JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Penicibilaenes A and B, Sesquiterpenes with a Tricyclo[6.3.1.0(1,5)]dodecane Skeleton from the Marine Isolate of Penicillium bilaiae MA-267.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Penicibilaenes A (1) and B (2), two sesquiterpenes possessing a tricyclo[6.3.1.0(1,5)]dodecane skeleton, were characterized from Penicillium bilaiae MA-267, a fungus obtained from the rhizospheric soil of the mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa. The lack of some key COSY and NOESY correlations made the structure elucidation of compound 1 difficult, which was solved by a X-ray crystallographic study. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (MIC = 1.0 and 0.125 ?g/mL, respectively).
Related JoVE Video
Effects of BRCA1- and BRCA2-related mutations on ovarian and breast cancer survival: a meta-analysis.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: To estimate the effects of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations on ovarian cancer and breast cancer survival. Experimental Design: We searched PUBMED and EMBASE for studies that evaluated the associations between BRCA mutations and ovarian or breast cancer survival. Meta-analysis was conducted to generate combined hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Results: From 1201 unique citations, we identified 27 articles that compared prognosis between BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers in ovarian or breast cancer patients. Fourteen studies examined ovarian cancer survival and 13 studies examined breast cancer survival. For ovarian cancer, meta-analysis demonstrated that both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had better OS (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.70-0.83 for BRCA1 mutation carriers; HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.50-0.66 for BRCA2 mutation carriers) and PFS (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52-0.81 for BRCA1 mutation carriers; HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.47-0.80 for BRCA2 mutation carriers) compared to non-carriers, regardless of tumor stage, grade, or histologic subtype. Among breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutation carriers had worse OS (HR: 1.50, 95%CI: 1.11-2.04) than non-carriers, but were not significantly different from non-carriers in PFS. BRCA2 mutation was not associated with breast cancer prognosis. Conclusions: Our analyses suggest that BRCA mutations are robust predictors of outcomes in both ovarian and breast cancer and these mutations should be taken into account when devising appropriate therapeutic strategies.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P < 0.05), whilst the cumulative N2O emissions for the 1/2N + PM treatment were decreased by 67.50% compared with N treatment, but increased by 129.43% and 119.23% compared with ON and 1/2N treatments, respectively (P < 0.05). CH4 was the dominant contributor to the global warming potential (GWP) in both rice growing seasons, which contributed more than 99% to the integrated GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions for all the four treatments. Both GWP and yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM were significantly higher than the other three treatments. The yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM was higher than those for the N, 1/2N and ON treatments by 58.21%, 26.82% and 20. 63%, respectively. Therefore, combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory.
Related JoVE Video
[Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on pharmacologic action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian based on medicinal properties combinations].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along stomach meridian based on medicinal property combination].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
At present, studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) properties are mostly restricted to a single or two kinds of medicinal properties, but deviated from the holism of the theoretical system of TCMs. In this paper, the characteristics of pharmacological effects of different property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian were take as the study objective. The data of properties of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005). The data of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from all of literatures recorded in Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI) since 1980, Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Yan Zhenghua, People's Medical Publishing House, 2006) and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Gao Xuemin, Zhong Gansheng, Hebei Science and Technology Publishing House, 2005). The corresponding pharmacological effects of property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was mined by the method of association rules. The results of the association rules were consistent with the empirical knowledge, and showed that different medicinal property combinations had respective pharmacological characteristics, including differences and similarities in pharmacological effects of different medicinal property combinations. Medicinal property combinations with identical four properties or five tastes showed similar pharmacological effects; whereas medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes showed differentiated pharmacological effects. However, medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes could also show similar pharmacological effects. In this study, the medicinal property theory and the pharmacological effects of TCMs were combined to reveal the main characteristics and regularity of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian and provide a new way of thinking and method for revealing the mechanism action of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian and discovering the pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on prescription combination and design method based on dichotomy and greedy algorithm].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prescription combinations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) focuses on the taste and channel tropism, the Qi movement, as well as the compatibility according to multiple combination principles and medicinal property and flavor combination of several traditional Chinese medicines. With the in-depth study on the prescription compatibility, researchers have realized that the medicinal property theory is the core of TCM combinations. However, there is no definite method for combinations based on medicinal properties. In this paper, the authors put forward an method for designing prescription combinations based on bipartite graph and the greedy algorithm. With the medicinal property combinations of Siweilurong Pills for example, the authors proved this method could provide ideas for quickly choosing herbal medicines for prescription combinations, and discussed the prospect of this method in substituting previous and endangered herbal medicines and banned medicinal materials.
Related JoVE Video
Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 108 cells g-1 viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-?1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish.
Related JoVE Video
[The role of arecoline on hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes rats].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of arecoline on hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes rats and to elucidate its possible mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
R237 and h238 are key amino acids in the rubella virus e1 neutralization epitope.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Residues 221-239 of rubella virus E1 glycoprotein contain antibody neutralization domains, and the solvent-exposed charged amino acids at the binding interface may be crucial for binding ability. However, the role of charged amino acid residues on the E1 epitope in peptide-antibody binding is unknown. To investigate the role of single amino acid substitutions on the important neutralizing epitope, biolayer interferometry and serological tests were performed. There are three charged residues in the neutralizing epitope: D229, R237, and H238. Substitution of D229 for amino acid A had no influence on the binding activity of the antibody to the peptide. However, substitutions of R237 or H238 for charged amino acid H or R were found to abolish the binding activity. Furthermore, substitution of an uncharged amino acid Q236 for a charged amino acid D was found to reduce the binding activity significantly. Thus, R237 and H238 are key amino acids in the rubella virus E1 neutralization epitope.
Related JoVE Video
Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate atherosclerosis by elevating number and function of CD4(+)CD25 (+)FOXP3 (+) regulatory T-cells and inhibiting macrophage foam cell formation.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of plaques inside arteries, leading to narrowing and blockage. Potential therapeutic strategies include expanding the population of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) to enhance atheroprotective immunity, and inhibiting the formation of macrophage foam cells. Here, we studied the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on atherosclerotic plaque formation in Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE-KO) mice, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. BM-MSCs isolated from 4 week-old ApoE-KO mice were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of MSC-specific markers. Thirty eight week-old ApoE-KO mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 10 per group): 1. MSC group-received BM-MSCs intravenously; 2. Vehicle group-received DMEM; 3. Control group-did not receive any treatment. Administration of MSCs resulted in a marked decrease in the size of atherosclerotic plaques 3 months after treatment. In addition, the number and function of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in cultured splenocytes, and the expression of FOXP3 at both mRNA and protein levels, was significantly increased in the MSC group. In vitro experiments further indicated that the formation of macrophage foam cells was inhibited by treatment with MSCs, accompanied by a significant downregulation in CD36 and scavenger receptor A (SRA). Our findings suggest that MSCs play an atheroprotective role by enhancing the number and function of Tregs and inhibiting the formation of macrophage foam cells. Hence, administration of MSCs to atherosclerotic patients might have significant clinical benefits.
