JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transgenerational left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension in male rat offspring following uteroplacental insufficiency.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between low birth weight and adult disease development with transmission to subsequent generations. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intrauterine growth restriction in rats, induced by uteroplacental insufficiency, on cardiac structure, number, size, nuclearity and adult blood pressure in first (F1) and second (F2) generation male offspring. Uteroplacental insufficiency or sham surgery was induced in F0 WKY pregnant rats in late gestation giving rise to F1 Restricted and Control offspring, respectively. F1 Control and Restricted females were mated with normal males resulting in F2 Control and Restricted offspring, respectively. F1 Restricted male offspring were significantly lighter at birth (P<0.05), but there were no differences in birth weight of F2 offspring. Left ventricular weights and volumes were significantly increased (P<0.05) in F1 and F2 Restricted offspring at day 35. Left ventricular cardiomyocyte number was not different in F1 and F2 Restricted offspring. At 6 months of age, F1 and F2 Restricted offspring had elevated blood pressure (8-15mmHg, P<0.05). Our findings demonstrate the emergence of left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension, with no change in cardiomyocyte number, in F1 Restricted male offspring and this was transmitted to the F2 offspring. The findings support transgenerational programming effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Allostatic load and the assessment of cumulative biological risk in biobehavioral medicine: challenges and opportunities.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allostatic load provides a useful framework for conceptualizing the multisystem physiological impact of sustained stress and its effects on health and well-being. Research across two decades shows that allostatic load indices predict health outcomes including all-cause mortality and vary with stress and related psychosocial constructs. The study by Slopen and colleagues in this issue provides an example both of the utility of the allostatic load framework and of limitations in related literature, such as inconsistencies in conceptualization and measurement across studies, and the frequent application of cross-sectional designs. The current article describes these limitations and provides suggestions for further research to enhance the value and utility of the allostatic load framework in biobehavioral medicine research.
Related JoVE Video
Transgenerational programming of fetal nephron deficits and sex-specific adult hypertension in rats.
Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A developmental insult that restricts growth in the first generation has the potential to program disease in subsequent generations. The aim of this study was to ascertain transgenerational growth and cardio-renal effects, via the maternal line, in a rat model of utero-placental insufficiency. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation or sham surgery (offspring termed first generation; F1 Restricted and Control, respectively) was performed in WKY rats. F1 Restricted and Control females were mated with normal males to produce second generation (F2) offspring (Restricted and Control) studied from fetal (embryonic Day 20) to adult (12 months) life. F2 Restricted male and female fetuses had reduced (P<0.05) nephron number (down 15-22%) but this deficit was not sustained postnatally and levels were similar to Controls at Day 35. F2 Restricted males, but not females, developed elevated (+16mmHg, P<0.05) systolic blood pressure at 6 months of age, which was sustained to 9 months. This was not explained by alterations to intra-renal or plasma components of the renin-angiotensin system. In a rat model of utero-placental insufficiency, we report alterations to F2 kidney development and sex-specific adult hypertension. This study demonstrates that low birthweight can have far-reaching effects that extend into the next generation.
Related JoVE Video
Associations of structural and functional social support with diabetes prevalence in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little research has examined associations of social support with diabetes (or other physical health outcomes) in Hispanics, who are at elevated risk. We examined associations between social support and diabetes prevalence in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants were 5,181 adults, 18-74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic backgrounds, who underwent baseline exam with fasting blood draw, oral glucose tolerance test, medication review, sociodemographic assessment, and sociocultural exam with functional and structural social support measures. In adjusted analyses, one standard deviation higher structural and functional social support related to 16 and 15 % lower odds, respectively, of having diabetes. Structural and functional support were related to both previously diagnosed diabetes (OR = .84 and .88, respectively) and newly recognized diabetes prevalence (OR = .84 and .83, respectively). Higher functional and structural social support are associated with lower diabetes prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos.
Related JoVE Video
Glycemic control among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Do structural and functional social support play a role?
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Social support is one potential source of health-related resiliency in Hispanics with diabetes. This study examined relationships of structural (i.e., social integration) and functional (i.e., perceived) social support with glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin; HbA1c) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. This study included 766 men and women representing multiple Hispanic ethnic backgrounds, aged 18-74 years, with diagnosed diabetes who completed fasting blood draw, medication review, and measures of sociodemographic factors, medical history, structural support (Cohen Social Network Index), and functional support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12). After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and medication, a one standard deviation increase in functional support was related to an 0.18 % higher HbA1c (p = 0.04). A similar trend was observed for structural support; however, this effect was non-significant in adjusted models. Greater functional support was associated with poorer glycemic control in Hispanics.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Hispanics/Latinos of diverse background: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Approximately one-third of the adult U.S. population has the metabolic syndrome. Its prevalence is the highest among Hispanic adults, but variation by Hispanic/Latino background is unknown. Our objective was to quantify the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women 18-74 years of age of diverse Hispanic/Latino background.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos from diverse backgrounds: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examine differences in prevalence of diabetes and rates of awareness and control among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
Related JoVE Video
Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease, stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and current smoking) in the multisite Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010-2011).
