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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lumbar developmental malformation: Intertransverse pseudarthrosis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Developmental malformations of lumbar transverse processes commonly include hypertrophy of the transverse process, overgrowth of the transverse process, and persistence of the transverse process epiphysis. To date, the intertransverse pseudarthrosis malformation has not been reported. In this case report, we identified a case of intertransverse pseudarthrosis through X-ray imaging, which was confirmed by CT scanning. And intertransverse pseudarthrosis of spine was proved by Surgery.
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A General Strategy for Fabricating Thoroughly Mesoporous Nanofibers.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Recently, preparation of mesoporous fibers has attracted extensive attentions because of their unique and broad applications in photocatalysis, optoelectronics and biomaterials. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate thoroughly mesoporous nanofibers with high puri-ty and uniformity. Here, we report a general, simple and cost-effective strategy, namely foaming-assisted electro-spinning, for producing mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and enhanced specific surface areas. As a proof of concept, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 fibers exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability than both the conventional solid counterparts and the commercial available P25. The abundant vapors released from the intro-duced foaming agents are responsible for the creation of pores with uniform spatial distribution in the spun precur-sor fibers. The present work represents a critically im-portant step in advancing the electrospinning technique for generating mesoporous fibers in a facile and universal manner.
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Validity of bioelectrical impedance measurement in predicting fat-free mass of chinese children and adolescents.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material and Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz between the hand and the foot. The criterion measure of FFM was also employed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFM estimated from 24 published BIA equations was cross-validated against the criterion measure from DEXA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine alternative BIA equation for the studied population. Results FFM estimated from the 24 published BIA equations yielded high correlations with the directly measured FFM from DEXA. However, none of the 24 equations was statistically equivalent with the DEXA-measured FFM. Using multiple linear regression and cross-validation against DEXA measurement, an alternative prediction equation was determined as follows: FFM (kg)=1.613+0.742×height (cm)2/impedance (?)+0.151×body weight (kg); R^2=0.95; SEE=2.45kg; CV=6.5, 93.7% of the residuals of all the participants fell within the 95% limits of agreement. Conclusions BIA was highly correlated with FFM in Chinese children and adolescents. When the new developed BIA equations are applied, BIA can provide a practical and valid measurement of body composition in Chinese children and adolescents.
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Highly Permselective Membrane Surface Modification by Cold Plasma-Induced Grafting Polymerization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Recognition of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Fish.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Specific molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) for pyrethroid insecticides were developed and characterized for the first time in this study by cold plasma-induced grafting polymerization using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer and cypermethrin (CYP) as a template. The nonimprinted membranes (NIMs) were also synthesized using the same procedure without the template. Meanwhile, AFM, XPS, ATR-FTIR, contact angle, and permselectivity experiments were conducted to elucidate the imprinting and recognition properties of MIMs. Results demonstrated that MIMs exhibited excellent imprinting effect and high permselectivity. A molecularly imprinted-membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MI-MASE) method based on the MIMs was established. The operating conditions were optimized for group-selective extraction of the five pyrethroid insecticides. Compared with NIMs, higher extraction recoveries (83.8% to 100.6%) of the five pyrethroid insecticides by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) were obtained using MIMs at three spiked levels in fish samples; the RSD values were lower than 8.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) defined as the concentrations at which the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is 3:1 and 10:1, respectively, were in the range of 0.26 to 0.42 ?g/kg and 0.77 to 1.27 ?g/kg, respectively. No matrix effect of the developed MI-MASE was observed by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). These results demonstrated a highly selective, efficient, and environment-friendly MI-MASE technique for preconcentration and purification of pyrethroid insecticides from seafood, followed by GC-ECD and GC/MS/MS. The excellent applicability and potential of MI-MASE for routine monitoring of pyrethroid pesticides in food samples has also been confirmed.
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Direct C-H difluoromethylenephosphonation of arenes and heteroarenes with bromodifluoromethyl phosphonate via visible-light photocatalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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This communication reports a room temperature visible-light-driven protocol for the C-H difluoromethylenephosphonation of arenes and heteroarenes. Using commercially available diethyl bromodifluoromethyl phosphonate as a precursor of difluoromethyl radical, fac-Ir(ppy)3 as a photosensitizer and a 3 W blue LED as a light source, an array of aromatic compounds containing difluoromethylenephosphonyl groups were prepared directly from the corresponding arenes and heteroarenes in excellent to moderate yields.
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Association between the TGFBR2 G-875A Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Disrupted transforming growth factor- ? (TGF-?) signaling is involved in the development of various types of cancer and the TGF-? receptor II (TGFBR2) is a key mediator of TGF-? growth inhibitory signals. It is reported that the G-875A polymorphism in TGFBR2 is implicated in risk of various cancers. However, results for the association between this polymorphism and cancer remain conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis of 3,808 cases and 4,489 controls from nine published case-control studies was performed. Our analysis indicated that G-875A is associated with a trend of decreased cancer risk for allele A versus(vs.) allele G [odds ratio (OR) =0.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.55-0.74], as well as for both dominant model [(A/ A+G/A) vs. G/G, OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90] and recessive model [A/A vs. (G/G+G/A), OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.93). However, larger scale primary studies are required to further evaluate the interaction of TGFBR2 G-875A polymorphism and cancer risk in specific cancer subtypes.
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Safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin Combined with Chemotherapy for Treatment of NSCLC Patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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To assess the safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
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Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell washing.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Cell/bead washing is an indispensable sample preparation procedure used in various cell studies and analytical processes. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic device for cell and bead washing in a continuous flow. In our approach, the acoustic radiation force generated in a SSAW field is utilized to actively extract cells or beads from their original medium. A unique configuration of tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) is employed in our device, enabling us to wash beads with >98% recovery rate and >97% washing efficiency. We also demonstrate the functionality of our device by preparing high-purity (>97%) white blood cells from lysed blood samples through cell washing. Our SSAW-based cell/bead washing device has the advantages of label-free manipulation, simplicity, high biocompatibility, high recovery rate, and high washing efficiency. It can be useful for many lab-on-a-chip applications.
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Visible-Light-Driven Difluoroacetamidation of Unactive Arenes and Heteroarenes by Direct C-H Functionalization at Room Temperature.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The directed difluoroacetamidation of unactivated arenes and heteroarenes with bromodifluoroacetamides via visible-light photoredox catalysis has been efficiently achieved at room temperature. Broad utility of this transformation is presented, including electronically deficient heteroaromatic and aromatic systems. The mechanistic pathway of the difluoroacetamidation was discussed based on photoluminescence quenching, spin-trapping, and kinetic isotope effect experiments.
