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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Novel Function for Hog1 SAPK in Controlling White-Opaque Switching and Mating in Candida albicans.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Candida albicans is a commensal in heathy people, but has the potential to become an opportunistic pathogen, responsible for half of all clinical infections in immunocompromised patients. Central to understanding C. albicans behavior is the white-opaque phenotypic switch, in which cells can undergo an epigenetic transition between the white state and the opaque state. The phenotypic switch regulates multiple properties including biofilm formation, virulence, mating, and fungus-host interactions. Switching between white and opaque is associated with many external stimuli, such as oxidative stress, pH and N-acetylglucosamine, and is directly regulated by the Wor1 transcriptional circuit. The Hog1 SAPK pathway is recognized as the main pathway for adapting to environmental stress in C. albicans. In this work, we first show that loss of the HOG1 gene in A/A: and ?/? cells, but not A: /? cells, results in 100% white-to-opaque switching when grown on synthetic medium, indicating that switching is repressed by the A1: /?2 heterodimer that represses WOR1 gene expression. Indeed, switching in the hog1? was dependent on WOR1, as a hog1? wor1? strain did not show switching to the opaque state. Deletion of PBS2 and SSK2 also resulted in C. albicans cells switching from white to opaque with 100% efficiency, indicating that the entire Hog1 SAPK pathway is involved in regulating this unique phenotypic transition. Interestingly, all Hog1 pathway mutants also caused defects in shmoo formation and mating efficiencies. Overall, this work reveals a novel role for the Hog1 SAPK pathway in regulating white-opaque switching and sexual behavior in C. albicans.
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[Th17 cells and aplastic anemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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During the past few years, a novel family of CD4(+)T cell lineage was detected and named as Th17 cells because of its unique ability expressing IL-17, which also can produce IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-26. Some cytokines, such as TGF-?, IL-6, L-23 may promote the differentiation of Th17 subset, whereas some cytokines, such as IL-21, IL-2, IFN-?, may have inhibitory effects. Th17 cells serving as immune effectors play an important role in autoimmune diseases caused by chronic inflammation injury. More and more studies confirmed that Th17 cells have closely correlations with the development of aplastic anemia, and may be a new target in the diagnosis, therapy, prognosis and prophylaxis of aplastic anemia.
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[Effects of anaerobic feeding period on nitrifying granular].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Alternating anoxic/oxic conditions have profound effects on both ammonium (AOB) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria. In this study the influence of alternating anoxic/oxic condition on nitrifying granules was evaluated in a laboratory-scale column-type sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The anoxic phase was extended from 10 min to 120 min by increasing the anaerobic feeding time. Granules maintained their structure and characteristics during the whole study. The amount of granules with diameter larger than 0.8 mm kept above 95% (mass fraction), and the average settling velocity of particles maintained in the range of 125-130 m x h(-1). Despite the increase in the length of anoxic phases, the values of ammonium removal and nitrite accumulation in effluent still kept at (60 +/- 5)% and (85 +/- 5)%, respectively. Moreover, in the aeration period per cycle, NH4(+) -N removal loading rates, NO2(-) -N and NO3(-) -N accumulation loading rates retained stably at 90 mg x (L x h)(-1), 70 mg x (L x h)(-1) and 15 mg x (L x h)(-1), respectively. All these results suggested the changing anoxic conditions resulted from prolonged anaerobic feeding period had no significant effects on nitrifying granules.
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[Protection of hypothermic preserved isolated rat hearts by resveratrol and its underlying mechanism].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To investigate whether resveratrol (RES) plays a protective role in hypothermic preserved isolated rat hearts and whether it is mediated by regulation of silent information regulator protein-1 (Sirt-1) expression.
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Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase activity protects against lipopolysaccharide?induced cardiac dysfunction in rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis is associated with an increased risk of mortality. The mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzyme is crucial for protecting the heart from ischemic injury. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of ALDH2 in cardiac dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male rats were treated intraperitoneally with LPS, and their stroke volume and cardiac output were evaluated using an M?mode echocardiograph. The expression levels and activity of ALDH2, nitric oxide content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, and the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) were also evaluated. Treatment with LPS (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) resulted in a steady decrease in cardiac output and stroke volume. The ALDH2 activity was decreased in a dose?dependent manner; however, the ALDH2 protein expression levels remained unchanged. Alda?1, a specific activator of ALDH2, increased the activity of ALDH2 and lessened LPS?induced cardiac dysfunction. A marked opening of the MPTP was observed 12 h following treatment with LPS, which was prevented by Alda?1. The improvement in cardiac function in response to treatment with Alda?1, was partially prevented by treatment with the MPTP inhibitor atractyloside. LPS treatment induced an increase in iNOS activation and inhibition of ALDH2 activity. The iNOS selective inhibitor, aminoguanidine, partially reversed the LPS?induced ALDH2 activity decrease and MPTP opening. These results indicate that ALDH2 activity may have a role in protecting against LPS?induced cardiac dysfunction. The potential mechanism may involve inhibition of MPTP opening and iNOS expression.
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Postoperative venous thrombotic events in Asian elderly patients with surgically treated hip fractures with and without chemoprophylaxis.
Hip Int
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Chemothromboprophylaxis for hip fracture surgery has been under-practiced in Asia. We investigate the postoperative incidence of venous thrombotic events (VTE) in elderly Asian patients with hip fractures.
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Basal cell carcinoma in Singapore: A prospective study on epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics with a secondary comparative analysis between Singaporean Chinese and Caucasian patients.
Australas. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Susceptibility to and clinical presentation of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) differ in Asian and Caucasian populations. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of BCC in a multiracial Singaporean population, with a secondary comparative analysis between Chinese and Caucasian patients.