Related JoVE Video
A recessive variant of XRCC4 predisposes to non- BRCA1/2 breast cancer in chinese women and impairs the DNA damage response via dysregulated nuclear localization.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
XRCC4 plays a crucial role in the non-homologous end joining pathway that maintains genome stability. In this two-stage case-control study with 1,764 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients and 1,623 cancer-free controls, we investigated the contribution of genetic variants of XRCC4 to breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. We identified a recessive missense variant, rs3734091 (c.739G>T, p.Ala247Ser), of XRCC4 that was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.92, P = 0.007), particularly with the risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (OR = 18.65, P < 0.0001). This p.Ala247Ser variant disturbed the nuclear localization of XRCC4 in cells homozygous for the rs3734091-T allele but not in heterozygous cells at both the cellular and tissue levels. In heterozygous cells, wild-type XRCC4 facilitated the nuclear localization of the XRCC4A247S mutant, thus compensating for the impaired localization of XRCC4A247S. This provided a biological mechanism by which rs3734091 conferred an increased susceptibility to non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer exclusively under a recessive model. Further functional analyses revealed that p.Ala247Ser impaired the DNA damage repair capacity and ultimately perturbed genomic stability. Taken together, our findings document the role of XRCC4 in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer predisposition and reveal its underlying biological mechanism of action.
Related JoVE Video
Blockade of mGluR5 in the nucleus accumbens shell but not core attenuates heroin seeking behavior in rats.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aim:Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is crucial for the relapse to heroin seeking. The aim of this study was to determine whether mGluR5 in the NAc core or shell involved in heroin seeking behavior in rats.Methods:Male SD rats were self-administered heroin under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule for 14 d, and subsequently withdrawn for 2 weeks. The selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP, 5, 15 and 50 nmol per side) was then microinjected into the NAc core or shell 10 min before a heroin-seeking test induced by context, cues or heroin priming.Results:Microinjection of MPEP into the NAc shell dose-dependently decreased the heroin seeking induced by context, cues or heroin priming. In contrast, microinjection of MPEP into the NAc core did not alter the heroin seeking induced by cues or heroin priming. In addition, microinjection with MPEP (15 nmol per side) in the NAc shell reversed both the percentage of open arms entries (OE%) and the percentage of time spent in open arms (OT%) after heroin withdrawal. Microinjection of MPEP (50 nmol per side) in the striatum as a control location did not affect the heroin seeking behavior. Microinjection of MPEP in the 3 locations did not change the locomotion activities.Conclusion:Blockade of mGluR5 in NAc shell in rats specifically suppresses the relapse to heroin-seeking and anxiety-like behavior, suggesting that mGluR5 antagonists may be a potential candidate for the therapy of heroin addiction.
Related JoVE Video
[Origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine is explored from related literature in the history. As a result, the Shang period is regarded as initial period of umbilical therapy, while periods from Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Southern-Northern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty could be taken as stage of primary development. Time from Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasties is believed as mature stage. Also the manipulation, application principle, indications and contraindications of umbilical therapy are explained. A brief overview of modern development of umbilical therapy is also described.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA expression profile in exosome discriminates extremely severe infections from mild infections for hand, foot and mouth disease.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Changes of miRNAs in exosome have been reported in different disease diagnosis and provided as potential biomarkers. In this study, we compared microRNA profile in exosomes in 5 MHFMD and 5 ESHFMD as well as in 5 healthy children.
Related JoVE Video
Dominant modern sublineages and a new modern sublineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates in Heilongjiang Province, China.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family includes a variety of sublineages. Knowledge of the distribution of a certain sublineage of the Beijing family may help to understand the mechanisms of its rapid spread and to establish an association between a certain genotype and the disease outcome. We have previously found that M. tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates represent approximately 90% of the clinical isolates from Heilongjiang Province, China. To clarify the distribution of M. tuberculosis Beijing family sublineages in Heilongjiang Province, China and to investigate the regularity rule for their evolution, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 250 M. tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates using 10 SNP loci that have been identified as appropriate for defining Beijing sublineages. After determining the sequence type (ST) of each isolate, the sublineages of all M. tuberculosis Beijing family isolates were determined, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. We found that 9 out of the 10 SNP loci displayed polymorphisms, but locus 1548149 did not. In total, 92.8% of the isolates in Heilongjiang Province are modern sublineages. ST10 is the most prevalent sublineage (ST10 and ST22 accounted for 63.2% and 23.6% of all the Beijing family isolates, respectively). A new ST, accounting for 4% of the Beijing family isolates in this area, was found for the first time. Each new ST isolate showed a unique VNTR pattern, and none were clustered. The present findings suggest that controlling the spread of these modern sublineages is important in Heilongjiang Province and in China.
Related JoVE Video
Brocazines A-F, Cytotoxic Bisthiodiketopiperazine Derivatives from Penicillium brocae MA-231, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from the Marine Mangrove Plant Avicennia marina.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Six new disulfide-bridged diketopiperazine derivatives, brocazines A-F (1-6), along with one known analogue (7), were isolated and identified from the cytotoxic extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, a fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of 1 and established the structure and absolute configuration of 5, while the absolute configurations for compounds 1, 4, and 6 were deduced by comparison of the CD data with those of 5. Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 showed cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of electroacupuncture intervention on levels of SOD, GSH, GSH-Px, MDA, and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in substantia Nigra in rats with Parkinson's disease].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on superoxide (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA), and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and apoptosis of Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Substantia Nigra of rats with Parkinson's disease (PD).
Related JoVE Video
Photochemically Engineering the Metal-Semiconductor Interface for Room-Temperature Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes with Formic Acid.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A mild photochemical approach was applied to construct highly coupled metal-semiconductor dyads, which were found to efficiently facilitate the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. Aniline was produced in excellent yield (>99?%, TOF: 1183) using formic acid as hydrogen source and water as solvent at room temperature. This general and green catalytic process is applicable to a wide range of nitroarenes without the involvement of high-pressure gases or sacrificial additives.