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Implications for Differentiation of Endogenous Stem Cells: Therapeutic Effect from Icariside II on a Rat Model of Postprostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Self-renewal and differentiation of endogenous stem cells (SCs) are essential for adult tissue homoeostasis and intrinsic healing capacity. In this study, we hypothesize that penis contains a small population of endogenous SCs, which might help rejuvenation of damaged erectile function. In this study, 60 newborn male rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU; 50?mg/kg) for the purpose of tracking endogenous SCs. Twelve weeks later, 48 rats underwent bilateral cavernous nerves injury and were randomized into gavage feeding of solvent (vehicle group) or icariside II (0.5, 1.5, and 4.5?mg/kg/day, respectively). Twelve sham-operated rats received vehicle treatment and served as control. The treatments were continued for 4 weeks followed by a washout period of 72?h. Results showed that ICA II treatment significantly restored erectile function and effectively prevented distortion of normal neural anatomy, smooth muscle atrophy, and collagen deposition compared with the vehicle group. The numbers of label-retaining cells (LRCs) coexpressing EdU and differentiated phenotypes (smooth muscle marker ?-SMA or Schwann cell marker S100) were significantly higher in the three ICA II-treated groups than those in vehicle group in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the changing trend of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in the penis between groups was same as that of the number of differentiated LRCs. Together, these results suggest that the underlying mechanisms of ICA II in ameliorating erectile function and pathological changes appear to involve enhanced endogenous SCs differentiation, which might be regulated by p38 MAPK signaling pathway.
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Conserved and divergent patterns of DNA methylation in higher vertebrates.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a "global" methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called "CpG islands." Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates.
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[Application of narrow-band imaging endoscopy in laryngeal malignant lesion biopsy].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To investigate the guiding role of narrow-band imaging endoscopy in laryngeal malignant lesion biopsy.
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Clinical Features of and Risk Factors for Rhabdomyolysis Among Adult Patients with Dengue Virus Infection.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Among 1,076 dengue patients, 9 patients with rhabdomyolysis and 1,067 patients without rhabdomyolysis (controls) were retrospectively analyzed. Of nine patients with rhabdomyolysis, the most commonly reported symptom other than fever was myalgia; dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) was found in seven cases, and acute kidney injury was found in six cases. Furthermore, one (11.1%) patient died. The median duration from hospital admission to rhabdomyolysis diagnosis was 3 days. Patients with rhabdomyolysis had higher age, proportion of men, prevalence of hypertension, frequency of myalgia, and incidences of DHF, pleural effusion, and acute kidney injury than controls. Multivariate analysis showed that hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 14.270), myalgia (OR = 20.377), and acute kidney injury (OR = 65.547) were independent risk factors for rhabdomyolysis. Comparison of cytokine/chemokine concentrations in 101 DHF patients, including those with (N = 4) and without (N = 97) rhabdomyolysis, showed that interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? levels were significantly increased in the former.
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[Molluscicidal effect of Rongbao in Mianyang City].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of Rongbao in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Mianyang City.
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Lithium titanate epitaxial coating on spinel lithium manganese oxide surface for improving the performance of lithium storage capability.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) is applied as an epitaxial coating layer on LiMn2O4 hollow microspheres (LMO) through solvothermal-assisted processing. The epitaxial interface between LTO and LMO can be clearly observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) with atomic resolution images. The epitaxial coating cathode (EC-LMO@LTO) exhibits an excellent cyclability, thermal and rate capability for LIBs cathode due to the complete, thin LTO coating layer with strong adhesion to the host material. In addition, the small structure mismatch and high Li(+)-ion mobility of LTO can be beneficial to forming an efficient tunnel for Li(+)-ion transfer at the interface. It is suggested that EC-LMO@LTO can be recognized as a promising cathode material in electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).
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[Prognostic value of lymph node ratio staging system in stageIII( rectal cancer following 30 Gy/10 f preoperative radiotherapy].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To evaluate the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio(LNR) staging system for rectal cancer following 30 Gy/10 f preoperative radiotherapy.
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Leucogen Tablets at 60 mg Three Times per Day are Safe and Effective to Control Febrile Neutropenia.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To investigate whether it is safe to use leucogen tablets 60 mg three times per day (180 mg for a day) and whether this regimen could reduce the incidence of febrile neutropenia caused by chemotherapy.
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[Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.
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[Study on the effect of vibsane-type diterpenoids of viburnum odoratissimum on human HepG2 cell growth and its underlying mechanism].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To study the antiproliferation effect on HepG2 cells and its underlying mechanism of the active chemical composition of the Viburnum Odoratissimum.
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[Analysis of alarm management and alarm information integration technology for ICU's medical device].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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This paper analyzed current problems and challenges facing hospitals in alarm management both abroad and at home. Based on a survey conducted on alarm management in hospitals, plus an analysis on different kinds of data interfaces and data exchange protocols of the medical equipment used in ICUs, a solution of alarm management is put forwarded which is based on alarm information integration and processing. It aims at improving medical equipment alarm management and reducing relevant adverse events.
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Efficient gene delivery and multimodal imaging by lanthanide-based upconversion nanoparticles.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Nanoparticles have been explored as nonviral gene carriers for years because of the simplicity of surface modification and lack of immune response. Lanthanide-based upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are becoming attractive candidates for biomedical applications in virtue of their unique optical properties and multimodality imaging ability. Here, we report a UCNPs-based structure with polyethylenimine coating for both efficient gene transfection and trimodality imaging. Cytotoxicity tests demonstrated that the nanoparticles exhibited significantly decreased cytotoxicity compared to polyethylenimine polymer. Further, in vitro studies revealed that the gene carriers are able to transfer the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) plasmid DNA into Hela cells in higher transfection efficiency than PEI. Gene silencing was also examined by delivering bcl-2 siRNA into Hela cells, resulting in significant downregulation of target bcl-2 mRNA. More importantly, we demonstrated the feasibility of upconversion gene carriers to serve as effective contrast agents for MRI/CT/UCL trimodality imaging both in vitro and in vivo. The facile fabrication process, great biocompatibility, enhanced gene transfection efficiency, and great bioimaging ability can make it promising for application in gene therapy.