Related JoVE Video
Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in OPA3 in two siblings with OPA3-related 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.
Mol Genet Metab Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OPA3-related 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, or Costeff Optic Atrophy syndrome, is a neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy and later-onset spasticity, and extrapyramidal dysfunction. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is markedly increased. OPA3-related 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is due to mutations in the OPA3 gene located at 19q13.2-13.3. Here we describe two siblings with novel compound heterozygous variants in OPA3: c.1A>G (p.1M>V) in the translation initiation codon in exon 1 and a second variant, c.142+5G>C in intron 1. On cDNA sequencing the c.1A>G appeared homozygous, indicating that the allele without the c.1A>G variant is degraded. This is likely due to an intronic variant; possibly the IVS1+5 splice site variant. The older female sibling initially presented with motor developmental delay and vertical nystagmus during her first year of life and was diagnosed subsequently with optic atrophy. Her brother presented with mildly increased hip muscle tone followed by vertical nystagmus within the first 6 months of life, and was found to have elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid, and optic atrophy by 1.5 years of age. Currently, ages 16 and 7, both children exhibit ataxic gaits and dysarthric speech. Immunofluorescence studies on patient's cells showed fragmented mitochondrial morphology. Thus, though the exact function of OPA3 remains unknown, our experimental results and clinical summary provide evidence for the pathogenicity of the identified OPA3 variants and provide further evidence for a mitochondrial pathology in this disease.
Related JoVE Video
Deletion of bone-marrow-derived receptor for AGEs (RAGE) improves renal function in an experimental mouse model of diabetes.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The AGEs and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) are known contributors to diabetic complications. RAGE also has a physiological role in innate and adaptive immunity and is expressed on immune cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether deletion of RAGE from bone-marrow-derived cells influences the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic nephropathy.
Related JoVE Video
Dulce Mothers: an intervention to reduce diabetes and cardiovascular risk in Latinas after gestational diabetes.
Transl Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Latina women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at elevated risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Few primary prevention programs are designed for low socioeconomic status, Spanish-speaking populations. We examined the effectiveness of a Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) translation in low-income Latinas with a history of GDM. Eighty-four Latinas, 18-45 years old with GDM in the past 3 years, underwent an 8-week peer-educator-led group intervention, with tailoring for Latino culture and recent motherhood. Lifestyle changes and diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed at study baseline, month 3 and month 6. Participants showed significant improvements in lipids, blood pressure, physical activity, dietary fat intake, and fatalistic and cultural diabetes beliefs (p?
Related JoVE Video
The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: sample, design, and procedures.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Embryo transfer cannot delineate between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects in the transgenerational transmission of disease in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adverse conditions in utero can have transgenerational effects, in the absence of a subsequent insult. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the maternal pregnancy environment vs. germ line effects in mediating alterations to cardiorenal and metabolic physiology in offspring from mothers born small. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (Restricted group) or sham surgery (Control group) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Restricted and control female offspring (F1) were mated with either breeder males (embryo donor) or vasectomized males (embryo recipient). Embryo transfer was performed at embryonic day (E) 1, whereby second-generation (F2) embryos gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a control (Cont-in-Cont, Rest-in-Cont) or restricted (Cont-in-Rest, Rest-in-Rest) mother. In male and female offspring, glomerular number and size were measured at postnatal day (PN) 35, and systolic blood pressure, glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic ?-cell mass were measured in separate sibling cohorts at 6 mo. Rest-in-Rest offspring were hypothesized to have similar characteristics (reduced growth, altered metabolic control, and hypertension) to non-embryo-transferred Rest, such that embryo transfer would not be a confounding experimental influence. However, embryo-transferred Rest-in-Rest offspring underwent accelerated growth during the peripubertal phase, followed by slowed growth between 2 and 3 mo of age compared with non-embryo-transferred Rest groups. Furthermore, renal function and insulin response to a glucose load were different to respective non-embryo-transferred groups. Our data demonstrate the long-term effects of in vitro embryo manipulation, which confounded the utility of this approach in delineating between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects that drive transgenerational outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence in the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study.