Related JoVE Video
[Screening active components in compound danshen based on PXR-CYP3A4: an experimental study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To screen active components in Compound Danshen (CD) based on pregnane X receptor-cytochrome P450 3A4 (PXR-CYP3A4).
Related JoVE Video
Design, synthesis and biological activity of flavonoid derivatives as selective agonists for neuromedin U 2 receptor.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Central neuromedin U 2 receptor (NMU2R) plays important roles in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Identification of NMU2R agonists may lead to the development of pharmaceutical agents to treat obesity. Based on the structure of rutin, a typical flavonoid and one of the NMU2R agonists we previously identified from an in-house made natural product library, 30 flavonoid derivatives have been synthesized and screened on a cell-based reporter gene assay. A number of compounds were found to be selective and highly potent to NMU2R. For example, the EC50 value of compound NRA 4 is very close to that of NMU, the endogenous peptide ligand of NMU2R. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that a 3-hydroxyl group in ring C and a 2'-fluoride group in ring B were essential for this class of compounds to be active against NMU2R.
Related JoVE Video
Rapid Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a major bacterial pathogen associated with nosocomial and community-acquired S. aureus infections all over the world. A rapid detection assay for staphylococcal gene of nuc and mecA is needed. In this study, a rapid identification assay based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established. PCR and LAMP assays were used to detect Staphylococcus aureus and other related species for nuc and mecA. With optimization of the primers and reaction temperature, the LAMP successfully amplified the genes under isothermal conditions at 62 °C within 60 min, of which the results were identical with those of the conventional PCR methods. The detection limits of the LAMP for nuc and mecA were 1.47 and 14.7 pg/?l DNA per tube, respectively, by naked eye inspections, while the detection limits of the PCR for nuc and mecA were 14.7 pg/?l and 147 pg/?l DNA, respectively. Finally, The LAMP method was then applied to clinical blood plaque samples. The LAMP and PCR demonstrated identical results for the plaque samples with the culture assay. Together, the LAMP offers an alternative detection assay for nuc and mecA with a great advantage of the sensitivity and rapidity.
Related JoVE Video
Association between interleukin-27 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to allergic rhinitis.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airway. Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a novel IL-12 family member, has recently been reported to play a role in some immune-related disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the potential association of IL-27 polymorphisms with AR in a Chinese Han population.
Related JoVE Video
Andrographolide suppresses IL-6/Stat3 signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain largely unknown. CRSwNP has garnered considerable public health concern owing to its high incidence and unsatisfactory treatment outcomes. Herbal remedies are promising candidates for the treatment of CRSwNP. We examined the utility of andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone extracted from the Chinese herb Andrographis paniculata, an anti-inflammatory agent for CRSwNP treatment by evaluating interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17 production and monitoring T helper 17 (Th17) differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from 20 Chinese CRSwNP patients and 11 control subjects. All CRSwNP patients exhibited clinical features of CRSwNP. Andrographolide significantly inhibited IL-6 and IL-17 production, suppressed p-Stat3 expression, and inhibited Th17 differentiation of PBMCs in vitro. These findings suggested that andrographolide has useful anti-inflammatory properties and could be used for the treatment of CRSwNP.
Related JoVE Video
Theoretical investigation on the non-linear optical properties, vibrational spectroscopy and frontier molecular orbital of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide molecule.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The vibrational frequencies of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide (HB-CA) in the ground state have been calculated using density functional method (B3LYP) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The analysis of natural bond orbital was also performed. The IR spectra were obtained and interpreted by means of potential energies distributions (PEDs) using MOLVIB program. In addition, the results show that there exists CH?O hydrogen bond in the title compound, which is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis. The predicted NLO properties show that the title compound is a good candidate as nonlinear optical material. The analysis of frontier molecular orbitals shows that HB-CA has high excitation energies, good stability and high chemical hardness. The analysis of MEP map shows the negative and the positive potential sites.
Related JoVE Video
Maternal transfer, distribution, and metabolism of BDE-47 and its related hydroxylated, methoxylated analogs in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OH-PBDEs have been reported to be more potent than the postulated precursor PBDEs or corresponding MeO-PBDEs. However, there are contradictory reports for transformation of these compounds in organisms, particularly, for biotransformation of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, only one study reported transformation of 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in Japanese medaka. In present study zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 in the diet for 20d. Concentrations of each exposed compound were measured in eggs collected on days 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20. After 20d exposure, concentrations of precursor and biotransformation products in liver and liver-free residual carcass were measured by use of GC-MS/MS. Total mass of the five compounds in bodies of adults were: 2'-MeO-BDE-28?6-MeO-BDE-47>BDE-47>2'-OH-BDE-28>6-OH-BDE-47. MeO-PBDEs were also accumulated more into parental fish body than in liver, while OH-PBDEs accumulated in liver more than in liver-free residual carcass. Concentrations in liver of males were greater than those of females. This result suggests sex-related differences in accumulation. Ratios between concentration in eggs and liver (E/L) were: 2.9, 1.7, 0.8, 0.4 and 0.1 for 6-MeO-BDE-47, BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 2'-MeO-BDE-28 and 2'-OH-BDE-28, respectively. This result suggests transfer from adult females to eggs. BDE-47 was not transformed into OH-PBDEs or MeO-PBDEs. Inter-conversions of 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 were observed, with metabolite/precursor concentration ratios for 6-OH-BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 being 3.8%, 14.6%, 2.9% and 76.0%, respectively. Congener-specific differences were observed in distributions between liver and carcass, maternal transfer and transformation. The two MeO-PBDEs were accumulated into adults, transferred to eggs, and were transformed to the structural similar OH-PBDEs, which might be more toxic. BDE-47 was accumulated into adults and transferred from females to eggs, but not transformed to MeO-PBDEs and/or OH-PBDEs. Accumulation of OH-PBDEs into adults as well as rates of transformation of OH-PBDEs to MeO-PBDEs were all several orders of magnitude less. Thus, MeO-PBDEs are likely to present more of a risk in the environment.
