapid decline in the sequencing costs. Nevertheless, group testing based overlapping pool sequencing in which pooled rather than individual samples are sequenced will greatly reduces the efforts of sample preparation as well as the costs to screen for rare variants. Here, we proposed an overlapping pool sequencing to screen rare variants with optimal sequencing depth and a corresponding cost model. We formulated a model to compute the optimal depth for sufficient observations of variants in pooled sequencing. Utilizing shifted transversal design algorithm, appropriate parameters for overlapping pool sequencing could be selected to minimize cost and guarantee accuracy. Due to the mixing constraint and high depth for pooled sequencing, results showed that it was more cost-effective to divide a large population into smaller blocks which were tested using optimized strategies independently. Finally, we conducted an experiment to screen variant carriers with frequency equaled 1%. With simulated pools and publicly available human exome sequencing data, the experiment achieved 99.93% accuracy. Utilizing overlapping pool sequencing, the cost for screening variant carriers with frequency equaled 1% in 200 diploid individuals dropped to at least 66% at which target sequencing region was set to 30 Mb.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.