J Womens Health (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent.
Related JoVE Video
Implementing community-based diabetes programs: the scripps whittier diabetes institute experience.
Curr. Diab. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes affects a large and growing segment of the US population. Ethnic and racial minorities are at disproportionate risk for diabetes, with Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks showing a near doubling of risk relative to non-Hispanic Whites. There is an urgent need to identify low cost, effective, and easily implementable primary and secondary prevention approaches, as well as tertiary strategies that delay disease progression, complications, and associated deterioration in function in patients with diabetes. The Chronic Care Model provides a well-accepted framework for improving diabetes and chronic disease care in the community and primary care medical home. A number of community-based diabetes programs have incorporated this model into their infrastructure. Diabetes programs must offer accessible information and support throughout the community and must be delivered in a format that is understood, regardless of literacy and socioeconomic status. This article will discuss several successful, culturally competent community-based programs and the key elements needed to implement the programs at a community or health system level. Health systems together with local communities can integrate the elements of community-based programs that are effective across the continuum of the care to enhance patient-centered outcomes, enable patient acceptability and ultimately lead to improved patient engagement and satisfaction.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12) Scores Among English- and Spanish-Speaking Hispanics/Latinos From the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The current study investigated the reliability and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbachs alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions. The total score of the ISEL-12 can be recommended for use among Hispanics/Latinos. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Related JoVE Video
Fatalism and cardio-metabolic dysfunction in mexican-american women.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mexican-American women are disproportionately vulnerable to cardio-metabolic dysfunction and related health conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Research shows that low socioeconomic status contributes to this populations excess vulnerability to cardio-metabolic dysfunction, but little is known about the contribution of cultural factors to these associations.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between nocturnal blood pressure dipping and the metabolic syndrome in high- vs. low-acculturated Mexican American women.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Less nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping has been associated with greater odds for the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a constellation of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little work has examined this association in Hispanics, who have elevated rates of MetS, or investigated differences in this relationship by level of acculturation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BP dipping and MetS in Hispanic women and to determine if this association is moderated by acculturation status.
Related JoVE Video
Developmental programming: variations in early growth and adult disease.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suboptimal conditions in utero are associated with the development of adult-onset diseases in offspring. Uteroplacental insufficiency in rats is a well-established animal model used to mimic and study the effects of developmental insults relevant to countries of abundant nutrient supply. However, wide-ranging outcomes for the offspring are apparent between the different investigators that use this model and also between cohorts generated in our laboratory. We aimed to explore the reasons for variability in rat models of uteroplacental insufficiency between different investigators and also between our own animal cohorts. We suggest differences in growth and disease development reflect uniqueness in susceptibility and highlight the complexity of interactions between genetic potential and environmental exposures. The impact of adverse exposures in utero has been described as having far-reaching effects that extend well beyond the first, directly exposed generation. However, the resulting phenotypes are not consistent between generations. This suggests that programmed effects are established de novo in each generation and challenges the prediction of disease. Characterization of growth and disease in the numerous rat models has led to our understanding of the impact of early life experiences on adult health. In order to drive the development of preventative and/or treatment strategies, future studies should focus on identifying the initial cause(s) of uteroplacental insufficiency, including genetic origins and the influence of poor diets.
Related JoVE Video
Social support and nocturnal blood pressure dipping: a systematic review.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping.