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Different metabolic profiles of K1 serotype and non-serotype K1 and K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in oral infection mice model.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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K1 or K2 serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate caused clinical pyogenic liver abscess (KLA) infection is prevalent in many areas. It has been identified that K1 or K2 serotype K. pneumoniae isolates caused KLA infection in mice by oral inoculation. In our study, K1 serotype K. pneumoniae isolate Kp1002 with hypermucoviscosity (HV)-positive phenotype caused KLA infection in C57BL/6 mice by oral inoculation. Simultaneously, non-serotype K1 and K2 isolate Kp1014 with HV-negative phenotype failed to cause KLA infection in the same manner. It seems that gastrointestinal tract translocation is the pathway by which K1 or K2 serotype K. pneumoniae caused KLA infection. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to further analyze metabolic profile changes in mice with KLA infection. Data showed that after Kp1002 or Kp1014 oral inoculation, serum Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels significantly changed in mice. Some PC and LPC molecules showed changes both in the Kp1002 KLA group and the Kp1014 no-KLA group compared with the control group. The level of 18:1/18:2-PC significantly changed in the Kp1002 KLA group compared with the control group, but showed no change between the Kp1014 no-KLA group and the control group. The level of 18:1/18:2-PC might have been particularly affected by KLA infection caused by K1 serotype K. pneumoniae Kp1002. It may be a potential biomarker for KLA infection.
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Long-term follow-up results in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents: results from a single high-volume PCI centre.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To assess both short-term and long-term prognosis in consecutive patients with coronary heart disease treated with drug-eluting stents in a high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centre.
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[Influence of laser energy on measurement of unburned carbon in fly Ash particle flow].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The fly ash particle flow was produced by a screw feeder and then ablated by a pulse laser to create plasma. The emission spectra of fly ash were detected by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The present paper focused on the influence of laser energy on the measurement of unburned carbon. Seven groups of pulse laser in the range of 40 to 130 mJ were used to ablate the fly ash particle flow. The results show that the carbon line intensity is increased linearly with the increases in laser energy, but the SNR of carbon line increases in the range of 40 to 90 mJ and then trends to saturation, while the elimination rate of false data decreases. In this experiment, laser energy ranging from 90 to 100 mJ can enhance the plasma emission signal and improve the true spectral data of fly ash particle flow. So laser energy has close correlations with the ablation of the particle flow and the carbon line intensity. Reasonable laser energy is good for the effective ablation of the fly ash particle flow to get plasma spectra signals with good SNR.
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Incidence and predictors of side-branch compromise in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction.
J Invasive Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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We aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of side-branch compromise (SBC) in patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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[Inducing-apoptosis effect of brucine on human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and its mechanism].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the inducing-apoptosis effect of brucine on human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells and its possible mechanism. The inhibition effect of brucine on growth of THP-1 cells was measured by CCK-8 method. Morphological changes of THP-1 cells treated with brucine was detected by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB)double staining. Annexin-V/PI double labeling method was used to assay the apoptosis rate of THP-1 cells. The effect of brucine on THP-1 cell cycle distribution was detected by PI single staining. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of BCL-2 and BAX. The results showed that the brucine could inhibit the THP-1 cell growth in concentration and time-dependent manners at the range of 50 to 400 µg/ml. The cells stained with AO/EB revealed that the brucine induced the nuclear chromatin condensation. After the THP-1 cells were treated with brucine of 400µg/ml for 48 hours, most nucleis were stained as orange-red, and condensed, displaying the late apoptotic cell morphology. Annexin-V/PI detection showed that brucine could induce apoptosis of THP-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, more cells in brucine-treated group were arrested at G0/G1 phase in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR detection revealed that the expression of BCL-2 was down-regulated strikingly and BAX was up-regulated. It is concluded that brucine can efficiently inhibit cell growth and block THP-1 cells in G0/G1 phase. The mechanism of THP-1 cell apoptosis induced by brucine may be related to the inhibition of BCL-2 and activation of BAX.
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[AFLP analysis on genetic diversity of Haloxylon ammodendron in China].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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To determine the genetic diversity of Haloxylon ammodendron collected from 14 sites in 5 provinces, 103 H. ammodendron samples of 12 wild populations and 2 cultivated which collected from 14 sites in 5 provinces were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA markers. PopGen32 and NTSYSpc2.1 was applied to evaluate genetic diversity of H. ammodendron populations. The average percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) of total H. ammodendron populations was 94.13%, the average Nei's gene diversity index (H(e)) from 14 populations was 0.308 0, and the Shannon's genetic diversity index (I) was 0.467 6. The results indicated that the genetic diversity of H. ammodendron populations was high. Genetic differentiation index (G(st)) was 0.313 8, and the gene flow (N(m)) was 1.093 5 at the population level. The level of gene flow of H. ammodendron showed it possessed the feature of wind-pollinated outcrossing plants. AMOVA analysis indicated that genetic variation of H. ammodendron was much higher within groups (89.34%) than that among groups (10.66%), moreover genetic variation within groups mainly occurred among populations in different producing areas (84.80%). Cluster analysis (UPGMA) was applied to generate dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distances of 14 populations. Samples from Xinjiang and Qinghai were clustered respectively as a clade for their distant genetic relationship, while Samples from Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia were clustered together for their close genetic relationship. Genetic diversity of H. ammodendron populations is high in China, and genetic differentiation among regions is small, thus abundance within this specie is high at this stage. Therefore, wild nursery and artificial cultivating in different areas are effective measures for the conservation and sustainable utilization of H. ammodendron resources.
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Draft genome sequence of Dyadobacter tibetensis type strain (Y620-1) isolated from glacial ice.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Dyadobacter tibetensis Y620-1 is the type strain of the species Dyadobacter tibetensis, isolated from ice at a depth of 59 m from a high altitude glacier in China (5670 m above sea level). It is psychrotolerant with growth temperature ranges of 4 to 35°C. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 5,313,963 bp long genome contains 4,828 protein-coding genes and 39 RNA genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Dyadobacter strain that was isolated from glacial ice. This study provides genetic information of this organism to identify the genes linked to its specific mechanisms for adaption to extreme glacial environment.
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Pediatric malignant hyperthermia: risk factors, morbidity, and mortality identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Kids' Inpatient Database.
Paediatr Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially fatal metabolic disorder. Due to its rarity, limited evidence exists about risk factors, morbidity, and mortality especially in children.
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Improved myocardial function with supplement of levosimendan to celsior solution.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing agent shown to prevent myocardical contractile depression in various heart diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of levosimendan on cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis in hypothermic preservation rat hearts. Isolated rat hearts were preserved in Celsior solution with or without levosimendan. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) recovery rate of isolated rat heart significantly decreased, and the apoptosis index increased after 9 hours of hypothermic preservation. Supplement Celsior solution with levosimendan (10 and 10 mole/L) enhanced the LVDP recovery rate and reduced apoptosis. Levosimendan inhibited the hypothermic preservation-induced calpain activation and cleavage of Bid. Levosimendam induced increased myocardial inducible nitric oxide synthase but not endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. A selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1400W, and a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate but not a sarcolemmal KATP channel blocker HMR-1098 prevented improvement effect of levosimendam on LVDP recovery rate, abolished the inhibitory effect of levosimendan on hypothermic preservation-induced activation of calpain, cleavage of Bid, and apoptosis. These data suggested that Celsior solution supplement with levosimendan improved cardiac function recovery and reduced myocyte apoptosis in hypothermic preservation rat hearts.