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Detection of subsurface trace impurity in polished fused silica with biological method.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Subsurface damage (SSD), especially photoactive impurities, degrades the performance of high energy optics by reduction in the laser induced damage threshold. As the polishing defects are trace content and lie beneath the surface, they are difficult to detect. We herein present a biological method to measure impurities on polished fused silica, based on the intense inhibiting ability about trace level of ceria on enzyme activity. And the enzyme activity is measured in the individual etching solutions of a sequential etching process. Results show that detectability of the biological method satisfies the needs of trace impurity detection with low cost and simple apparatus. Furthermore ceria can be used to tag SSD in lapped and polished optics.
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Synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides catalyzed by low loadings of benzyl bromide/DMF at ambient pressure.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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An efficient, metal-free catalytic system for the conversion of CO2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates under mild conditions with good-to-excellent yields (57-99%) was developed. A possible reaction mechanism involving the electrophilic activation of epoxides by benzyl cations and nucleophilic activation of CO2 by DMF is proposed.
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Phospholipid Transfer Protein Destabilizes Mouse Atherosclerotic Plaque.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. We examined the role of PLTP in atherosclerotic plaque stability.
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LOXL1 Gene Polymorphism With Exfoliation Syndrome/Exfoliation Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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AIM:: There were several studies that have researched the associations between lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to exfoliation syndrome (XFS)/exfoliation glaucoma (XFG), but results have been inconclusive.
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Bayesian estimation of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy diagnostic test based on short-term heart rate variability without a gold standard.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To evaluate the reference values for short-term heart rate variability (HRV), estimate the performance of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard, and assess CAN prevalence in our dataset.
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Multifractal detrended moving average analysis for texture representation.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Multifractal detrended moving average analysis (MF-DMA) is recently employed to detect long-range correlation and multifractal nature in stationary and non-stationary time series. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the generalized Hurst exponent for each pixel of a surface based on MF-DMA, which we call the MF-DMA-based local generalized Hurst exponent. These exponents form a matrix, which we denote by LHq. These exponents are similar to the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA)-based local generalized Hurst exponent. The performance of the calculated LHq is tested for two synthetic multifractal surfaces and ten randomly chosen natural textures with analytical solutions under three cases, namely, backward (??=?0), centered (??=?0.5), and forward (??=?1) with different q values and different sub-image sizes. Two sets of comparison segmentation experiments between the three cases of the MF-DMA-based LHq and the MF-DFA-based LHq show that the MF-DMA-based LHq is superior to the MF-DFA-based LHq. In addition, the backward MF-DMA algorithm is more efficient than the centered and forward algorithms. An interest finding is that the LHq with q??0 in characterizing the image features of natural textures for both the MF-DMA and MF-DFA algorithms.
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Presence of Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Rat Penis.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7?h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7?h post-EdU injection, 410±105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (?28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536±115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ?0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.
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Hybrid membranes of metal-organic molecule nanocages for aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon separation by pervaporation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Hybrid membranes composed of porous metal-organic molecule nanocages as fillers embedded in a hyperbranched polymer (Boltorn W3000) were fabricated, which exhibit excellent pervaporation separation performances towards aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbons. The unique nature of the molecule-based fillers and their good dispersion and compatibility in/with the polymer are responsible for the good membrane properties.
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[Three-dimensional positions and forms of temporomandibular joints in Class II devision 1 malocclusion patients associated with different vertical skeletal patterns].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To evaluate the positions and forms of temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with different vertical skeletal patterns in Class II division 1 patients.
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Dissipation and residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in rice under field conditions.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Residue analysis of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite (CGA 321113) in rice matrices, paddy water, and soil was developed using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 in rice seedling, soil, and paddy water as well as the residual level in harvest rice (grain, hull, straw) and soil. The results demonstrated that the dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in rice seedling, soil, and water were 1.9 d to 4.7 d, 0.35 d to 0.54 d, and 0.28 d to 0.51 d, respectively. The final total residue of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 was highest in rice hull and lowest in paddy soil. The highest total residues in husked rice, rice hull, straw, and paddy soil at 28 d after spraying were 0.39?mg?kg(-1) , 3.82?mg?kg(-1) , 0.29?mg?kg(-1) , and 0.15?mg?kg(-1) , respectively. According to the final residue data and the maximum residue limits of trifloxystrobin in rice grain and straw (Codex Alimentarius) and in rice hull (US Environmental Protection Agency), 28 d could be recommended as the preharvest interval for trifloxystrobin application in the rice field. The data show that CGA 321113 constitutes a small amount of the final total residues in rice matrices, whereas it is much higher than its parent compound in soil samples. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2654-2660. © 2014 SETAC.
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Label-Free Measurements of Reaction Kinetics Using a Droplet-Based Optofluidic Device.
J Lab Autom
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Label-free measurements of the reaction kinetics of a small sample volume are essential for efficient drug discovery, requiring methods and systems that are rapid, accurate, and cost-effective. Herein, we present an integrated optofluidic system for label-free characterization of reactions in a nanoliter reagent volume. This system contains a droplet-based microfluidic sampling section and an optical fiber-based spectroscopy detection section. By manipulating droplets containing reagents at certain concentrations at different times, quantifiable measurements via absorption spectroscopy can be made in a simple, sensitive, and high-throughput manner. We have demonstrated our system's capability by performing potency (IC50) assays of an inhibitor in a TEM-1 ?-lactamase (enzyme) and nitrocefin (substrate) system. This integrated platform can potentially provide an automated, label-free, and low-cost method for many other assays of reaction kinetics.
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One-Step Synthesis of Dual Clickable Nanospheres via Ultrasonic-Assisted Click Polymerization for Biological Applications.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Dual clickable nanospheres (DCNSs) were synthesized in one step using an efficient approach of ultrasonic-assisted azide-alkyne click polymerization, avoiding the need of surfactants. This novel approach presents a direct clickable monomer-to-nanosphere synthesis. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dynamic laser scattering (DLS) were used to characterize the synthesized DCNSs. Numerous terminal alkynyl and azide groups on the surface of DCNSs facilitate effective conjugation of multiple molecules or ligands onto a single nanocarrier platform under mild conditions. To exemplify the potential of DCNSs in biological applications, (1) multivalent glyconanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared by clicking DCNSs with azide-functionalized and alkyne-functionalized lactose sequentially for the determination of carbohydrate-galectin interactions with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor. Using protein chip (purified galectin-3 coated on chip) and cell chip (Jurkat cells immobilized on chip), the QCM sensorgrams showed excellent binding activity of GNPs for galectins; (2) fluorescent GNPs were prepared by clicking DCNSs with azide-functionalized Rhodamine B and alkyne-functionalized lactose sequentially in order to target galectin, which is overexpressed on the surface of Jurkat cells. The fluorescent images obtained clearly showed the cellular internalization of fluorescent GNPs. This fluorescent probe could be easily adapted to drugs to construct lectin-targeted drug delivery systems. Thus, DCNSs prepared with our method may provide a wide range of potential applications in glycobiology and biomedicine.