Related JoVE Video
Transgenerational metabolic outcomes associated with uteroplacental insufficiency.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrauterine growth restriction increases adult metabolic disease risk with evidence to suggest that suboptimal conditions in utero can have transgenerational effects. We determined whether impaired glucose tolerance, reduced insulin secretion, and pancreatic deficits are evident in second-generation (F2) male and female offspring from growth-restricted mothers, in a rat model of uteroplacental insufficiency. Late gestation uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (restricted) or sham surgery (control) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. First-generation (F1) control and restricted females were mated with normal males and F2 offspring studied at postnatal day 35 and at 6 and 12 months. F2 glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and sensitivity were assessed at 6 and 12 months and pancreatic morphology was quantified at all study ages. At 6 months, F2 restricted male offspring exhibited blunted first-phase insulin response (-35%), which was associated with reduced pancreatic ?-cell mass (-29%). By contrast, F2 restricted females had increased ?-cell mass despite reduced first-phase insulin response (-38%). This was not associated with any changes in plasma estradiol concentrations. Regardless of maternal birth weight, F2 control and restricted males had reduced homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations at 6 months and reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity at 6 and 12 months compared with females. We report that low maternal birth weight is associated with reduced first-phase insulin response and gender-specific differences in pancreatic morphology in the F2. Further studies will define the mode(s) of disease transmission, including direct insults to developing gametes, adverse maternal responses to pregnancy, or inherited mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Cardio-renal and metabolic adaptations during pregnancy in female rats born small: implications for maternal health and second generation fetal growth.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrauterine growth restriction caused by uteroplacental insufficiency increases risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in offspring. Cardio-renal and metabolic responses to pregnancy are critical determinants of immediate and long-term maternal health. However, no studies to date have investigated the renal and metabolic adaptations in growth restricted offspring when they in turn become pregnant. We hypothesised that the physiological challenge of pregnancy in growth restricted females exacerbates disease outcome and compromises next generation fetal growth. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) on day 18 of gestation in WKY rats and F1 female offspring birth and postnatal body weights were recorded. F1 Control and Restricted females were mated at 4 months and blood pressure, renal and metabolic parameters were measured in late pregnancy and F2 fetal and placental weights recorded. Age-matched non-pregnant Control and Restricted F1 females were also studied. F1 Restricted females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Basal insulin secretion and pancreatic ?-cell mass were reduced in non-pregnant Restricted females but restored in pregnancy. Pregnant Restricted females, however, showed impaired glucose tolerance and compensatory glomerular hypertrophy, with a nephron deficit but normal renal function and blood pressure. F2 fetuses from Restricted mothers exposed to physiological measures during pregnancy were lighter than Controls highlighting additive adverse effects when mothers born small experience stress during pregnancy. Female rats born small exhibit mostly normal cardio-renal adaptations but altered glucose control during late pregnancy making them vulnerable to lifestyle challenges.
Related JoVE Video
Socioeconomic status, psychosocial resources and risk, and cardiometabolic risk in Mexican-American women.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The current study examined the contributions of psychosocial factors to the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk, in a randomly selected community cohort of 304 middle-aged (40-65 years old) Mexican-American women, a population at elevated cardiometabolic risk.
Related JoVE Video
The relevance of fatalism in the study of Latinas cancer screening behavior: a systematic review of the literature.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fatalism has been identified as a dominant belief among Latinos and is believed to act as a barrier to cancer prevention. However, controversy exists over the utility of the construct in explaining health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations above the influence of structural barriers such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and limited access to health care.
Related JoVE Video
Short-term exercise training early in life restores deficits in pancreatic ?-cell mass associated with growth restriction in adult male rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fetal growth restriction is associated with reduced pancreatic ?-cell mass, contributing to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Exercise training increases ?-cell mass in animals with diabetes and has long-lasting metabolic benefits in rodents and humans. We studied the effect of exercise training on islet and ?-cell morphology and plasma insulin and glucose, following an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in juvenile and adult male Wistar-Kyoto rats born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation performed on day 18 of pregnancy resulted in Restricted offspring born small compared with sham-operated Controls and also sham-operated Reduced litter offspring that had their litter size reduced to five pups at birth. Restricted, Control, and Reduced litter offspring remained sedentary or underwent treadmill running from 5 to 9 or 20 to 24 wk of age. Early life exercise increased relative islet surface area and ?-cell mass across all groups at 9 wk, partially restoring the 60-68% deficit (P < 0.05) in Restricted offspring. Remarkably, despite no further exercise training after 9 wk, ?-cell mass was restored in Restricted at 24 wk, while sedentary littermates retained a 45% deficit (P = 0.05) in relative ?-cell mass. Later exercise training also restored Restricted ?-cell mass to Control levels. In conclusion, early life exercise training in rats born small restored ?-cell mass in adulthood and may have beneficial consequences for later metabolic health and disease.
Related JoVE Video
Peer-led diabetes education programs in high-risk Mexican Americans improve glycemic control compared with standard approaches: a Project Dulce promotora randomized trial.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effect of a culturally sensitive diabetes self-management education program that uses a low-cost, peer-educator format (Project Dulce) on glucose control and metabolic parameters in low-income Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Attrition and adherence rates of sustained vs. intermittent exercise interventions.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
No conclusions have been drawn regarding the relative attrition and adherence rates associated with sustained vs. intermittent exercise programs.
Related JoVE Video
Glycemic control among Latinos with type 2 diabetes: the role of social-environmental support resources.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although active diabetes self-management is required to achieve glycemic control, adherence is poor among ethnic minorities, especially Latinos. Research shows that individuals who report greater social-environmental support resources for disease management manage their diabetes more effectively than those with fewer support resources.