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Solar-blind photodetector based on LaAlO3 with low dark current.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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In this letter, metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) solar-blind photodetector was fabricated on LaAlO3 (110) substrates with Pt and Au electrodes. The substrate material was characterized by XRD and UV-visible absorption spectrum. At 10 V bias, the photodetector with Pt electrodes shows a very low dark current of 4.1 pA, which is much smaller than that of detector with Au electrodes (14.6 pA). The low dark current may be attributed to the high density steps and facets on the (110) surface as well as the large lattice mismatch at the Pt/LaAlO3 interface. The device exhibits a peak responsivity of 32.5 mA/W at 200 nm ultraviolet light, which lies in the solar-blind spectral region (200-280 nm). The reasons of low dark current and high responsivity, which were important to photodetectors, were discussed in detail.
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The role of Fe3O4 nanocrystal film in bilayer-heterojunction CuPc/C60 solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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The CuPc/C60 thin-film bilayer-heterojunction solar cells are fabricated by vacuum deposition with bathocuproine (BCP) as the exciton-blocking layer. Ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanocrystal film is inserted between the copper phthalocaynine (CuPc) layer and indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. The device performances dependent on the thickness of Fe3O4 are investigated and compared. The results show that both the short-circuit current density and fill factor are enhanced by introducing a 1 nm Fe3O4 buffer layer, leading to an increase of power conversion efficiency. The role of Fe3O4 as a buffer layer in the improvement of the device performances is studied in detail by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS).
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The short circuit current improvement in P3HT:PCBM based polymer solar cell by introducing PSBTBT as additional electron donor.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Here we demonstrate the influence of electron-donating polymer addition on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):1 -(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6) C61 (PCBM) solar cells. Poly[(4,42-bis(2-ethylhexyl) dithieno [3,2-b:22,32-d] silole)-2,6-diylalt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (PSBTBT) was chosen as the electron-donating polymer to improve the short circuit current (J(sc)) due to its distinct absorption in the near-IR range and similar HOMO level with that of P3HT. In the study, we found that J(sc) was improved for ternary blend (P3HT:PSBTBT:PCBM) solar cells. The dependence of device performance was investigated. J(sc) got decreased with increasing the ratio of PSBTBT. Result showed that J(sc) of ternary blend solar cells was improved greatly after thermal annealing at 150 degrees C, close to that of the binary blend (PSBTBT:PCBM) solar cells.
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Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from waste organics by the two-stage process: focus on the intermediate volatile fatty acids.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The two-stage process, coupling volatile fatty acids (VFAs) fermentation and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) biosynthesis, was investigated for five waste organic materials. The overall conversion efficiencies were glycerol>starch>molasses>waste sludge>protein, meanwhile the maximum P(HB/HV) (1.674 g/L) was obtained from waste starch. Altering the waste type brought more effects on VFAs composition other than the yield in the first stage, which in turn greatly changed the yield in the second stage. Further study showed that even-number carbon VFAs (or odd-number ones) had a good positive linear relationship with P(HB/HV) content of HB (or HV). Additionally, VFA producing microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing methods for five wastes, which indicated that specific species (e.g., Lactobacillus for protein; Ethanoligenens for starch; Ruminococcus and Limnobacter for glycerol) were dominant in the community for VFAs production. Potential competition among acidogenic bacteria specially involved to produce some VFA was proposed as well.
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Characterization of interleukin-33 and matrix metalloproteinase-28 in serum and their association with disease severity in patients with coronary heart disease.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To investigate serum levels of interleukin (IL)-33 and matrix metalloproteinase-28 (MMP-28) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and to evaluate their association with disease severity.
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Clinical Outcome of Middle Thoracic Esophageal Cancer with Intrathoracic or Cervical Anastomosis.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Backgrounds?What is the optimal way for the middle esophageal cancer? It is still controversial. In this study, the clinical outcome of middle thoracic esophageal cancer with either intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis was analyzed in our department. Patients and Methods?A total of 205 patients who suffered from middle thoracic esophageal cancer were divided into two groups. In group A, 91 patients received intrathoracic anastomosis above aortic arch after esophageal resection via single left thoracotomy, and in group B, 114 patients received cervical anastomosis after esophageal resection via right thoracotomy and median laparotomy. Data of these patients were collected, and morbidity and mortality were analyzed retrospectively. Survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons between groups were performed with log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox model to look for independent predictors of survival. Results?Postoperative complications occurred more frequently in group B, such as hemorrhage (p?=?0.011), wound infection (p?=?0.032), and temporary paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (p?=?0.001). Morbidity of anastomotic leak was higher in group B (8.8 vs. 2.2%; p?=?0.048), but the associated mortality was not increased. The extent of radical esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy was much greater in group B; therefore, longer esophagus was resected that reduced the cancer residual rate, and more positive lymph nodes were detected that enhanced the accuracy of clinical staging. Fortunately, more patients received adjuvant therapy after operation in group B, and the 5-year survival rate was improved. Conclusion?Anastomotic leak rate was higher in cervical anastomosis but with lower mortality. The 5-year survival rate was improved in cervical anastomosis group. The present data support the assumption that cervical anastomosis is a safer and more beneficial procedure for patients with middle thoracic esophageal cancer.