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Vagarious successful treatment of recalcitrant warts in combination with CO2 laser and imiquimod 5% cream.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Abstract Background. Imiquimod 5% cream is widely regarded as a safe and effective option when treating recalcitrant warts, owing to the ointment's negligible side effects. However, our observations highlighted case of a patient incurring severe adverse reactions due to application of the cream, although the treatment proved successful in curing recalcitrant warts which had developed on the external auditory canal and external ear. Methods. All lesions were entirely removed with short-pulsed CO2 laser. As soon as the wound-healing process was completed, imiquimod 5% cream was self-applied on the healing wounds once daily for 5 days per week in a total of 2 weeks. Results. The patient appeared normal after the CO2 laser treatment and experienced severe redness, itching, exudation, and incrustation after a 2-week imiquimod 5% cream therapy. All lesions showed no recurrence during the 12-month followed-up process. Conclusions. We concluded that a feasible treatment modality to cure recalcitrant cutaneous warts is in combination of CO2 laser and imiquimod. Immunoenhancement plays an important role in the treatment of recalcitrant warts.
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Identification of reference miRNAs in human tumors by TCGA miRNA-seq data.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Although the accuracy of detecting the expression of miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on reliable reference miRNAs, many commonly used reference miRNAs are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. To solve this problem, we analyzed the global expression profiles of thousands of samples in 14 types of common human tumors released by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified the most stably and highly expressed miRNAs as candidate reference miRNAs in each type of tumor. We found that miR-361-5p and let-7i-5p were the most recommended candidate reference miRNAs in nine and eight types of tumors, respectively, followed by let-7a-5p, mir-28-5p and miR-99b-5p. Our results are of important value to those researchers focused on miRNA; however, these candidate reference miRNAs still need to be validated prior to their use in qRT-PCR studies.
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Standing surface acoustic wave based cell coculture.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Precise reconstruction of heterotypic cell-cell interactions in vitro requires the coculture of different cell types in a highly controlled manner. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell coculture platform. In our approach, different types of cells are patterned sequentially in the SSAW field to form an organized cell coculture. To validate our platform, we demonstrate a coculture of epithelial cancer cells and endothelial cells. Real-time monitoring of cell migration dynamics reveals increased cancer cell mobility when cancer cells are cocultured with endothelial cells. Our SSAW-based cell coculture platform has the advantages of contactless cell manipulation, high biocompatibility, high controllability, simplicity, and minimal interference of the cellular microenvironment. The SSAW technique demonstrated here can be a valuable analytical tool for various biological studies involving heterotypic cell-cell interactions.
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Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and enhanced negative differential conductance in graphene field effect transistors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Recent observations of the negative differential conductance (NDC) phenomenon in graphene field-effect transistors (FET) open up new opportunities for their application in graphene-based fast switches, frequency multipliers and, most importantly, in high frequency oscillators up to the terahertz regime. Unlike conventional two-terminal NDC devices that rely on resonant tunneling and inter-valley transferring, in the present work, it has been shown that the universal NDC phenomenon of graphene-based FETs originates from their intrinsic nonlinear carrier transport under a strong electric field. The operation of graphene-NDC devices depends strongly on the interface between graphene and dielectric materials, the scattering-limited carrier mobility, and on the saturation velocity. To reveal such NDC behavior, the output characteristics of GFET are investigated rigorously, with both an analytical model and self-consistent transport equation, and with a multi-electrical parameter simulation. It is demonstrated that the contact-induced doping effect plays an important role in the operational efficiency of graphene-based NDC devices, rather than the ambipolar behavior associated with the competition between electron and hole conductances. In the absence of a NDC regime or beyond one, ambipolar transport starts at Vds > 2Vgs at the drain end, and as the dielectric layer begins to thin down, the kink-like saturation output characteristic is enhanced by the quantum capacitance contribution. These observations reveal the intrinsic mechanism of the NDC effect and open up new opportunities for the performance improvement of GFETs in future high-frequency applications, beyond the current paradigm based on two-terminal diodes.
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Melatonin attenuates inflammatory response-induced brain edema in early brain injury following a subarachnoid hemorrhage: a possible role for the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Melatonin is a strong anti-oxidant that has beneficial effects against early brain injury (EBI) following a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats; protection includes the reduction of both mortality and neurological deficits. The molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical effects in the SAH model have not been clearly identified. This study examined the influence of melatonin on brain edema secondary to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the relationship between these effects and pro-inflammatory cytokines in EBI following SAH using the filament perforation model of SAH in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Melatonin (150 mg/kg) or vehicle was given via an intraperitoneal injection 2 hr after SAH induction. Brain samples were extracted 24 hr after SAH. Melatonin treatment markedly attenuated brain edema secondary to BBB dysfunctions by preventing the disruption of tight junction protein expression (ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5). Melatonin treatment also repressed cortical levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), which were increased in EBI 24 hr after SAH. To further identify the mechanism of this protection, we demonstrated that administration of melatonin attenuated matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression/activity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, which are related to the inflammatory response and BBB disruption in EBI after SAH. Taken together, this report shows that melatonin prevents disruption of tight junction proteins which might play a role in attenuating brain edema secondary to BBB dysfunctions by repressing the inflammatory response in EBI after SAH, possibly associated with regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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Histologic investigation of gingival epithelium implantation and the nonincision placement of miniscrews.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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This study investigated whether the nonincision placement of miniscrews could lead to ectopic implantation of epithelium at the bone-implant interface and, if so, whether the epithelial cells could survive. The fate of grafted epithelial cells was also investigated.
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A Simple and Efficient Method for Breast Cancer Diagnosis Based on Infrared Thermal Imaging.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of quantitative diagnosis through thermal analysis of abnormal metabolism. In this paper, an analytical-based steady-state solution for the thermal inverse problem was developed, considering an equivalent point heat source embedded in the tissue. Based on this solution, we developed a simple and efficient algorithm that generates solutions for the nonlinear heat conduction model. Using the nonlinear fitting analysis, a regular distribution can be derived from the raw thermal patterns of the skin surface above the tumor, and the power and depth of the equivalent heat source can be derived to investigate whether the tumor is malignant or benign. The thermal power Q of internal heat source was estimated to predict the satisfactory approaches to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. The results of four clinical cases (female patients with malignant tumor and benign tumor) show that the estimated values of the power of the heat sources in malignant cases (fatty: Q = 0.34851 W; dense: Q = 0.46933 W) are both far greater than the ones in benign (fatty: Q = 0.04721 W; dense: Q = 0.07717 W), irregardless of the breast density. The correlation coefficients (R (2)) of the nonlinear curve fittings are all above 0.98. The new thermal method proposed in this study would help to improve the preciseness of diagnosis on breast masses (malignant or benign).
