In this paper, we develop an analytical model of an integrated acousto-optical (AO) device with arms modulated by a single surface acoustic wave beam. A comparison between one-arm and two-arm modulation is presented, which shows that two-arm modulation can significantly enhance modulation efficiency by an optimized design. A detailed analysis of the influence of static phase difference on the behavior of the AO devices has been provided, and some interesting results have been obtained. These will be helpful for an optimized design of AO devices for different functionalities.
For the dimensional measurement and characterization of microsized and nanosized components, a three-dimensional microdisplacement sensing system was developed using the piezoresistive effect in silicon. The sensor was fabricated using microelectromechanical system bulk-silicon technology, and it was validated using the finite element method. A precise data acquisition circuit with an accuracy of 20 ?V was designed to obtain weak voltage signals. By calibration, the sensing system was shown to have a sensitivity of 17.29 mV/?m and 4.59 mV/?m in the axial and lateral directions, respectively; the nonlinearity in these directions was 0.8% and 1.0% full scale, respectively. A full range of 4.6 ?m was achieved in the axial direction. Results of a resolution test indicated that the sensing system had a resolution of 5 nm in the axial direction and 10 nm in the lateral direction.
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