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Association between the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 201 case-control studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The Arg194Trp polymorphism in the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) had been implicated in cancer susceptibility. The previous published data on the association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and cancer risk remained controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer susceptibility and XRCC1 Arg194Trp (59,227 cases and 81,587 controls from 201 studies) polymorphism in different inheritance models. We used odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals to assess the strength of the association. Overall, significantly increased cancer risk was found (recessive model: (odds ration [OR]?=?1.18, 95 % confidence interval [CI]?=?1.09-1.27; homozygous model: OR?=?1.21, 95 % CI?=?1.10-1.33; additive model: OR?=?1.05, 95 % CI?=?1.01-1.09) when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In further stratified and sensitivity analyses, significantly increased glioma risk was found among Asians, significantly decreased lung cancer risk was found among Caucasians, and significant increased breast cancer risk was found among hospital-based studies. In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that Arg194Trp polymorphism may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, Arg194Trp polymorphism is associated with increased glioma risk among Asians, and Arg194Trp polymorphism is associated with decreased lung cancer risk among Caucasians. In addition, our work also points out the importance of new studies for Arg194Trp association in some cancer types, such as gastric, pancreatic, prostate, and nasopharyngeal cancers, where at least some of the covariates responsible for heterogeneity could be controlled, to obtain a more conclusive understanding about the function of the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism in cancer development (I (2)?>?75 %).
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Determination of the severity of underlying lesions in acute myocardial infarction on the basis of collateral vessel development.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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We aimed to address the conflict over whether the underlying lesion that leads to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is representative of low-grade or high-grade stenosis. Because the development of collateral vessels is an indication of ischemia, their presence was used as a surrogate marker for the existence of a high-grade lesion.
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Disruption of histamine H2 receptor slows heart failure progression through reducing myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Histamine H2 receptor (H2R) blockade has been reported to be beneficial for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), but the mechanisms involved are not entirely clear. In the present study, we assessed the influences of H2R disruption on left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and the mechanisms involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and calcineurin-mediated myocardial fibrosis. H2R-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery. The influences of H2R activation or inactivation on mitochondrial function, apoptosis and fibrosis were evaluated in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts as well as in murine hearts. After 4 weeks, H2R-knockout mice had higher echocardiographic LV fractional shortening, a larger contractility index, a significantly lower LV end-diastolic pressure, and more importantly, markedly lower pulmonary congestion compared with the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained in wild-type TAC mice treated with H2R blocker famotidine. Histological examinations showed a lower degree of cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in H2R-knockout mice. H2R activation increased mitochondrial permeability and induced cell apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, and also enhanced the protein expression of calcineurin, nuclear factor of activated T-cell and fibronectin in fibroblasts rather than in cardiomyocytes. These findings indicate that a lack of H2R generates resistance towards heart failure and the process is associated with the inhibition of cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis, adding to the rationale for using H2R blockers to treat patients with CHF.
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Bioinformatics analyses combined microarray identify the deregulated microRNAs in oral cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. The overexpression of oncogenic miRNAs or the underexpression of tumor suppressor miRNAs exhibits a critical function in the tumorigenesis of oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs), which may differentiate oral cancer from normal tissues, as well as the molecular signatures that differ in tumor histology. The miRNA expression profiles of GSE28100 [the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) accession number] were downloaded from the GEO database and an independent sample t-test was used to identify statistical differences between the DE-miRNAs of the oral cancer patients and the healthy control subjects. The target genes of DE-miRNA were retrieved from the miRecords database. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed using the Search Tools for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database and Cytoscape software. A total of 15 DE-miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-15a drew specific attention. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the target genes of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 are involved in the progression of oral cancer. Furthermore, functional analysis indicated that the FGF-receptor signaling pathway was significantly upregulated in oral cancer. hsa-miR-15a is important in the regulation of oral cancer and thus, may present a potential biomarker for the prediction of oral cancer progression.
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Reduced growth and proliferation dynamics of nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells in nasal polyps in vitro.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Basal cells in nasal epithelium have stemness/progenitor characters and play essential roles in the epithelial remodeling in nasal polyps (NP). We investigate whether the human nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (hNESPCs) from patients with NP are inherently distinct from those obtained from healthy controls. Epithelial basal cells were isolated and cultured for four passages from NP tissues and control nasal mucosa. hNESPCs from controls were stained positively with stem cell marker p63 and KRT5 and presented a consistent high Ki67 expression level over four passages. In contrast, hNESPCs from NP patients showed: i). a reduced growth and proliferation rate at each passage by evaluating colony-forming efficiency and doubling time; ii). a lower percentage of Ki67(+) cells among p63(+) cells in the colonies in late passages, which was also confirmed by immunostaining in the NP tissues. Thus reduced growth/proliferation dynamics in hNESPCs from NP could be an important pathological phenomenon in NP development.
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Generation of a recombinant classical swine fever virus stably expressing the firefly luciferase gene for quantitative antiviral assay.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious swine disease leading to significant economic losses worldwide. Vaccines are widely used to control the disease, and no CSFV-specific antivirals are currently available. To facilitate anti-CSFV molecule discovery, we developed a reporter virus CSFV-N(pro)Fluc stably expressing the firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene in the N(pro) gene. The reporter virus enabled more sensitive and convenient detection of the N(pro) protein expression and the viral replication by luciferase reporter assay than by traditional methods. The CSFV N(pro) protein was detectable as early as 4.5h post-infection. As a proof-of-concept for its utility in rapid antiviral screening, this reporter virus was used to quantify anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies of 50 swine sera and to assess 12 small interfering RNAs targeting different regions of the CSFV genome. The results were comparable to those obtained by traditional methods. Taken together, the reporter virus CSFV-N(pro)Fluc represents a useful tool for rapid and quantitative screening and evaluation of antivirals against CSFV.
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XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism is not associated with oral cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Several studies have investigated the association between xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln polymorphism and oral cancer. However, the impact of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism on oral cancer risk is unclear, owing to the obvious inconsistence among those studies. The aim of this study was to derive a more precise estimation of the association of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism with oral cancer by performing a meta-analysis. Data were analyzed using Stata, and publication bias was estimated. We included seven study populations, comprising 1,093 cases and 2,637controls from seven publications. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with their 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated to assess the association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and risk of oral cancer. Overall, there was no association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and oral cancer risk under all genetic models (Gln/Gln versus Lys/Lys: OR = 1.23, 95 % CI 0.78-1.96, p = 0.04; Lys/Gln + Gln/Gln versus Lys/Lys: OR = 1.13, 95 % CI 0.87-1.48, p = 0.03; Gln/Gln versus Lys/Gln + Lys/Lys: OR = 1.14, 95 % CI 0.79-1.63, p = 0.16; Lys/Gln versus Lys/Lys: OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 0.89-1.40, p = 0.131). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that there was no association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and oral cancer risk in both Asians and Caucasians. These results suggest that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism is not related to oral cancer risk. Further large and well-designed studies are required to confirm this conclusion.