Related JoVE Video
Astragalus polysaccharides mediated preventive effects on bronchopulmonary dysplasia in rats.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a multifactor chronic lung disease that mainly affects premature infants. In this study, we investigate the preventive effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on BPD, and explore its potential molecular mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of GW003 on the granulocyte macrophage colony formation ability of bone marrow cells in vitro].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GW003 on the ability of granulocyte colony forming in vitro of bone marrow cells. The bone marrow samples was collected from normal rhesus, the patients with leukemia in stages of remission and chemotherapy respectively, and the nucleated cells were separated and cultured for 12 days after addition of different concentrations of GW003 or rhG-CSF, or G-CSF mutant. Then the amount of colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage was counted. The results indicated that GW003 could enhance the ability of bone marrow nucleated cells of rhesus to forming CFU-GM in vitro, and its effect was much better than that of rhG-CSF or G-CSF mutant at the same concentration(®). The GW003 showed dose-response relationship to CFU-GM level (r = R(2) = 0.965, P = 0.003, in a certain concentration), the GW003 also could enhance CFU-GM formation of marrow nucleated cells in leukemic patients, especially for patients receiving chemotherapy. The GW003 could relieve the marrow suppression caused by chemotherapy significantly. It is concluded that the GW003 can significantly improve the ability of bone marrow cells to form granulocyte colony in vitro as well as effectively alleviate bone marrow suppression.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term use of methamphetamine disrupts the menstrual cycles and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.
J Addict Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long-term use of methamphetamine (MA) induces the neuron damage and leads to multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of MA on the female reproductive functions has not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal menstrual cycling in female MA users.
Related JoVE Video
Association of viral replication capacity with the pathogenicity of enterovirus 71.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, which is associated with fatal neurological disease. The mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis remains obscure. We compared the replication capacity of the severe and mild enterovirus 71 isolates. The replication kinetics of EV71 in RD cells and ICR mice was determined by qRT-PCR. The lung, muscular, brain, intestine tissues were used for histopathological and immunohistochemical assays. The growth curves of EV71 strains in RD cells showed that the severe EV71 strains (SDLY107 and SDLY52) replicated faster and generated more viral RNA than the mild EV71 strains (SDLY11 and SDLY1). The mice infected by the severe EV71 strains (SDLY107) showed more severe clinical symptoms, pathological changes and higher viral load than the mice infected by the mild EV71 strains (SDLY11). These results suggest that there was a difference in replication capacity between the severe and mild EV71 strains, which was possibly associated with EV71 pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and antimetastatic effects of E-salignone amide derivatives.
Drug Dev. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The preparation of novel E-salignone derivatives and their biological evaluation as potential antimetastatic agents is described. The E-salignone amide derivatives were prepared from epiandrosterone and androsterone, and characterized by analytical (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, and mass spectrometry. The derivatives were evaluated for antimetastatic activity in MDA-MB-231 cells by using a transwell assay. Comparing with the positive control, LY294002, compounds 19b, 19d, and 19e exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the EGF-induced invasion of MB-MDA-231 cells. Moreover, compound 19b also had antimigration effects in wound-healing assay. Compound 19b may represent a novel antimetastatic agent for treating breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Association study between interleukin-12 receptor ?1/?2 genes and allergic rhinitis in the Chinese Han population.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays a key role in the protection against allergic reaction induced by allergen as well as the differentiation of T helper 1 cells in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), exerting its biological effects through binding to specific IL-12 receptors (IL-12Rs) termed IL-12R?1 and IL-12R?2. In this study, we investigated the relationship between polymorphisms in the IL-12R gene and AR in the Chinese Han population. A total of 543 patients with AR and 749 normal controls were genotyped for IL-12R?1/rs438421, IL-12R?2/rs3790565, rs3790567, and rs6679356 using a PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The association study of each polymorphism of the IL-12R?1 and IL-12R?2 gene and AR showed that a significantly increased prevalence of the homozygous rs438421 GG genotype and G allele appeared in the AR patients compared with healthy controls. A significantly decreased prevalence of AG in rs438421 in AR patients is compared with healthy controls. Our research demonstrated an important association between polymorphisms in IL-12R?1 and AR in the Chinese Han population. A strong association between rs438421 in a single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-12R?1 and AR was identified.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring of the serum proteome in Kawasaki disease patients before and after immunoglobulin therapy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mainly affects children younger than 5 years. The causal pathogen is unknown, therefore specific diagnostic biomarkers and therapy are unavailable. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is considered as the most effective therapy to reduce the prevalence of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in KD; however, it has side effects. This study aimed to (1) determine whether IVIG therapy is effective at the molecular level; (2) provide the first serum proteomic profile of KD under IVIG therapy; and (3) screen for monitoring biomarker candidates. We extracted serum proteins from samples of healthy individuals and from KD patients before and after IVIG therapy, and employed two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed proteins. The identifications were validated by Western blotting. We identified 29 differentially expressed proteins in KD patients and found that IVIG therapy restored most of these proteins to near-normal levels. Tracing the protein levels of single patients before and after IVIG therapy showed that the proteins, especially Transthyretin (TTR), are potential markers for therapeutic monitoring. Functional analyses of these proteins by PANTHER and String suggested that the key influence of KD lay in the immune system, which was targeted by IVIG.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical characteristics and corticosteroid therapy in patients with autoimmune-hepatitis-induced liver failure.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical features, response to corticosteroids, and prognosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-induced liver failure in China.