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Overexpression of MzASMT improves melatonin production and enhances drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Melatonin is a potent naturally occurring reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenger in plants. Melatonin protects plants from oxidative stress and, therefore, it improves their tolerance against a variety of environmental abiotic stressors. N-acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (ASMT) is a specific enzyme required for melatonin synthesis. In this report, an ASMT gene was cloned from apple rootstock (Malus zumi Mats) and designated as MzASMT1 (KJ123721). The MzASMT1 expression was induced by drought stress in apple leaves. The upregulation of MzASMT1 in the apple leaf positively relates to melatonin production over a 24-hr dark/light cycle. Purified MzASMT1 protein expressed in E. coli converted its substrates to melatonin with an activity of approximately 5.5 pmol/min/mg protein. The transient transformation in tobacco identified that MzASMT1 is located in cytoplasm of the cell. When MzASMT1 gene driven by 35S promoter was transferred to Arabidopsis, melatonin levels in transgenic Arabidopsis plants were 2-4 times higher than those in the wild type. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants had significantly lower intrinsic ROS than the wild type and therefore these plants exhibited greater tolerance to drought stress than that of wild type. This is, at least partially, attributed to the elevated melatonin levels resulting from the overexpression of MzASMT1. The results elucidated the important role that membrane-located melatonin synthase plays in drought tolerance. These findings have significant implications in agriculture.
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Zeolitic metal-organic frameworks based on amino acid.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Two enantiomorphic metal-organic frameworks with zeotype SOD topology have been successfully synthesized from enantiopure L-alanine and D-alanine, respectively, which demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating MOFs that integrate the 4-connected zeotype topologies and homochiral nature by the employment of enantiopure amino acids.
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A reliable and programmable acoustofluidic pump powered by oscillating sharp-edge structures.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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We present a programmable acoustofluidic pump that utilizes the acoustic streaming effects generated by the oscillation of tilted sharp-edge structures. This sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic pump is capable of generating stable flow rates as high as 8 ?L min(-1) (~76 Pa of pumping pressure), and it can tune flow rates across a wide range (nanoliters to microliters per minute). Along with its ability to reliably produce stable and tunable flow rates, the acoustofluidic pump is easy to operate and requires minimum hardware, showing great potential for a variety of applications.
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Evaluation of Meropenem Regimens Suppressing Emergence of Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii with Human Simulated Exposure in an In Vitro Intravenous-Infusion Hollow-Fiber Infection Model.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The emergence of resistance to carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be suppressed by optimizing the administration of meropenem. However, whether the same is true for Acinetobacter baumannii is not fully understood. We assessed the bactericidal activity of meropenem and its potency to suppress the emergence of resistance in A. baumannii with human simulated exposure in an in vitro intravenous-infusion hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). Two clinical strains of carbapenem-susceptible multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (CS-MDRAB), CSRA24 and CSRA91, were used, and their MICs and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) were determined. Six meropenem dosage regimens (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g given every 8 h [q8h] with a 0.5-h or 3-h infusion for seven consecutive days) were simulated and then evaluated in the HFIM. Both the total population and resistant subpopulations of the two strains were quantified. Drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. All dosage regimens, except for the lowest dosage (0.5 g for both the 0.5-h and 3-h infusions), showed 3-log CFU/ml bacterial killing. Dosage regimens of 2.0 g with 0.5-h and 3-h infusions exhibited an obvious bactericidal effect and suppressed resistance. Selective amplification of subpopulations with reduced susceptibility to meropenem was suppressed with a percentage of the dosage interval in which meropenem concentrations exceeded the MPC (T>MPC) of ?20% or with a ratio of T>MPC to the percentage of the dosage interval in which drug concentrations are within the mutant selection window of ?0.25. Our in vitro data support the use of a high dosage of meropenem (2.0 g q8h) for the treatment of severe infection caused by CS-MDRAB.
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Fabrication of nanofluidic diodes with polymer nanopores modified by atomic layer deposition.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Surface charge distribution is a crucial factor for the ionic transport properties inside nanopores. Modifying the surface charge inside a single conical nanopore can greatly affect the rectification behavior of the ionic current through the nanopore and afford nanofluidic diodes. In this work, we describe a new method to fabricate nanofluidic diodes by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on conical track-etched nanopores. Thorough investigation of the ionic transport behavior through ALD-modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanopores is carried out. Our results demonstrate that ALD is a simple and effective method to modify the inner surface of the polymer nanopores for fabricating nanofluidic devices. In addition, we also investigate the stability of the ALD-modified nanopores, and the results suggest that the long-time stability could be compromised by high voltage applied along the nanopore.
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Birnessite-Type MnO2 Nanosheets with Layered Structures Under High Pressure: Elimination of Crystalline Stacking Faults and Oriented Laminar Assembly.
Small
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Squeezing out crystalline stacking faults: Birnessite-type ?-phase MnO2 microflowers containing interconnected ultrathin nanosheets are synthesized through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal process and exhibit a layered crystalline structure with significant stacking faults. Compressing these MnO2 nanosheets in a diamond anvil cell with high pressure up to tens of GPa effectively eliminates the crystalline stacking faults.
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Comparative study of n-dodecyl tetraethylene monoether lyotropic liquid crystals incorporated with graphene and graphene oxide.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Two kinds of carbon materials, i.e., graphene and graphene oxide (GO), were successfully incorporated into a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) matrix formed by n-dodecyl tetraethylene monoether (C12E4). The properties of graphene-C12E4 and GO-C12E4 LLC composites were characterized by UV-vis absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, polarized optical microscopy (POM) observations, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheological measurements. SAXS results indicate that both graphene and GO are well-dispersed in the C12E4 LLC matrix and some interactions occur between the C12E4 LLC matrix and graphene (or GO) sheets. Moreover, it is demonstrated that graphene interacts with the hydrophobic part of C12E4 LLC while GO mainly interacts with the hydrophilic part of C12E4 LLC because of the different properties of graphene and GO. Integration of graphene and GO into C12E4-PEG systems by a spontaneous phase separation method reveals the different interaction mechanisms of graphene and GO with C12E4 LLC. It can be concluded that the mechanical and electrical properties of the C12E4 LLC have been largely improved by the incorporation of graphene and GO, which opens the door for wide applications in nanotechnology, electrochemical and biochemical areas.