Related JoVE Video
Domains of chronic stress, lifestyle factors, and allostatic load in middle-aged Mexican-American women.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little research has examined how chronic stress in different domains relates to allostatic load (AL).
Related JoVE Video
The association between chronic stress type and C-reactive protein in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis: does gender make a difference?
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study is to examine how chronic stress in major life domains [relationship, work, sympathetic-caregiving, financial] relates to CVD risk, operationalized using the inflammatory marker C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and whether gender differences exist. Participants were 6,583 individuals aged 45-84 years, recruited as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Demographic and behavioral factors, health history, and chronic stress were self-reported. CRP was obtained through venous blood draw. In aggregate, gender by chronic stress interaction effects accounted for a significant, albeit small, amount of variance in CRP (P < .01). The sympathetic-caregiving stress by gender interaction was significant (P < .01); the work stress by gender effect approached significance (P = .05). Women with sympathetic-caregiving stress had higher CRP than those without, whereas no difference in CRP by stress group was observed for men. Findings underscore the importance of considering gender as an effect modifier in analyses of stress-CVD risk relationships.
Related JoVE Video
Use of conventional care and complementary/alternative medicine among US adults with arthritis.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Managing arthritis and co-morbid conditions is of public health importance. It is therefore critical to have a comprehensive understanding of healthcare utilization among US adults with arthritis. Thus, the present study identified characteristics associated with using both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional healthcare.
Related JoVE Video
Support for disease management, depression, self-care, and clinical indicators among Hispanics with type 2 diabetes in San Diego County, United States of America.
Rev. Panam. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study used a social-ecological framework to examine predictors of depression, diabetes self-management, and clinical indicators of health risk among Hispanics with type 2 diabetes residing in the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region in San Diego County, California, United States of America. Important links were observed between greater social-environmental support for disease management and less depression, better diabetes self-management, and lower body mass index and serum triglyceride concentrations. Less depressive symptomatology was also related to lower hemoglobin A1c levels. Findings suggest that programs aiming to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes in Hispanics with type 2 diabetes should consider multilevel, social, and environmental influences on health, behavior, and emotional well-being.
Related JoVE Video
Are psychosocial factors mediators of socioeconomic status and health connections? A progress report and blueprint for the future.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health is robust. Yet, the psychosocial mediators of SES-health association have been studied in relatively few investigations. In this chapter, we summarize and critique the recent literature regarding negative emotions and cognitions, psychological stress, and resources as potential pathways connecting SES and physical health. We discuss the psychosocial origins of the SES-health links and outline how psychosocial factors may lead to persistently low SES. We conclude that psychosocial resources may play a critical mediating role, and the origins of the SES-health connection are apparent in childhood. We offer a blueprint for future research, which we hope contributes to a better understanding of how SES gets under the skin across the life span.
Related JoVE Video
Socioeconomic Status and Health: What is the role of Reserve Capacity?
Curr Dir Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A robust, linear association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health has been identified across many populations and endpoints. This relationship is typically monotonic, so that each step down the SES hierarchy brings increased vulnerability to disease and premature mortality. Despite growing attention to health disparities, scientists and policy makers have made little progress toward confronting their causes and implementing effective solutions. Using the Reserve Capacity Model (Gallo & Matthews, 2003) as an organizing framework, the current article examines the contribution of resilient psychosocial resources to socioeconomic disparities in physical health. Findings suggest that deficient psychosocial resources, such as low perceptions of control and social support, may be one of many factors that connect low SES with poor health. Additional research is needed to test these relationships and their underlying mechanisms, to consider interventions to enhance reserve capacity, and to evaluate the efficacy of such efforts in fostering resilience to socioeconomic hardship.
Related JoVE Video
Resiliency in the face of disadvantage: do Hispanic cultural characteristics protect health outcomes?
J Pers
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hispanics living in the United States may face substantial adversity, given stresses of immigration and acculturation, low incomes, poor educational and occupational opportunities, inadequate access to health care, and exposure to discrimination. Despite these disadvantages, the Hispanic population often shows equal or better health outcomes when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, a trend that has puzzled researchers and has been referred to as the "Hispanic Paradox." Hispanics with non-U.S. nativity also tend to show better health than those born in the United States, although this advantage dissipates with increasing time spent in the United States. The current article discusses the Reserve Capacity Model (L.C. Gallo & K. A. Matthews, 2003) as a potential framework for understanding how psychosocial risk and resilient factors may contribute to health disparities associated with broad sociocultural factors, such as low socioeconomic status or minority ethnicity. In addition, we examine theory concerning features of the Hispanic culture that may enhance resilience (e.g., social resources, familism, religiousness; G. Marin & B. V. Marin, 1991) in the face of adverse circumstances. We summarize some of our recent work that has empirically tested effects of risk and resilient factors in Hispanic health in the contexts of prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We conclude by discussing future directions and opportunities for researchers interested in culture-specific resiliency factors in relation to health outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Do socioeconomic gradients in subclinical atherosclerosis vary according to acculturation level? Analyses of Mexican-Americans in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine whether the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and subclinical atherosclerosis in Mexican-Americans would be moderated by acculturation. Although SEP shows a consistent, inverse relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in westernized non-Hispanic white populations, the relationship in ethnic minorities, including Hispanics, is often weak or even reversed (i.e., worse health with higher SEP).