Related JoVE Video
Predicting cardioembolic stroke with the B-type natriuretic peptide test: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in differentiating cardioembolic (CE) stroke from other subtypes of ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
An aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand acts on dendritic cells and T cells to suppress the Th17 response in allergic rhinitis patients.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A predominant Th17 population is a marker of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) exhibits strong immunomodulation potential via regulation of the differentiation of T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) after activation by its ligand, such as 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of AhR on Th17 differentiation by investigating the action of ITE on DCs and CD4(+) T cells from patients with AR. In all, 26 AR patients and 12 healthy controls were included in this study. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 in the culture supernatant and the presence of Th17 cells in CD4(+) T cells and DC-CD4(+) T-cell co-culture system were measured before and after treatment with ITE. We show that ITE significantly induced cell secretion of IL-10 and inhibited IL-1? and IL-6 production in DCs, and promoted IL-10 production and suppressed IL-17 expression in CD4(+) T cells in vitro. It also suppressed the expansion of Th17 cells in vitro. Our work demonstrates that ITE acts on DCs and CD4(+) T cells to inhibit the Th17 response that suppresses AR; the AhR-DC-Th17 axis may be an important pathway in the treatment of AR. ITE, a nontoxic AhR ligand, attenuated the Th17 response; thus, it appears to be a promising therapeutic candidate for suppressing the inflammatory responses associated with AR.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic value of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 and toll-like receptor 4 in breast cancer patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer remains a major cause of death in women worldwide, and tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients after conventional treatment. Chronic inflammation is often related to the occurrence and growth of various malignancies. This study evaluated the prognosis of breast cancer patients based on contributors to the innate immune response: myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between SERPING1 rs2511989 polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration risk: A meta-analysis.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We conducted a meta-analysis aiming to evaluate the relationship between a common polymorphism (rs2511989 G>A) in the SERPING1 gene and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Related JoVE Video
Genetic analysis of the Gdh and Bg genes of animal-derived Giardia duodenalis isolates in Northeastern China and evaluation of zoonotic transmission potential.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle) at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Critical amino acids within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein V4 N- and C-terminals contribute to virus entry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The importance of the fourth variable (V4) region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) in virus infection has not been well clarified, though the polymorphism of this region has been found to be associated with disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the present work, we focused on the correlation between HIV-1 gp120 V4 region polymorphism and the function of the region on virus entry, and the possible mechanisms for how the V4 region contributes to virus infectivity. Therefore, we analyzed the differences in V4 sequences along with coreceptor usage preference from CCR5 to CXCR4 and examined the importance of the amino acids within the V4 region for CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic virus entry. In addition, we determined the influence of the V4 amino acids on Env expression and gp160 processing intracellularly, as well as the amount of Env on the pseudovirus surface. The results indicated that V4 tended to have a shorter length, fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS), greater evolutionary distance, and a lower negative net charge when HIV-1 isolates switched from a coreceptor usage preference for CCR5 to CXCR4. The N- and C-terminals of the HIV-1 V4 region are highly conserved and critical to maintain virus entry ability, but only the mutation at position 417 in the context of ADA (a R5-tropic HIV-1 strain) resulted in the ability to utilize CXCR4. In addition, 390L, 391F, 414I, and 416L are critical to maintain gp160 processing and maturation. It is likely that the hydrophobic properties and the electrostatic surface potential of gp120, rather than the conformational structure, greatly contribute to this V4 functionality. The findings provide information to aid in the understanding of the functions of V4 in HIV-1 entry and offer a potential target to aid in the development of entry inhibitors.
Related JoVE Video
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22-October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%).
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of rice straw returning on the community structure and diversity of nitrogen-fixing gene (nifH) in paddy soil].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Taking a long-term fertilization experiment in Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem Research Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences as the platform, and selecting four treatments (no fertilization, CK; rice straw returning, C; nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization, NPK; and NPK+C) as the objects, soil samples were collected at the tillering, booting and maturing stages of rice, and the abundance, composition and diversity of nifH-containing bacterial community were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), aimed to understand the effects of rice straw returning on the nifH-containing bacterial community in paddy soil. Compared with CK, treatments NPK+C and NPK increased the abundance of nifH-containing microorganisms significantly (except at tillering stage), and NPK+C had the highest abundance of nifH-containing microorganisms. Under the effects of long-term fertilization, the composition of nifH gene community in CK differed obviously from that in the other three treatments. The nifH composition had definite difference between C and NPK, but less difference between NPK and NPK+C. Long-term fertilization did not induce significant changes in nifH diversity. Therefore, long-term rice straw returning not only induced the changes of nifH gene community composition, but also resulted in a significant increase in the abundance of nifH-containing community, and hence, the increase of soil nitrogen fixing capacity.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) on scar formation after glaucoma filtration surgery.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glaucoma filtering surgery (GFS) is the most common procedure performed in the treatment of glaucoma. Although antiscarring agents help prevent postsurgical scarring and improve glaucoma surgical outcomes, they may be associated with an increased incidence of severe and potentially blinding complications. Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLLA/GA) is a bioresorbable polymer, which can be prepared with a large range of physical, mechanical, and biological properties and has been widely used in medicine, including as an absorbable suture and a drug carrier and especially as a scaffold in tissue engineering. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PDLLA/GA on scar formation after glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS).
Related JoVE Video
[N2O flux in winter and its affecting factors under different land use patterns].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Due to the low temperature in winter, the emissions of greenhouse gas are often neglected. And the latest research results showed that there is continuous N2O emission in winter, therefore, research on understanding the No2O flux regulation is important for evaluating agricultural soil N2O emission. By using static chamber techniques, the N2O emission from soils under different land use patterns including fallow paddy field, rape cropping, honey pomelo orchard and abandon land in Taoyuan agricultural ecological experimental station of Chinese Academy of Sciences was measured. The results showed that fallow paddy field and rape cropping N2O emissions were obviously higher than those of the honey pomelo orchard and abandon land, and the total N2O flux in winter decreased in the order of rape cropping > fallow paddy field > honey pomelo orchard > abandon land. Cumulative N2O emission was 0.502, 0.392, 0.162 and 0.075 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Fallow paddy field and rape cropping N2O emissions accounted for large proportions of the annual N2O emissions, while honey pomelo orchard and abandon land had small contribution to the annual N2O emissions. The correlation analysis results showed that for different land use patterns, when the soil temperature > 5 degrees C, N2O emissions in winter and soil temperature had significant positive exponential correlation, and had little to do with moisture. This research showed that: when the soil temperature > 5 degrees C, the soil temperature was the leading factor in N2O emissions in winter under different land patterns; When the soil temperature < 5 degrees C, other environmental factors had comprehensive influences on the N2O emissions.
Related JoVE Video
Sulfur-Containing Cytotoxic Curvularin Macrolides from Penicillium sumatrense MA-92, a Fungus Obtained from the Rhizosphere of the Mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sumalarins A-C (1-3), the new and rare examples of sulfur-containing curvularin derivatives, along with three known analogues (4-6), were isolated and identified from the cytotoxic extract of Penicillium sumatrense MA-92, a fungus obtained from the rhizosphere of the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa . Their structures were established by detailed interpretation of NMR and MS data, and compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 1-3 and 5 showed potent cytotoxicity against some of the tested tumor cell lines. Sulfur substitution at C-11 or a double bond at C-10 significantly increased the cytotoxic activities of the curvularin analogues.
Related JoVE Video
Cardioprotection of Shenfu preparata on cardiac myocytes through cytochrome P450 2J3.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate whether Shenfu injection (SFI) protects against cardiac myocyte injury induced by Fupian injection (FPI) in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Novel recurrent neural network for modelling biological networks: Oscillatory p53 interaction dynamics.