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Domestic versus imported drug-eluting stents for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome.
World J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The application of coronary stents, especially drug-eluting stents (DESs), has made percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) one of important therapeutic methods for CHD. DES has reduced the in-stent restenosis to 5%-9% and significantly improved the long-term prognosis of patients with CHD. The study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of domestic drug-eluting stents (DESs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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Impairment of cilia architecture and ciliogenesis in hyperplastic nasal epithelium from nasal polyps.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Aberrant airway epithelial remodeling is one of the cardinal histopathologic features of inflammatory airway diseases, but whether it alters the mucociliary apparatus remains unknown.
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Visualization of the Npro protein in living cells using biarsenically labeling tetracysteine-tagged classical swine fever virus.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Real-time fluorescence imaging of viral proteins in living cells is a valuable means to study virus-host interactions, and tetracysteine (TC)-biarsenical technology has been used in several viruses but not in classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Here, we generated CSFV mutants vSMTC385 or vSMTC412 bearing the small TC tag (CCPGCC) in the N-terminal region of the N(pro) protein. The mutants showed growth characteristics indistinguishable from that of the wild-type virus, and retained similar N(pro) subcellular localization to that of the parent virus. Furthermore, labeling with membrane-permeable biarsenical dye resulted in the fluorescent N(pro) protein in the context of virus infection. Finally, we showed that N(pro) was localized in the cytoplasm of CSFV-infected cells at 27 h post-infection (hpi) and present in the nucleus at 48 hpi, and the nuclear import and export was clearly observed from 36.5 to 37 hpi. Interestingly, our results demonstrated that N(pro) transported across the nuclear pores by passive diffusion, which might be prevented by exogenous interferon regulatory factor 3 interacting with N(pro). Taken together, biarsenical labeling allows real-time visualization of the nucleus import and export of the fluorescent N(pro) protein in CSFV-infected living cells.
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The role of noncoding regions of classical swine fever virus C-strain in its adaptation to the rabbit.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Classical swine fever (CSF) is a devastating disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). C-strain, a modified live vaccine against CSF, was developed through hundreds of passages of a highly virulent CSFV in the rabbit in China in the mid-1950s. To identify the role of noncoding regions (NCRs) of C-strain in its adaptation to the rabbit, we generated and evaluated a series of chimeric viruses derived from C-strain and the highly virulent Shimen strain. The results demonstrated that the NCRs of the C-strain were essential for its fever induction in rabbits and the coding region but not NCRs was necessary for its replication in the spleen of rabbits.
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Association between the CYP1A1 T3801C polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 268 case-control studies.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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T3801C is a common polymorphism in CYP1A1, showing differences in its biological functions. Case-control studies have been performed to elucidate the role of T3801C in cancer, although the results are conflicting and heterogeneous. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer susceptibility and T3801C (55,963 cases and 76,631 controls from 268 studies) polymorphism in different inheritance models.We used odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to assess the strength of the association. Overall, significantly increased cancer risk was observed in any genetic model (dominant model: odds ratio [OR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.09–1.19; recessive model: OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.12–1.34; CC vs. TT: OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.19–1.45; TC vs. TT: OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.07–1.18; additive model: OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.09–1.19) when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In further stratified and sensitivity analyses, the elevated risk remained for subgroups of cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, hepatocellular cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer. In addition, significantly decreased colorectal cancer risk was also observed. In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that the participation of CYP1A1 T3801C is a genetic susceptibility for some cancer types.Moreover, our work also points out the importance of new studies for T3801C association in some cancer types, such as gallbladder cancer, Asians of acute myeloid leukemia, and thyroid cancer, where at least some of the covariates responsible for heterogeneity could be controlled, to obtain a more conclusive understanding about the function of the CYP1A1 T3801C polymorphism in cancer development.
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Effect of vitamin E supplementation on aminotransferase levels in patients with NAFLD, NASH, and CHC: results from a meta-analysis.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The antioxidant vitamin E has been extensively employed to treat chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin E supplementation in lowering alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
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Reprint of "induction of heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats".
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To explore the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on vascular dysfunction in high fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats.
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Induction of heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To explore the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on vascular dysfunction in high fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats.
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Combined antegrade femoral artery and retrograde popliteal artery recanalization for chronic occlusions of the superficial femoral artery.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dual femoral-popliteal approach in the supine position after failed antegrade recanalization attempts in chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA).
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Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We report a new semitransparent inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) with a structure of glass/FTO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag/MoO3. Because high-temperature annealing which decreased the conductivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) must be handled in the process of preparation of nanocrystalline titanium oxide (nc-TiO2), we replace glass/ITO with a glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to improve the device performance. The experimental results show that the replacing FTO substrate enhances light transmittance between 400 and 600 nm and does not change sheet resistance after annealing treatment. The dependence of device performances on resistivity, light transmittance, and thickness of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 film was investigated. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for FTO substrate inverted PSCs, which showed about 75% increase compared to our previously reported ITO substrate device at different thicknesses of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode films illuminated from the FTO side (bottom side) and about 150% increase illuminated from the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 side (top side).
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Cytosolic CARP promotes angiotensin II- or pressure overload-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin accumulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The gene ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) is an enigmatic gene and may exert pleiotropic function dependent on its expression level, subcellular localization and even types of pathological stress, but it remains unclear how these factors influence the fate of cardiomyocytes. Here we attempted to investigate the role of CARP on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs), angiotensin II (Ang II) increased the expression of both calpain 1 and CARP, and also induced cytosolic translocation of CARP, which was abrogated by a calpain inhibitor. In the presence of Ang-II in NRVCs, infection with a recombinant adenovirus containing rat Ankrd1 cDNA (Ad-Ankrd1) enhanced myocyte hypertrophy, the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide and ?-myosin heavy chain genes and calcineurin proteins as well as nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. Cyclosporin A attenuated Ad-Ankrd1-enhanced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Intra-myocardial injection of Ad-Ankrd1 in mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) markedly increased the cytosolic CARP level, the heart weight/body weight ratio, while short hairpin RNA targeting Ankrd1 inhibited TAC-induced hypertrophy. The expression of calcineurin was also significantly increased in Ad-Ankrd1-infected TAC mice. Olmesartan (an Ang II receptor antagonist) prevented the upregulation of CARP in both Ang II-stimulated NRVCs and hearts with pressure overload. These findings indicate that overexpression of Ankrd1 exacerbates pathological cardiac remodeling through the enhancement of cytosolic translocation of CARP and upregulation of calcineurin.