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Muscle-specific calpastatin overexpression prevents diaphragm weakness in cecal ligation puncture-induced sepsis.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Recent work indicates that infections are a major contributor to diaphragm weakness in patients who are critically ill and mechanically ventilated, and that diaphragm weakness is a risk factor for death and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Infections activate muscle calpain, but many believe this is an epiphenomenon and that other proteolytic processes are responsible for infection-induced muscle weakness. We tested the hypothesis that muscle-specific overexpression of calpastatin (CalpOX; an endogenous calpain inhibitor) would attenuate diaphragm dysfunction in cecal ligation puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. We studied 1) wild-type (WT) sham-operated mice, 2) WT CLP-operated mice, 3) CalpOX sham-operated mice, and 4) CalpOX CLP-operated mice (n = 9-10/group). Twenty-four hours after surgery, we assessed the diaphragm force-frequency relationship, diaphragm mass, and total protein content and diaphragm levels of talin and myosin heavy chain (MHC). CLP markedly reduced diaphragm-specific force generation (force/cross-sectional area), which was prevented by calpastatin overexpression (force averaged 21.4 ± 0.5, 6.9 ± 0.8, 22.4 ± 1.0, and 18.3 ± 1.3 N/cm(2), respectively, for WT sham, WT CLP, CalpOX sham, and CalpOX CLP groups, P < 0.001). Diaphragm mass and total protein content were similar in all groups. CLP induced talin cleavage and reduced MHC levels; CalpOX prevented these alterations. CLP-induced sepsis rapidly reduces diaphragm-specific force generation and is associated with cleavage and/or depletion of key muscle proteins (talin, MHC), effects prevented by muscle-specific calpastatin overexpression. These data indicate that calpain activation is a major cause of diaphragm weakness in response to CLP-induced sepsis.
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Exploring Actinide Materials Through Synchrotron Radiation Techniques.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Synchrotron radiation (SR) based techniques have been utilized with increasing frequency in the past decade to explore the brilliant and challenging sciences of actinide-based materials. This trend is partially driven by the basic needs for multi-scale actinide speciation and bonding information and also the realistic needs for nuclear energy research. In this review, recent research progresses on actinide related materials by means of various SR techniques were selectively highlighted and summarized, with the emphasis on X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scattering spectroscopy, which are powerful tools to characterize actinide materials. In addition, advanced SR techniques for exploring future advanced nuclear fuel cycles dealing with actinides are illustrated as well.
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Autologous transfusion of stored red blood cells increases pulmonary artery pressure.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Transfusion of erythrocytes stored for prolonged periods is associated with increased mortality. Erythrocytes undergo hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges endogenous nitric oxide leading to systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction.
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[Molecular diagnosis for a novel deletion mutation of ? thalassemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To raise awareness of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of thalassemia by reporting one case of ? thalassemia patient with a large deletion fragment and analyzing the pedigree.
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Metformin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells: involvement of the tumor suppressor miR30a and its target gene SOX4.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. Recent evidence suggested that diabetic patients treated with metformin have lower PCa risk and better prognosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of metformin on EMT in PCa cells and the possible microRNA (miRNA)-based mechanisms. MiRNAs have been shown to regulate various processes of cancer metastasis. We herein showed that metformin significantly inhibits proliferation of Vcap and PC-3 cells, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits invasiveness and motility capacity of Vcap cells. Metformin could inhibit TGF-?-induced EMT in Vcap cells, as manifested by inhibition of the increase of N-cadherin (p=0.013), Vimentin (p=0.002) and the decrease of E-cadherin (p=0.0023) and ?-catenin (p=0.034) at mRNA and protein levels. Notably, we demonstrated significant upregulation of miR30a levels by metformin (P<0.05) and further experiments indicated that miR30a significantly inhibits proliferation and EMT process of Vcap cells. Interestingly, we identified that SOX4, a previously reported oncogenic transcriptional factor and modulator of EMT, is a direct target gene of miR30a. Finally, we screened the expression of miR30a and SOX4 in 84 PCa cases with radical prostatectomy. Of note, SOX4 overexpression is significantly associated with decreased levels of miR30a in PCa cases. In all, our study suggested that inhibition of EMT by metformin in PCa cells may involve upregulation of miR30a and downregulation of SOX4.
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Reaction-based fluorescent probe for detection of endogenous cyanide in real biological samples.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Herein, two compounds (1?a and 1?b) were rationally constructed as novel reaction-based fluorescent probes for CN(-) by making use of the electron-withdrawing ability of the cyano group that was formed from the sensing reaction. Notably, this design strategy was first employed for the development of fluorescent CN(-) probes. The experimental details showed that probe 1?a exhibited a fluorescence turn-on response to CN(-) , whereas other anions, biological thiols, and hydrogen sulfide gave almost no interference. The detection limit of probe 1?a for CN(-) was found to be 0.12??M. The sensing reaction product of 1?a with CN(-) was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. TD-DFT calculations demonstrated that the formed cyano group drives the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process from coumarin dye to the cyano group and thus the original strong ICT from the coumarin dye to the 3-position pyridyl vinyl ketone substituent is weakened, which results in recovery of coumarin fluorescence. The practical utility of 1?a was also examined. By fabricating paper strips, probe 1?a can be used as a simple tool to detect CN(-) in field measurements. Moreover, probe 1?a has been successfully applied for quantitative detection of endogenous CN(-) from cassava root.
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MIG-10 (Lamellipodin) stabilizes invading cell adhesion to basement membrane and is a negative transcriptional target of EGL-43 in C. elegans.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) occurs in many physiological and pathological contexts. MIG-10, the Caenorhabditis elegans Lamellipodin (Lpd), regulates diverse biological processes. Its function and regulation in cell invasive behavior remain unclear. Using anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans as an in vivo invasion model, we have previously found that mig-10's activity is largely outside of UNC-6 (netrin) signaling, a chemical cue directing AC invasion. We have shown that MIG-10 is a target of the transcription factor FOS-1A and facilitates BM breaching. Combining genetics and imaging analyses, we report that MIG-10 synergizes with UNC-6 to promote AC attachment to the BM, revealing a functional role for MIG-10 in stabilizing AC-BM adhesion. MIG-10 is also required for F-actin accumulation in the absence of UNC-6. Further, we identify mig-10 as a transcriptional target negatively regulated by EGL-43A (C. elegans Evi-1 proto-oncogene), a transcription factor positively controlled by FOS-1A. The revelation of this negative regulation unmasks an incoherent feedforward circuit existing among fos-1, egl-43 and mig-10. Moreover, our study suggests the functional importance of the negative regulation on mig-10 expression by showing that excessive MIG-10 impairs AC invasion. Thus, we provide new insight into MIG-10's function and its complex transcriptional regulation during cell invasive behavior.