BioSystems
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the control of cellular networks consisting of gene and protein interactions and their emergent properties is a central activity of Systems Biology research. For this, continuous, discrete, hybrid, and stochastic methods have been proposed. Currently, the most common approach to modelling accurate temporal dynamics of networks is ordinary differential equations (ODE). However, critical limitations of ODE models are difficulty in kinetic parameter estimation and numerical solution of a large number of equations, making them more suited to smaller systems. In this article, we introduce a novel recurrent artificial neural network (RNN) that addresses above limitations and produces a continuous model that easily estimates parameters from data, can handle a large number of molecular interactions and quantifies temporal dynamics and emergent systems properties. This RNN is based on a system of ODEs representing molecular interactions in a signalling network. Each neuron represents concentration change of one molecule represented by an ODE. Weights of the RNN correspond to kinetic parameters in the system and can be adjusted incrementally during network training. The method is applied to the p53-Mdm2 oscillation system - a crucial component of the DNA damage response pathways activated by a damage signal. Simulation results indicate that the proposed RNN can successfully represent the behaviour of the p53-Mdm2 oscillation system and solve the parameter estimation problem with high accuracy. Furthermore, we presented a modified form of the RNN that estimates parameters and captures systems dynamics from sparse data collected over relatively large time steps. We also investigate the robustness of the p53-Mdm2 system using the trained RNN under various levels of parameter perturbation to gain a greater understanding of the control of the p53-Mdm2 system. Its outcomes on robustness are consistent with the current biological knowledge of this system. As more quantitative data become available on individual proteins, the RNN would be able to refine parameter estimation and mapping of temporal dynamics of individual signalling molecules as well as signalling networks as a system. Moreover, RNN can be used to modularise large signalling networks.
Related JoVE Video
[Research on the incompatibility of Radix adenophorae, Radix glehniae combined with Veratrum nigrum L. by uniform designed toxicity assay].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the toxicity changes of different proportions of Radix Adenophorae, Radix Glehniae combined with Veratrum nigrum L., thus providing acute toxicity data and investigating whether decoction factors were correlated with toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of shenfu injection on CYP450s of rat liver].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The paper is to report the study of the effect of Shenfu injection on the enzyme activity of liver CYP450 and its mRNA level of rat liver. Microsome of rat liver was prepared after intravenous administration of Shenfu injection for 7 days. The enzyme activity was quantified by Cocktail method. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2C11 and CYP3A1 in the liver was detected by RT-PCR. Shenfu injection obviously induced the enzyme activities of CYP2B and CYP2C. Meantime Shenfu injection decreased the enzyme activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A. The mRNA levels of CYP2B and CYP2C were also induced in rats treated with Shenfu injection. But it obviously inhibited the mRNA level of CYP1A2 and CYP3A. Since the enzyme activity and mRNA level were obviously changed after administration, the potential effect of drug-drug interaction should be concerned.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of periostin predicts poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The periostin protein, encoded by the POSTN gene, is a component of the extracellular matrix, which is expressed by fibroblasts and has been observed in a variety of human malignancies. The present study aimed to detect the expression of periostin in the tissues of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and benign lung tumors, and to correlate the results with the clinicopathological data of the subjects, in order to evaluate periostin as a potential prognostic marker. In total, 49 NSCLC patients and 6 benign lung tumors were included in this study. The protein level of periostin was detected in paired normal/paratumor/cancer tissues by a western blot analysis and the mRNA level in paired normal/cancer tissues was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results were then correlated with established biological and prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the location of periostin in the NSCLC tissues. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed using Coxs proportional hazards regression model. The protein level of periostin was elevated in the cancer tissue of the NSCLC patients compared with the normal (P=0.017) and paratumor (P=0.000) tissues. The expression level in the male patients was much higher than in the female patients at the protein (P=0.001) and mRNA (P=0.010) levels. The mRNA level in the non-adenocarcinoma (non-ADC) patients was much higher than in the adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients (P=0.029). Periostin was demonstrated higher expression at the protein level in the pseudotumors and tuberculosis patients than in the adjacent (P=0.016) and surrounding tissues (P=0.001). Immunostaining indicated that high levels of periostin were present in the mesenchymal areas, but not in the cancer cells themselves. The patients with tumors exhibiting high-level periostin expression showed a significantly shorter survival time (P=0.036, log-rank test). The 3-year survival rate was 81.5% for patients with low-level periostin expression (periostin-L; n=27) and 45.4% for patients with high-level periostin expression (periostin-H; n=22). Similarly, pathological node (pN) status was a significant prognostic marker in the univariate Cox survival analysis. Notably, periostin-H expression was also identified as an independent prognostic factor by the multivariate analysis (P=0.011). These results showed that the overexpression of periostin predicts a poor prognosis, therefore it may be regarded as a novel molecule in the progression and development of NSCLC. The results provide an additional target for the adjuvant treatment of NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of genetic diversity of HIV-1 nef genes from a patient with AIDS dementia complex].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the genetic diversity of HIV-1 nef genes from a patient with AIDS dementia complex(ADC) , so as to research the amino acid variability and the pathogenesis of ADC.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of clinical and laboratory characteristics in 42 patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura from a single center in China.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disease characterized by microvascular platelet deposition and thrombus formation with resulting microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Deficiency of the von Willebrand factor cleavage protease, also known as ADAMTS 13, has been implicated as an important etiological factor in TTP. Little studies were obtained on Chinese patients with TTP until now. Our aim was to analyze the clinical features, outcome and laboratory characteristics of Chinese TTP patients, and determine whether plasma ADAMTS 13 activity is decreased in TTP and its diagnostic value for TTP. Forty-two TTP patients (29 females; 13 males) admitted to our hospital from 1998 to 2010 were analyzed. There were 34 patients (81%) with the triad of TTP, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and neurologic abnormalities; 7 (16.7%) had the classical pentad of TTP. Major etiologic factors were acquired autoimmunological abnormalities (31%); no familial TTP was identified in this series. The schistocytes of peripheral blood smears were present in all cases with a mean frequency of 4.6% (range from 0.3% to 13.4%). Plasma ADAMTS 13 activity was determined in 22 patients with the FRET-vWF86 assay. Only 4 idiopathic TTP patients (18.2%) had severe ADAMTS 13 deficiency (activity<10%); 9 (40.9%) had moderate decrease of ADAMTS 13 activity (activity: 10-40%); another 9 (40.91%) had normal ADAMTS 13 activity (>40%). T lymphocyte subpopulation was measured in 23 TTP patients with FACS Calibur; 14 of the 23 (60.9%) had significantly decreased CD4 cells count and CD4/CD8 ratio, suggesting cellular immune dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of TTP. In the studies, plasmapheresis is the main therapeutic method. 26 of 31 patients (83.9%) accepting plasmapheresis achieved complete remission; those patients who only underwent plasma infusion had low remission rate (18.2%) and high mortality (9/11; 81.8%). Four patients with packed RBC infusion manifested transient exacerbation of neurologic or psychiatric symptoms. In conclusion, the diagnosis of TTP in China is still based on clinical features including evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis. Severe ADAMTS 13 activity deficiency might be a valuable indicator for idiopathic TTP diagnosis. Further studies are needed to determine the real value of ADAMTS 13 activity for TTP diagnosis and whether T lymphocytes subset dysregulation plays important role in TTP pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Radioprotective effect of adenine on irradiation-induced apoptosis.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the radioprotective effect of adenine on irradiated lymphocytes and discover the possible mechanisms of protection.