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A new method to disperse CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays into P3HT:PCBM layer for the improvement of efficiency of inverted polymer solar cells.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We report that the efficiency of ITO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) can be improved by dispersing CdS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) in poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) layer. The CdS QDs are deposited on the TNTs by a chemical bath deposition method. The experimental results show that the CdS QD-sensitized TNTs (CdS/TNTs) do not only increase the light absorption of the P3HT:PCBM layer but also reduce the charge recombination in the P3HT:PCBM layer. The dependence of device performances on cycles of CdS deposition on the TNTs was investigated. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.52% was achieved for the inverted PSCs with 20 cyclic depositions of CdS on TNTs, which showed a 34% increase compared to the ITO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag device without the CdS/TNTs. The improved efficiency is attributed to the improved light absorbance and the reduced charge recombination in the active layer.
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Association between the XPG Asp1104His and XPF Arg415Gln polymorphisms and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The XPG (xeroderma pigmentosum type G) Asp1104His and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum type F) Arg415Gln polymorphisms had been implicated in cancer susceptibility. The previous published data on the association between XPG Asp1104His and XPF Arg415Gln polymorphisms and cancer risk remained controversial.
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MiR-519d represses ovarian cancer cell proliferation and enhances cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro by targeting XIAP.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that are believed to play fundamental roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development at the posttranscriptional level, as negative regulators of gene expression. This study was designed to evaluate the expression and anticancer effect of miR-519d in ovarian cancer.
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Red blood cell distribution width and long-term outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stenting era: a two-year cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies suggest the higher the red blood cell distribution width (RDW) the greater the risk of mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the relationship between RDW and long-term outcome in CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent (DES) remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term effect of RDW in patients treated with drug-eluting stent for CAD.
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Prevalence of human endogenous retroviral element associates with Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence rates.
Leuk Res Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human endogenous retrovirus-H (HERV-H) is implicated in leukaemias and lymphomas, but the precise molecular mechanism underlying HERV-mediated carcinogenesis remains unknown. We determined the prevalence of HERV-H in a cross-section of the Singapore population and explored the relationship between HERV-H positivity and incidence rates for Hodgkin's lymphoma in three major ethnic groups of Singapore. We observed that Malays were 1.11 times likely (95% CI=1.05-1.17; P<0.01), and Indians 1.12 times likely (95% CI=1.07-1.18; P<0.01) to be HERV-H positive when compared to Chinese. Interestingly, the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma for the three races positively correlated to the respective prevalence rate for HERV-H positivity (r=0.9921 for male; r=0.9801 for female), suggesting that viral inheritance in human may predispose certain racial origin unfavourably to malignancy.
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Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells with 5% Power Conversion Efficiency Using Photonic Crystal Reflector.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Efficient semitransparent polymer solar cells (ST-PSCs) have been fabricated with one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as a high reflector. The 1DPCs are composed of several pairs of WO3 (65.8 nm)/LiF (95.5 nm). By optimizing the pairs of WO3/LiF, 1DPCs can reflect the light back into the ST-PSCs due to the photonic band gap, when the high reflectance range of 1DPCs is matched with absorption spectrum of the active layer. ST-PSCs with 8 pairs of 1DPC exhibit an attractive performance. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE), respectively, reach to 9.76 mA/cm(2) and 5.16% compared to 8.12 mA/cm(2) and 4.24% of the reference ST-PSCs without 1DPCs. A maximum enhancement of 20.2% in Jsc is obtained and the PCE increases by ?21.7%. This approach provides a simple, fascinating and promising method to realize the highly efficient ST-PSCs toward applications.
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Effect of maternal glycemia on neonatal adiposity in a multiethnic asian birth cohort.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Context: Gestational hyperglycemia increases the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring later in life. Objective: We examined the relationship between gestational glycemia and neonatal adiposity in a multiethnic cohort of Singaporean neonates. Design: A prospective mother-offspring cohort study recruited 1247 pregnant mothers (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, 17.3% Indian) and performed 75-g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests at 26-28 weeks gestation; glucose levels were available for 1081 participants. Neonatal anthropometry (birth weight, length, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds) was measured, and percentage body fat (%BF) was derived using our published equation. Associations of maternal glucose with excessive neonatal adiposity [large for gestational age; %BF; and sum of skinfolds (?SFT) > 90th centile] were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Adjusting for potential confounders we observed strong positive continuous associations across the range of maternal fasting and 2-hour glucose in relation to excessive neonatal adiposity; each 1 SD increase in fasting glucose was associated with 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.55], 1.72 (95% CI 1.31-2.27) and 1.64 (95% CI 1.32-2.03) increases in odds ratios for large for gestational age and %BF and ?SFT greater than the 90th centile, respectively. Corresponding odds ratios for 2-hour glucose were 1.11 (95% CI 0.92-1.33), 1.55 (95% CI 1.10-2.20), and 1.40 (95% CI 1.10-1.79), respectively. The influence of high maternal fasting glucose on neonatal ?SFT was less pronounced in Indians compared with Chinese (interaction P = .005). Conclusions: A continuous relationship between maternal glycemia and excessive neonatal adiposity extends across the range of maternal glycemia. Compared with Chinese infants, Indian infants may be less susceptible to excessive adiposity from high maternal glucose levels.
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Proliferative effect and osteoinductive potential of extracellular matrix coated on cell culture plates.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Different cell/tissue derived extracellular matrix (ECM) display subtle differences that might provide important cues for proliferation and differentiation of cells in vitro or in vivo. However, the bioactivities of different ECMs in vitro were not fully understood. In this study, osteoblasts-derived and fibroblast-derived ECM-coated cell culture dishes were prepared respectively by culturing osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and rat fibroblast then decellularizing the cultures. We investigated the bioactivities of the two different ECMs coated on cell culture plates using cellular, biochemical and molecular method. The proliferative activity of the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on osteoblast-ECM was lower than for BMSCs grown on fibroblast-ECM. Compared with the BMSCs cultured on fibroblast-derived ECM, the cells grown on osteoblastic ECM showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, higher BMP-2 and osteopontin protein levels, increased secreted calcium content, and higher levels of runt-related transcriptional factor 2 (Runx 2) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA. Knockdown of BMP-2 or FGF-2 with shRNA transfection hardly effected osteoblastic differentiation or proliferation of MC3T3-E1 seeded on osteoblast-ECM or fibroblast-ECM. Therefore, the osteoblastic ECM had better osteoinductive potential and lower proliferative effect than fibroblastic ECM, and the two ECM presented enough bioactivity, knockdown of growth factors had no significant effect on differentiation and proliferation of re-seeded cells.