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PRMT7 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes metastasis in breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables metastasis. E-cadherin loss is a hallmark of EMT, but there remains an incomplete understanding of the epigenetics of this process. The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7 functions in various physiologic processes, including mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and neural differentiation, but its possible roles in cancer and metastasis have not been explored. In this report, we show that PRMT7 is expressed at higher levels in breast carcinoma cells and that elevated PRMT7 mediates EMT and metastasis. PRMT7 could inhibit the expression of E-cadherin by binding to its proximal promoter in a manner associated with altered histone methylation, specifically with elevated H4R3me2s and reduced H3K4me3, H3Ac, and H4Ac, which occurred at the E-cadherin promoter upon EMT induction. Moreover, PRMT7 interacted with YY1 and HDAC3 and was essential to link these proteins to the E-cadherin promoter. Silencing PRMT7 restored E-cadherin expression by repressing H4R3me2s and by increasing H3K4me3 and H4Ac, attenuating cell migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Overall, our results define PRMT7 as an inducer of breast cancer metastasis and present the opportunity for applying PRMT7-targeted therapeutics to treat highly invasive breast cancers.
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Prophylactic protective effects and its potential mechanisms of IcarisideII on streptozotocin induced spermatogenic dysfunction.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IcarisideII(ICAII) on the prevention of streptozotocin (STZ) induced spermatogenic dysfunction. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg) and were equally randomized to gavage feeding of vehicle (the vehicle group) or ICAII (0.5, 1.5 or 4.5 mg/kg/day, respectively). Ten normal rats received vehicle and served as control. Four weeks later, sperm parameters, histopathological changes, testicular lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and apoptosis index (AI) were evaluated. Results showed that ICAII treatment resulted in a significant recovery of sperm parameters and histopathological changes relative to the vehicle group (p<0.05). In the vehicle group, antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of Sertoli cell Vimentin filaments obviously decreased, while lipid peroxidation and AI significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Following ICAII treatment, corrective effects on these items towards normal levels were observed. The results suggested that ICAII has beneficial effect on the preservation of spermatogenic function in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The mechanisms might be related to its improvement of antioxidant enzyme activities, preservation of the protein expression and apical extensions of Vimentin filaments, and anti-apoptosis capability.
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Urinary interleukin-18 as an early indicator to predict contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is at present the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI). Traditionally, it is diagnosed by measuring an increase of the serum creatinine (SCr) concentration. However, SCr is an insensitive marker for detecting CIN. This study was designed to investigate whether human urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18) is early predictive marker for CIN following coronary interventional procedures. The general clinical data of 180 patients who underwent coronary interventional procedures at the Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College from March 1, 2012 to September 31, 2012 were collected. A nonionic, low osmolality contrast agent was used in the laboratory at this time. SCr values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured prior to and within 24 and 48 h after the administration of contrast agents. Urine samples were collected prior to and 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the coronary interventional procedure, and urinary IL-18 levels were measured using an ELISA kit. CIN was defined as an increase of ?0.5 mg/dl or ?25% in SCr concentration over baseline 24-48 h after the procedure. CIN occurred in 16 of 180 (8.9%) patients. The levels of urinary IL-18 measured 2 h after the procedure were increased in the CIN group, but the increase was not significant (P>0.05). There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the urinary IL-18 levels 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the procedure and those before the procedure. No significant difference was identified between the SCr levels measured prior to and 24 h after the procedure. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of urinary IL-18 12 h after the procedure was 0.811 and the 95% confidence interval of the area under the curve was 0.735-0.888. If the critical point of the diagnosis of CIN was 815.61 pg/ml, the sensitivity was 87.5% and the specificity was 62.2%. Univariate analysis indicated that the urinary IL-18 level was positively correlated with the SCr concentration pre- and postprocedure. In conclusion, urinary IL-18 may be a promising indicator for the early prediction of CIN.
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High-Responsivity Graphene/InAs Nanowire Heterojunction Near-Infrared Photodetectors with Distinct Photocurrent On/Off Ratios.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Graphene is a promising candidate material for high-speed and ultra-broadband photodetectors. However, graphene-based photodetectors suffer from low photoreponsivity and Ilight /Idark ratios due to their negligible-gap nature and small optical absorption. Here, a new type of graphene/InAs nanowire (NW) vertically stacked heterojunction infrared photodetector is reported, with a large photoresponsivity of 0.5 AW(-1) and Ilight /Idark ratio of 5 × 10(2) , while the photoresponsivity and Ilight /Idark ratio of graphene infrared photodetectors are 0.1 mAW(-1) and 1, respectively. The Fermi level (EF ) of graphene can be widely tuned by the gate voltage owing to its 2D nature. As a result, the back-gated bias can modulate the Schottky barrier (SB) height at the interface between graphene and InAs NWs. Simulations further demonstrate the rectification behavior of graphene/InAs NW heterojunctions and the tunable SB controls charge transport across the vertically stacked heterostructure. The results address key challenges for graphene-based infrared detectors, and are promising for the development of graphene electronic and optoelectronic applications.
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Reversal of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated multidrug resistance in colon cancer cells by cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone of Salvia miltiorrhiza.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells to a broad spectrum of anticancer drugs is an obstacle to successful chemotherapy. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporter, can mediate the efflux of cytotoxic drugs out of cancer cells, leading to MDR and chemotherapy failure. Thus, development of safe and effective P-gp inhibitors plays an important role in circumvention of MDR. This study investigated the reversal of P-gp mediated multidrug resistance in colon cancer cells by five tanshinones including tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone and miltirone isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), known to be safe in traditional Chinese medicine.
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PACE4 regulates proliferation, migration and invasion in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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PACE4 is one of the proprotein convertases (PC) that participate in the post-translational activation of inactive proteins, leading to mature, biologically active proteins. The processing reactions occur in pairs of basic amino acids. PACE4 is an extracellular PC that binds to growth factors and several components of the extracellular matrix contributing to tumor progression. In the present study, the PACE4 gene was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the knockdown human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells showed signi-ficantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion rates. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that downregulation of PACE4 increases the percentage of cells arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, the expression of genes involved in cell growth, invasion and adhesion, i.e., IGF-2, MMP9 and MPZL2 was significantly decreased following siRNA?mediated silencing of PACE4. Taken together, these results indicate that PACE4 plays an important role in human breast cancer, and that it might represent a novel target for breast cancer therapy.