Related JoVE Video
Concerns about stigma, social support and quality of life in low-income HIV-positive Hispanics.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Persons living with HIV in the United States face social stigma related to their health conditions. The present study evaluated the relationship between concerns about HIV-related stigma, quality of life, and social support and evaluated social support as a possible pathway contributing to the relationship between stigma concerns and quality of life in low-income Hispanics living with HIV (N = 160). Persons who expressed greater HIV-related stigma concerns in the context of receiving medical care reported poorer psychological functioning (R2 delta = .08, P < .01), lower physical functioning (R2 delta = .03, P < .05), and a decreased ability to complete daily activities (R2 delta = .06, P < .01). In addition, higher levels of stigma concerns were associated with lower social support (R2 delta = .15, P < .001). Mediation analyses showed that social support accounted, in part, for the relationship between stigma concerns and physical functioning (z = 2.16, P < .05), psychological functioning (z = 3.18, P < .001), and interference with daily activities (z = 2.95, P < .01). Interventions directed toward dispelling HIV-related social stigma by educating patients, communities, and physicians would be beneficial to improve quality of life in Hispanics living with HIV.
Related JoVE Video
Secretos de la Buena Vida: processes of dietary change via a tailored nutrition communication intervention for Latinas.
Health Educ Res
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Secretos de la Buena Vida was a successful tailored nutrition communication intervention delivered to Latinas living along the US-Mexico border in California. The intervention was delivered over a 14-week period and consisted of three intervention conditions: weekly home visits with promotoras + weekly tailored mailed newsletters in the first condition, weekly tailored mailed newsletters in the second condition and targeted materials in the attention control condition. The current study examined what elements of the promotora + tailored newsletter and tailored newsletter-only conditions were most effective for behavioral adoption and maintenance in a sample of 238 Latina women. Process evaluation measures assessed the implementation, fidelity and dose of these two intervention conditions. Results indicate that there was high fidelity to program implementation and delivery. Perceived effort, perceived support and intervention length predicted adoption of a lower fat diet at the 15-month follow-up. In the promotora + tailored newsletter condition, married women were four times more likely to be adopters of dietary fat changes than single women. These findings highlight the importance of process evaluation measures and help us understand the mechanism by which tailored print materials and interpersonal health communication via promotoras can facilitate health behavior change.
Related JoVE Video
Underreporting of food intake among Mexican/Mexican-American Women: rates and correlates.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Under-reporters are those individuals who report a dietary intake level that is not biologically plausible given their physiological status and physical activity level. Underreporting of food intake threatens the validity of dietary assessment; yet, little is known about the prevalence or correlates of underreporting in the Mexican/Mexican-American community.
Related JoVE Video
Demographic, socioeconomic, and psychological factors related to medication non-adherence among emergency department patients.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many Emergency Department (ED) visits are related to medication non-adherence; however, the contributing factors are poorly understood.
Related JoVE Video
Race, racism and health: disparities, mechanisms, and interventions.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goals of this special section are to examine the state-of-the-science regarding race/ethnicity and racism as they contribute to health disparities and to articulate a research agenda to guide future research. In the first paper, Myers presents an integrative theoretical framework for understanding how racism, poverty, and other major stressors relate to health through inter-related psychosocial and bio-behavioral pathways. Williams and Mohammed review the evidence concerning associations between racism and health, addressing the multiple levels at which racism can operate and commenting on important methodological issues. Klonoff provides a review and update of the literature concerning ethnicity-related disparities in healthcare, and addresses factors that may contribute to these disparities. Brondolo and colleagues consider racism from a stress and coping perspective, and review the literature concerning racial identity, anger coping, and social support as potential moderators of the racism-health association. Finally, Castro and colleagues describe an ecodevelopmental model that can serve as an integrative framework to examine multi-level social-cultural influences on health and health behavior. In aggregate, the special section papers address theoretical and methodological issues central to understanding the determinants of health disparities, with the aim of providing direction for future research critical to developing effective interventions to reduce these disparities.