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Encouraging an environment to nurture lifelong learning: An Asian experience.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Introduction: Within an Asian context, this study examines the effect of changing from traditional course grades to a distinction/pass/fail (D/P/F) grading system on medical student self-perceived stress levels and on student exam performance. Methods: At the end of the 2010-2011 academic year, the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) was administered to the cohort of students finishing their first year of medical studies. For the academic year 2011-2012, the grading system was changed to D/P/F for the first year of medical school. The PSS-10 was also administered to the subsequent cohort of first-year medical students at the same point in the academic year as previous. Qualitative comments were collected for both cohorts. Results: Stress as measured by the PSS-10 was significantly lower in the cohort that went through the year with the D/P/F grading system in place. Thematic analysis of qualitative responses showed a shift in sources of student stress away from peer-competition. There were no significant differences in overall exam performance. Discussion: Within an Asian context, switching to a D/P/F grading system can alleviate stress and peer competition without compromising knowledge. This may help foster a "learning orientation" rather than an "exam orientation," and contribute to inculcating lifelong learning skills.
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Low uric acid levels in patients with Parkinsons disease: evidence from meta-analysis.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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The association between Parkinsons disease (PD) and uric acid levels has gained intensive interest in recent years. We applied meta-analysis to investigate serum uric acid levels in patients with PD in comparison with healthy controls.
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A novel synthesis of antiviral nucleoside phosphoramidate and thiophosphoramidate prodrugs via nucleoside H-phosphonamidates.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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A novel and efficient method for the preparation of antiviral nucleoside 5-H-phosphonamidates has been developed. The oxidization of the H-phosphonamidate intermediates with iodine and sulfur afforded nucleoside 5-phosphoramidates and 5-thiophosphoramidates in high yields.
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[Effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the prognostic mortality risk of invasive transitional bladder cancer: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To systematically assess the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the prognostic risk of invasive transitional bladder cancer.
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2-Di-chloro-methyl-N-ethyl-5-(1-phenyl-silolan-1-yl)cyclo-pent-3-enecarboxamide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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In the title compound, C19H25Cl2NOSi, the NH group and the carbonyl O atom of the amide fragment are involved in an inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bond forming chains of mol-ecules. The plane of the benzene ring forms a dihedral angle of 50.5?(2)° with respect to the silolane ring and an angle of 49.74?(2)° with the cyclo-pentyl moiety.
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The relationship between body mass index and physical activity levels in relation to bone mineral density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Arch Osteoporos
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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We prospectively analyzed 283 women to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity levels on bone mineral density (BMD) progression in pre- and postmenopausal women over 2 years. In postmenopausal women, lower BMI was linked with worsening BMD, and moderate activity levels were associated with a lower likelihood of worsening BMD at 2 years.
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Mutant PAX6 downregulates prohormone convertase 2 expression in mouse islets.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Transcriptional factor paired box 6 (PAX6) is very important for the development of the eyes, central nervous system, and pancreas. PAX6 mutations are associated with a diabetic phenotype and abnormal glucose metabolism. Our previous study showed that PAX6 directly bound to and activated the prohormone convertase 1/3 (Pc1/3) gene promoter and subsequently regulated proinsulin processing. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) is the essential enzyme for pancreatic proinsulin processing. To study the regulation of PAX6 in Pc2 expression, we did research on the pancreas of Pax6 R266Stop mutant mice, where truncated mutations happened in the C-terminal of the PAX6 protein. Our studies showed that the mutant PAX6 protein was stable and regulated the activity of Pc2 promoter as shown by luciferase activity assays. We found that the wild-type PAX6 protein imparts a transcriptional effect, and the mutant PAX6 can also regulate the downstream molecules. The results provide new insights into the mechanism of truncated PAX6 in regulating the functions of the pancreas and endocrine system.
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[Study on rapid start-up of a nitrifying process using aerobic granular sludge as seed sludge].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Using synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater as influent, rapid start-up of the nitrification reactor was attained in a laboratory-scale column-type sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with aerobic granular sludge, by gradually increasing the influent NH4(+) -N concentration (100-1000 mg x L(-1)) and decreasing the hydraulic retention time (8-4 h) under mesophilic condition (28-30 degrees C). The influent loading rate of NH4(+) -N reached 3.9 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) and the average ammonia removal efficiency was above 95% within one month. Values of ammonia oxidizing rate (AOR) as high as 5.0 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) was obtained in the following operational stage with extremely high nitrogen loading rate. Nitrite accumulation obviously occurred during the start-up period. The nitrite accumulation rate reached 2-4.5 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) from day 25 to 70. In spite of the change in the feeding composition (COD/N ratio) and the frequent fluctuations of nitrogen loading rate, the granules maintained their structures, with the SVI of 30-40 mL x g(-1). The amount of granules with diameter larger than 0.21 mm was about 93% (mass fraction) of the total on day 36. The granular color changed from yellow to brownish-yellow, and some turned brown in this study. All these results suggested the critical role of aerobic granular sludge as seed sludge for the rapid start-up of nitrifying processes and the formation of nitrifying granules.
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Antithrombotic effect of Z4A5 on coronary thrombosis in a canine model of acute unstable angina.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor is the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, regardless of the agonist, and thus represents an ideal therapeutic target for blocking coronary thrombosis. In this study, the anti-platelet and antithrombotic actions of Z4A5, a new glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, were evaluated in a canine model of acute unstable angina.
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Levels of interleukin-33 and interleukin-6 in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable angina.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable angina.
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Internal Cerebral Vein Asymmetry on Follow-up Brain Computed Tomography after Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke Is Associated with Poor Outcome.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Identifying early predictors of functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is important for planning rehabilitation strategies. Internal cerebral veins (ICV) drain deep parts of brain, run parallel to each other, and consistently seen on computed tomography angiography (CTA). Even minor asymmetry in their filling can be identified. We hypothesized that venous drainage would be impaired in patients with acute occlusion of internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery. Because systemic thrombolysis can alter the vascular findings, we evaluated the relationship between ICV asymmetry on follow-up CTA and functional outcome.