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Low glucose transporter SLC2A5-inhibited human normal adjacent lung adenocarcinoma cytoplasmic pro-B cell development mechanism network.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose/fructose transporter) member 5 (SLC2A5)-inhibited seven different molecular Pearson mutual-positive-correlation networks constructed by 24 overlapping molecules from 368 GRNInfer and 34 Pearson under SLC2A5 CC ?-0.25 in low human normal adjacent tissues were compared with high lung adenocarcinoma. Based on GO, KEGG, GenMAPP, BioCarta, and disease databases, our result showed that low SLC2A5-inhibited network included Golgi apparatus of AP1M2_1; cell cycle of CUL7, SAC3D1; protein amino acid dephosphorylation of STYXL1; pro-B cell-cell differentiation of SOX4_3; and FAD biosynthesis of FLAD1. Thus, we propose low glucose transporter SLC2A5-inhibited human normal adjacent lung adenocarcinoma cytoplasmic pro-B cell development mechanism network through repression of protein amino acid dephosphorylation to FAD biosynthesis.
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A review on the cognitive function of information structure during language comprehension.
Cogn Neurodyn
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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During communication, information structure can be used to highlight the most relevant piece of information, so that sufficient amount of attention can be allocated to the most important information. This paper aims to review the cognitive function of information structure during language comprehension from a neurocognitve perspective. First, we gave a brief introduction to the concept of information structure that has been studied mostly in linguistic field. Then we introduced recent studies on information structure using electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. After that, we discussed the relationship between attention and language processing more generally. Finally, we discussed potential directions for future studies.
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Osseointegration of chitosan coated porous titanium alloy implant by reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway under diabetic conditions.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Chitosan coated porous titanium alloy implant (CTI) is demonstrated a promising approach to improve osseointegration capacity of pure porous titanium alloy implant (TI). Since chitosan has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant activity, we propose CTI may ameliorate the ROS overproduction, thus reverse the poor osseointegration under diabetic conditions, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Primary rat osteoblasts incubated on the TI and the CTI were subjected to normal serum (NS), diabetic serum (DS), DS + NAC (a potent ROS inhibitor) and DS + LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT-specific inhibitor). In vivo study was performed on diabetic sheep implanted with TI or CTI into the bone defects on crista iliaca. Results showed that diabetes-induced ROS overproduction led to osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, concomitant with the inhibition of AKT in osteoblasts on the TI substrate. While CTI stimulated AKT phosphorylation through ROS attenuation, thus reversed osteoblast dysfunction evidenced by improved osteoblast adhesion, increased proliferation and ALP activity, and decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic rate, which exerted same effect to NAC treatment on the TI. These effects were further confirmed by the improved osseointegration within the CTI in vivo evidenced by Micro-CT and histological examinations. In addition, the aforementioned promotive effects afforded by CTI were abolished by blocking PI3K/AKT pathway with addition of LY294002. These results demonstrate that the chitosan coating markedly ameliorates diabetes-induced impaired bio-performance of TI via ROS-mediated reactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway, which elicits a new surface functionalization strategy for better clinical performance of titanium implant in diabetic patients.
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Nucleos(t)ide analogues to treat hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma after radical resection.
World J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Significant advances have been made in nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy to treat chronic hepatitis B, and this therapy reduces the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in some patients. However, whether NAs can also prevent recurrence after radical resection of HBV-related HCC remains controversial and is an important question, given that most patients will experience recurrence within a few years of curative surgery. Here we systematically reviewed the literature since 2004 on outcomes after administering NAs to patients with HBV-related HCC following radical resection. We focused on treatment indications, duration, effects on recurrence-free survival and overall survival, and the management of NA resistance. We find that patients with HCC should strongly consider NA therapy if they are positive for HBV-DNA, and that the available evidence suggests that postoperative NA therapy can increase both recurrence-free and overall survival. To minimize drug resistance, clinicians should opt for potent analogues with higher resistance barriers, and they should monitor the patient carefully for emergence of NA-resistant HBV.
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Adiponectin reduces carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-/- mice: Roles of oxidative and nitrosative stress and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Adiponectin (APN) is an important anti?atherogenic adipocytokine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of adiponectin in atherosclerotic plaque formation and clarify its mechanisms. An atherosclerosis model was induced by in vivo perivascular constrictive silica collar placement on the left common carotid arteries in male apolipoprotein E?deficient (ApoE?/?) mice. All of the mice were fed a high?fat diet, and divided into phosphate?buffered saline, adenovirus (Ad)???galactosidase and Ad?APN treatment groups. Compared with treatment of Ad???gal or PBS, Ad?APN treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, decreased in nitric oxide/superoxide production, blocked peroxynitrite formation and reversed the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Adiponectin may be a natural molecule that reduces atherosclerosis by inhibiting iNOS and consequently diminishing oxidative/nitrative stress.
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Metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma outcomes in patients on Cisplatin with nolatrexed or 5-Fluorouracil.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in southern China. In this study, we compared the clinical efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin with nolatrexed (LP) or 5-fluorouracil (FP) for NPC.
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One-year clinical outcomes of everolimus- versus sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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In contrast to many studies comparing everolimus-eluting stent (EES) with paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES), data directly comparing EES with sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) are limited, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Degree mixing in multilayer networks impedes the evolution of cooperation.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Traditionally, the evolution of cooperation has been studied on single, isolated networks. Yet a player, especially in human societies, will typically be a member of many different networks, and those networks will play different roles in the evolutionary process. Multilayer networks are therefore rapidly gaining on popularity as the more apt description of a networked society. With this motivation, we here consider two-layer scale-free networks with all possible combinations of degree mixing, wherein one network layer is used for the accumulation of payoffs and the other is used for strategy updating. We find that breaking the symmetry through assortative mixing in one layer and/or disassortative mixing in the other layer, as well as preserving the symmetry by means of assortative mixing in both layers, impedes the evolution of cooperation. We use degree-dependent distributions of strategies and cluster-size analysis to explain these results, which highlight the importance of hubs and the preservation of symmetry between multilayer networks for the successful resolution of social dilemmas.
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Correlation of fatigue during the acute stage of stroke with serum uric Acid and glucose levels, depression, and disability.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To clarify the correlation of fatigue during the acute stage of stroke with serum uric acid (UA) and glucose levels, depression, and disability.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.