Related JoVE Video
Depressive symptoms and momentary affect: the role of social interaction variables.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interpersonal functioning may be one important factor in the development and course of depression symptomatology. This study used ecological momentary assessment to test the associations among depressive symptoms, social experiences and momentary affect in women.
Related JoVE Video
Colorectal cancer educational intervention targeting latino patients attending a community health center.
J Prim Care Community Health
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for Latino men and women; and Latinos are more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage, which is most likely due to underutilization of CRC preventive screening. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a brief, clinic-based intervention by a community health advisor (CHA) would increase CRC knowledge compared with traditional educational methodologies (eg, use of print materials).
Related JoVE Video
Effect of pregnancy for females born small on later life metabolic disease risk.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a strong inverse relationship between a females own birth weight and her subsequent risk for gestational diabetes with increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. We have shown that growth restricted females develop loss of glucose tolerance during late pregnancy with normal pancreatic function. The aim of this study was to determine whether growth restricted females develop long-term impairment of metabolic control after an adverse pregnancy adaptation. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) in late pregnancy (E18) in F0 female rats. F1 Control and Restricted female offspring were mated with normal males and allowed to deliver (termed Ex-Pregnant). Age-matched Control and Restricted Virgins were also studied and glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were determined. Pancreatic morphology and hepatic glycogen and triacylglycerol content were quantified respectively. Restricted females were born lighter than Control and remained lighter at all time points studied (p<0.05). Glucose tolerance, first phase insulin secretion and liver glycogen and triacylglycerol content were not different across groups, with no changes in ?-cell mass. Second phase insulin secretion was reduced in Restricted Virgins (-34%, p<0.05) compared to Control Virgins, suggestive of enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity but this was lost after pregnancy. Growth restriction was associated with enhanced basal hepatic insulin sensitivity, which may provide compensatory benefits to prevent adverse metabolic outcomes often associated with being born small. A prior pregnancy was associated with reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity with effects more pronounced in Controls than Restricted. Our data suggests that pregnancy ameliorates the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth restricted females and has deleterious effects for hepatic insulin sensitivity, regardless of maternal birth weight.
Related JoVE Video
Socioeconomic status, nocturnal blood pressure dipping, and psychosocial factors: a cross-sectional investigation in Mexican-American women.
Ann Behav Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite established links between reduced nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping and cardiovascular disease, BP dipping research in Hispanics is limited.
Related JoVE Video
Pregnancy in aged rats that were born small: cardiorenal and metabolic adaptations and second-generation fetal growth.
FASEB J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uteroplacental insufficiency is associated with adult cardiorenal and metabolic diseases, particularly in males. Pregnancy is the greatest physiological challenge facing women, and those born small are at increased risk of gestational hypertension and diabetes and delivering smaller babies. Increased maternal age is associated with exacerbated pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that pregnancy in aged, growth-restricted females unmasks an underlying predisposition to cardiorenal and metabolic dysfunction and compromises fetal growth. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (restricted group) or sham surgery (control group) on d 18 of gestation in Wistar Kyoto rats. At 12 mo, growth-restricted F1 female offspring were mated with a normal male. F1 restricted females had elevated systolic blood pressure, before and during pregnancy (+10 mmHg) but normal renal and metabolic pregnancy adaptations. F2 fetal weight was not different between groups. In control and restricted females, advanced maternal age (12 vs. 4 mo) was associated with a reduction in the hypoglycemic response to pregnancy and reduced F2 fetal litter size and body weight. Aged rats born small exhibited mostly normal pregnancy adaptations, although they had elevated blood pressure. Advanced maternal age was associated with poorer fetal outcomes that were not exacerbated by low maternal birth weight.
Related JoVE Video
Socioeconomic status and stress in Mexican-American women: a multi-method perspective.
J Behav Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stress is a hypothesized pathway in socioeconomic status (SES)-physical health associations, but the available empirical data are inconsistent. In part, this may reflect discrepancies in the approach to measuring stress across studies, and differences in the nature of SES-stress associations across demographic groups. We examined associations of SES (education, income) with general and domain-specific chronic stressors, stressful life events, perceived stress, and stressful daily experiences in 318 Mexican-American women (40-65 years old). Women with higher SES reported lower perceived stress and fewer low-control experiences in everyday life (ps < .05), but greater chronic stress (education only, p < .05). Domain-specific analyses showed negative associations of income with chronic housing and financial stress (ps < .05), but positive associations of SES with chronic work and caregiving stress (all ps < .05 except for income and caregiving stress, p < .10). Sensitivity analyses showed that most SES-stress associations were consistent across acculturation levels. Future research should adopt a multi-dimensional assessment approach to better understand links among SES, stress, and physical health, and should consider the sociodemographic context in conceptualizing the role of stress in SES-related health inequalities.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term alteration in maternal blood pressure and renal function after pregnancy in normal and growth-restricted rats.