Related JoVE Video
Unsedated versus sedated gastrointestinal endoscopy: A questionnaire investigation in Wuhan, central China.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
National data show that in China mainland unsedated gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has been applied in most hospitals for clinical examination, while sedated GI endoscopy is only performed in some hospitals. The purpose of this study was to compare sedated versus unsedated GI endoscopy regarding cost, safety, degree of comfort, tolerance level and overall satisfaction of patients over a 6-month period investigation. From March to September 2011, a questionnaire survey was performed on 1800 patients and 30 physicians at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command. The patients fell into two groups according to their own decisions: the unsedated group (n=1000) and the sedated group (n=800). After examination, the patients and the physicians were required to fill in a questionnaire form. All the data were analyzed statistically. The results showed that the main factors the patients took for consideration between sedated and unsedated procedures included economy, comfort and safety. The income levels between the sedated and unsedated groups showed significant difference (P<0.01). Most patients in the unsedated group had lower income and were covered by less medical insurance. The tolerance rate was 92.4% vs. 65.5% between the sedated and unsedated group, respectively. 95.5% patients in the sedated group and 72.1% patients in the unsedated group chose the same endoscopy procedure for repeat examination. The survey data from endoscopists suggested the sedated procedure was more comfortable but less safe than the unsedated procedure (P<0.01). In China, unsedated GI endoscopy is now widely accepted by the majority of patients due to low cost and safety. Compared to unsedated GI endoscopy, sedated GI endoscopy is less painful, but more expensive and less safe. With the rapid improvement of peoples living standard and the reliability of sedation technology, we expect sedated GI endoscopy will be gradually accepted by more patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Serum screening of celiac disease in Chinese adults with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in Hubei, China].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To screen the prevalence of celiac disease with serologic markers in the central Chinese population, specifically in patients with chronic diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS).
Related JoVE Video
Structural mechanism of replication stalling on a bulky amino-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adduct by a y family DNA polymerase.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro derivatives are culprits of the detrimental health effects of environmental pollution. These hydrophobic compounds metabolize to reactive species and attach to DNA producing bulky lesions, such as N-[deoxyguanosine-8-yl]-1-aminopyrene (APG), in genomic DNA. The bulky adducts block DNA replication by high-fidelity polymerases and compromise replication fidelities and efficiencies by specialized lesion bypass polymerases. Here we present three crystal structures of the DNA polymerase Dpo4, a model translesion DNA polymerase of the Y family, in complex with APG-lesion-containing DNA in pre-insertion and extension stages. APG is captured in two conformations in the pre-insertion complex; one is highly exposed to the solvent, whereas the other is harbored in a shallow cleft between the finger and unique Y family little finger domain. In contrast, APG is in a single conformation at the extension stage, in which the pyrene ring is sandwiched between the little finger domain and a base from the turning back single-stranded template strand. Strikingly, a nucleotide intercalates the DNA helix to form a quaternary complex with Dpo4, DNA, and an incoming nucleotide, which stabilizes the distorted DNA structure at the extension stage. The unique APG DNA conformations in Dpo4 inhibit DNA translocation through the polymerase active site for APG bypass. We also modeled an insertion complex that illustrates a solvent-exposed pyrene ring contributing to an unstable insertion state. The structural work combined with our lesion replication assays provides a novel structural mechanism on bypass of DNA adducts containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon moieties.
Related JoVE Video
Differential diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis with complements C3 and C4 and C-reactive protein.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in complements C3 and C4 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate the role of these indices in the differential diagnosis of SLE and RA. The first 347 patients with SLE, 382 patients with RA and 66 patients with erythema nodosum were selected for the measurement of complement and CRP levels in the serum, the erythema nodosum patients were the control group. The roles of the complements and CRP in the differential diagnosis and disease activity evaluation of SLE and RA were analyzed with SPSS 13.0. Complement C3 and C4 levels were significantly reduced in patients with SLE compared with those in the control group. However, in RA patients, the CRP level was increased. In addition, the levels of complements C3 and C4 in patients with SLE were much lower than those in patients with RA and the level of CRP in RA patients was much higher than that in patients with SLE. The reduction of complement C3 levels in SLE patients, and increase of CRP and complement C4 in patients with RA were associated with a higher risk of joint pain, butterfly rash and oral ulcer. These results show that the disease activity of SLE was negatively correlated with complement C3 and C4, and the disease activity of RA was positively correlated with CRP. With the increase in disease activity, the levels of complements C3 and C4 in patients with SLE were gradually reduced and the level of CRP in patients with RA was increased. There were distinctive differences in the levels of complements C3 and C4 and CRP between SLE and RA patients. The differences are useful in disease activity evaluation and the differential diagnosis of the two diseases that have similar symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
[MSCT diagnosis of foot and ankle tendon injury].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the MSCT features and diagnosis of foot and ankle tendon injury and improve the recognition to avoid the missed.