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3-Deazaneplanocin A is a promising therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Recent studies have shown that 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), a well-known histone methyltransferase inhibitor, disrupts polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and induces apoptosis, while inhibiting proliferation and metastasis, in cancer cells, including acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer and glioblastoma. However, little is known about effects of DZNep on ovarian cancer cells.
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Identification of modifiable risk factors for acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in an Asian population.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with coronary artery bypass grafting is common and increases patient morbidity and mortality. Studies have identified the lowest hematocrit during CPB, preoperative anemia, and intraoperative transfusion as modifiable AKI risk factors. Because Asians are smaller in body size, the use of standard CPB circuits can result in excessive hemodilution and subsequent transfusion to maintain the desired hematocrit target of ?21% during CPB. Thus, we aimed to ascertain whether the lowest hematocrit during CPB, preoperative anemia, and intraoperative transfusion remained as independent modifiable risk factors associated with AKI in our prospective cohort of Asians.
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Biosynthesis of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from the acclimated activated sludge and microbial characterization in this process.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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This study investigated the effects of substrate composition (acetate and propionate) on synthesis of various mix of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) from activated sludge, which was acclimated using a single carbon (acetate) and mixed carbons (acetate and propionate). Results of batch P(HB/HV) production tests indicated that the yield and synthesis rate of P(HB/HV) decreased as the proportion of propionate in the substrate increased. However, mixed-carbon-acclimated sludge with acetate and propionate exhibited better P(HB/HV) production performance than with acetate-acclimated sludge in terms of substrate utilization, yield of P(HB/HV) and HV fraction in P(HB/HV). The desired hydroxyvalerate (HV) fraction (0-74%) of the P(HB/HV) could be obtained based on the substrate composition and sludge acclimation. Furthermore, PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that specific species dominated the activated sludge used for P(HB/HV) production. Acidobacteria and Burkholderiales were the dominant bacterial populations and played an important role in HV synthesis.
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Efficacy, safety, and immunology of an inactivated alum-adjuvant enterovirus 71 vaccine in children in China: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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A vaccine for enterovirus 71 (EV71) is needed to address the high burden of disease associated with infection. We assessed the efficacy, safety, immunogenicity, antibody persistence, and immunological correlates of an inactivated alum-adjuvant EV71 vaccine.
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Simplified serum neutralization test based on enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged classical swine fever virus.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The neutralization immunofluorescence test (NIFT), currently used for detecting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is time-consuming. Here, a simplified neutralization test based on enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged CSFV (EGFP-NT) was developed for direct detection of anti-CSFV NAbs without immunostaining. The relative sensitivity and specificity between EGFP-NT and NIFT or blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were both 100%. The NAb titers by EGFP-NT and the blocking rates by blocking ELISA showed a good correlation.
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Oral everolimus inhibits intimal proliferation in injured carotid artery in rats.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Everolimus, a derivative of sirolimus, is a potent immunosuppressant that has important anti-proliferative properties. In the present study, we demonstrated the inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in injured carotid arteries in rats by using two different doses of everolimus administrated via the oral route for a long time.
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Positive impact of biofilm on reducing the permeation of ampicillin through membrane for membrane bioreactor.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has recently been the focus of research for the treatment of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics in wastewater. Although the biofilm on membrane in an MBR has been considered a cause of "membrane biofouling", its positive impact on removing pollutants has not been well-studied. This study was designed to investigate the retention effect on the permeation of ampicillin (AMP) by the biofilm coated on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane (commonly used for MBRs) utilizing a novel method based on microbial sensitivity test. The bioflim layer (thickness of 12-16?m) increased the resistance of the membrane for AMP permeation by 3-28%. Diffusion appeared to be the main driving force for the mass transfer of AMP across the membrane. Besides, the biofilm increased the retention of AMP by 23% but exhibited similar adsorption capacity with comparison of the suspended activated sludge, which indicates that the compact structure of the biofilm was the major contributor for the added retention effect on AMP by the biofilm-coated CA membrane. This study suggests that biofilm (biofouling) in MBRs increases the retention of small-molecule constituents such as antibiotics. A delicate tradeoff between reduced wastewater throughput and increased retention of contaminants should be obtained when an MBR is designed and operated.
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Dyadobacter tibetensis sp. nov., isolated from glacial ice core.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, designated Y620-1(T), was isolated from a glacier on the Tibetan Plateau, China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel isolate shared 93.6-95.1?% similarity with type strains of species of the genus Dyadobacter. The major fatty acids of strain Y620-1(T) were summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH), iso-C15?:?0, C16?:?1?5c and iso-C17?:?0 3-OH. The predominant isoprenoid quinone and polar lipid were MK-7 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), respectively. The DNA G+C content was 44.4±0.3 mol% (Tm). Flexirubin-type pigment was produced. The novel isolate was classified in the genus Dyadobacter, but a number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished the novel isolate from type strains of species of the genus Dyadobacter. From these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is evident that strain Y620-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Dyadobacter, for which the name Dyadobacter tibetensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y620-1(T) (?=?JCM 18589(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12215(T)).
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SILC for SILC: Single Institution Learning Curve for Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.
Minim Invasive Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Objectives. We report the single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) learning experience of 2 hepatobiliary surgeons and the factors that could influence the learning curve of SILC. Methods. Patients who underwent SILC by Surgeons A and B were studied retrospectively. Operating time, conversion rate, reason for conversion, identity of first assistants, and their experience with previous laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were analysed. CUSUM analysis is used to identify learning curve. Results. Hundred and nineteen SILC cases were performed by Surgeons A and B, respectively. Eight cases required additional port. In CUSUM analysis, most conversion occurred during the first 19 cases. Operating time was significantly lower (62.5 versus 90.6?min, P = 0.04) after the learning curve has been overcome. Operating time decreases as the experience increases, especially Surgeon B. Most conversions are due to adhesion at Calots triangle. Acute cholecystitis, patients BMI, and previous surgery do not seem to influence conversion rate. Mean operating times of cases assisted by first assistant with and without LC experience were 48 and 74 minutes, respectively (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Nineteen cases are needed to overcome the learning curve of SILC. Team work, assistant with CLC experience, and appropriate equipment and technique are the important factors in performing SILC.
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