Hypertension
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk of adult cardiorenal diseases. Small birth weight females are more likely to experience complications during their own pregnancy, including pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. We determined whether the physiological demand of pregnancy predisposes growth-restricted females to cardiovascular and renal dysfunction later in life. Late gestation bilateral uterine vessel ligation was performed in Wistar-Kyoto rats. At 4 months, restricted and control female offspring were mated with normal males and delivered naturally (ex-pregnant). Regardless of maternal birth weight, at 13 months, ex-pregnant females developed elevated mean arterial pressure (indwelling tail-artery catheter; +6 mm Hg), reduced effective renal blood flow ((14)C-PAH clearance; -23%), and increased renal vascular resistance (+27%) compared with age-matched virgins. Glomerular filtration rate ((3)H-inulin clearance) was not different across groups. This adverse cardiorenal phenotype in ex-pregnant females was associated with elevated systemic (+57%) and altered intrarenal components of the renin-angiotensin system. After pregnancy at 13 months, coronary flow (Langendorff preparation) was halved in restricted females compared with controls, and together with reduced NO excretion, this may increase susceptibility to additional lifestyle challenges. Our results have implications for aging females who have been pregnant, suggesting long-term cardiovascular and renal alterations, with additional consequences for females who were small at birth.
Related JoVE Video
Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and inflammation in Mexican American women: what is the role of obesity?
Psychosom Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation may represent a biological mechanism underlying associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with cardiovascular disease. We examined relationships of individual and neighborhood SES with inflammatory markers in Mexican American women and evaluated contributions of obesity and related heath behaviors to these associations.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between socioeconomic status and catecholamine levels vary by acculturation status in Mexican-American women.
Ann Behav Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poorer health, possibly through activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
Related JoVE Video
Maternal adaptations and inheritance in the transgenerational programming of adult disease.
Cell Tissue Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adverse exposures in utero have long been linked with an increased susceptibility to adult cardio-renal and metabolic diseases. Clear gender differences exist, whereby growth-restricted females, although exhibiting some phenotypic modifications, are often protected from overt disease outcomes. One of the greatest physiological challenges facing the female gender, however, is that of pregnancy; yet little research has focused on the outcomes associated with this, as a potential second-hit for those who were small at birth. We review the limited evidence suggesting that pregnancy may unmask cardio-renal and metabolic disease states and the consequences for long-term maternal health in females who were born small. Additionally, a growing area of research in this programming field is in the transgenerational transmission of low birth weight and disease susceptibility. Pathways for transmission might include an abnormal adaptation to pregnancy by the growth-restricted mother and/or inheritance via the parental germline. Strategies to optimise the pregnancy environment and/or prevent the consequences of inheritance of programmed deficits and dysfunction are of critical importance for future generations.
Related JoVE Video
Exercise early in life in rats born small does not normalize reductions in skeletal muscle PGC-1? in adulthood.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously shown that 4 wk of exercise training early in life normalizes the otherwise greatly reduced pancreatic ?-cell mass in adult male rats born small. The aim of the current study was to determine whether a similar normalization in adulthood of reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis markers and alterations in skeletal muscle lipids of growth-restricted male rats occurs following early exercise training. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation performed on day 18 of gestation resulted in Restricted offspring born small (P < 0.05) compared with both sham-operated Controls and a sham-operated Reduced litter group. Offspring remained sedentary or underwent treadmill running from 5-9 (early exercise) or 20-24 (later exercise) wk of age. At 24 wk of age, Restricted and Reduced litter offspring had lower (P < 0.05) skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) protein expression compared with Control offspring. Early exercise training had the expected effect of increasing skeletal muscle markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, but, at this early age (9 wk), there was no deficit in Restricted and Reduced litter skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. Unlike our previous observations in pancreatic ?-cell mass, there was no "reprogramming" effect of early exercise on adult skeletal muscle such that PGC-1? was lower in adult Restricted and Reduced litter offspring irrespective of exercise training. Later exercise training increased mitochondrial biogenesis in all groups. In conclusion, although the response to exercise training remains intact, early exercise training in rats born small does not have a reprogramming effect to prevent deficits in skeletal muscle markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in adulthood.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.