Related JoVE Video
[Screening of pregnane X receptor activation from ginsenosides].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to study effects of ginseng on the metabolism of drug belong to CYP3A4 substrate, screening of pregnane X receptor activation from ginsenosides was performed by reporter assay. Based on PXR-CYP3A stable translation cell lines, 13 ginsenosides were screened for pregnane X receptor activation by reporter assays, and RIF as the positive control. The effect of ginsenosides Rg1 onCYP3A4 mRNA expression was also investigated by RT-PCR. The PXR-CYP3A stable translation cell lines had good response to RIF, and the EC50 is 2.51 micro mol x L(-1). When the condition of final concentration was 10 micromol x L(-1), ginsenoside F2 and protopanaxatriol had moderate inductive effects on PXR. Panaxotriol, Rg2, pseudoginsenoside F11, Rg1, ginsenoside and Rb3 had inhibitory effects on PXR. Ginsenoside Rf1, Rg3, Rh2 and protopanaxdiol had no obvious effects on PXR. Rg1 down-regulated CYP3A4 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation of pregnane X receptor by ginsenosides may influence the metabolism of drug belong to CYP3A4 substrate, and cause ginseng-drug interactions.
Related JoVE Video
Simple multiplex PCR assay for identification of Beijing family Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with a lineage-specific mutation in Rv0679c.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to be a worldwide epidemic clade. It is suggested to be a possibly resistant clone against BCG vaccination and is also suggested to be highly pathogenic and prone to becoming drug resistant. Thus, monitoring the prevalence of this lineage seems to be important for the proper control of tuberculosis. The Rv0679c protein of M. tuberculosis has been predicted to be one of the outer membrane proteins and is suggested to contribute to host cell invasion. Here, we conducted a sequence analysis of the Rv0679c gene using clinical isolates and found that a single nucleotide polymorphism, C to G at position 426, can be observed only in the isolates that are identified as members of the Beijing genotype family. Here, we developed a simple multiplex PCR assay to detect this point mutation and applied it to 619 clinical isolates. The method successfully distinguished Beijing lineage clones from non-Beijing strains with 100% accuracy. This simple, quick, and cost-effective multiplex PCR assay can be used for a survey or for monitoring the prevalence of Beijing genotype M. tuberculosis strains.
Related JoVE Video
Xanthones with anti-hepatitis B virus activity from Swertia mussotii.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new xanthones, 8-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-1-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone (1) and 8-O-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-1-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone (2), along with eighteen known xanthones (3-20) were isolated from Swertia mussotii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, UV, IR, [?]D). All compounds were evaluated for their anti-hepatitis B virus activities on HepG 2.2.15 cells line in vitro, and compounds 3-10 exhibited significant activity inhibiting hepatitis B virus DNA replication with IC50 values from 0.01 mM to 0.13 mM. Compounds 3-5 showed remarkable activity with IC50 values of 0.77, > 0.98, and 0.21 mM for HBsAg, and < 0.62, 0.35, and 0.04 mM for HBeAg, respectively. Meanwhile, the effects of different substitutions on the anti-hepatitis B virus activity of xanthones from S. mussotii were discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Complete genome sequencing and analysis of six enterovirus 71 strains with different clinical phenotypes.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) presents a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile disease to fatal neurolocal disease. However, the mechanism of virulence is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Significance of the IL-6 pathway in nasal polyposis in Chinese patients.
Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway is known to be important in Th17 cell differentiation and in the pathology of many inflammatory disorders. However, the significance of the IL-6 pathway in nasal polyposis (NP) in Chinese patients remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Role of N-linked glycosylation of the human parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) is a major respiratory tract pathogen that affects infants and young children. The hPIV-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein is a multifunctional protein mediating hemadsorption (HAD), neuraminidase (NA), and fusion promotion activities, each of which affects the ability of HN to promote viral fusion and entry. The hPIV-3 HN protein contains four potential sites (N308, N351, N485 and N523) for N-linked glycosylation. Electrophoretic mobility analysis of mutated HN proteins indicated that N308, N351 and N523 sites, but not the N485 site in HN protein, were targeted for the addition of glycans in BHK-21 cells. These functional glycosylation sites were systematically eliminated in various combinations from HN to form a panel of mutants in which the roles of individual carbohydrate chains and groups of carbohydrate chains could be analyzed. Removal of individual or multiple N-glycans on the hPIV-3 HN protein had no effects on transport to the cell surface, expression and NA activity. Single glycosylation site mutants (G1, G2 and G4) not only impaired fusion promotion activity but also reduced HAD activity of HN protein, which was even more obvious for all three double mutants (G12, G14 and G24) and the triple mutant (G124). In addition, every mutant protein retained F-interactive capability that was equal to the wild-type protein capability. Interestingly, the F protein that could be co-immunoprecipitated with the G12 mutated protein or immunoprecipitated with anti-F antibody was not efficiently cleaved. For G14, G24 and G124, little cleaved F protein was detected in co-immuoprecipitation F protein assay and its total amounts where in the cell lysates. The mechanism underlying hPIV-3 HN and F protein remained associated before and after receptor engagement and the strength of the HN-receptor interaction modulated the activation of F the protein which could determine the extent of fusion. Finally, we demonstrated that single or multiple N-glycosylation site mutations inhibited fusion at the earliest stages. Taken together, these results indicated that N-glycosylation of hPIV-3 HN is critical to its receptor recognition activity, cleavage of the F protein, and fusion promotion activity, but had no influence on its interaction with the homologous F protein and NA activity.
Related JoVE Video
Nitro-oleic acid protects against adriamycin-induced nephropathy in mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adriamycin (ADR) administration in susceptible rodents such as the BALB/c mouse strain produces injury to the glomerulus mimicking human focal glomerular sclerosis. The goal of the present study was to use this model to investigate antiproteinuric action of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2), a nitric oxide-derived endogenous lipid product, which has exhibited multiple attractive signaling properties particularly in the kidney. BALB/c mice were pretreated for 2 days with OA-NO2 at 5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) via an osmotic minipump, followed by a single injection of vehicle or adriamycin (10 mg/kg) via the tail vein. Albuminuria and renal function were analyzed at 1 wk post-ADR treatment. ADR mice developed prominent albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and severe ascites. In contrast, the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome were greatly improved by OA-NO2 treatment. In parallel, plasma creatinine and plasma urea nitrogen were elevated in the ADR group, and the severity was less in the ADR+OA-NO2 group. OA-NO2 attenuates ADR-induced glomerulosclerosis, podocyte loss, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Indices of oxidative stress, including plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and renal expression of NAD(P)H oxidase p47(phox) and gp91(phox), and inflammation, including renal expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and MCP-1 in response to ADR, were all similarly suppressed. Together, these findings suggest that OA-NO2 exerts renoprotective action against ADR nephropathy likely via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of extremely severe hand, foot and mouth disease infected by enterovirus 71.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To clarify the molecular mechanisms that participate in the severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) infected by Enterovirus 71 and to detect any related protein biomarkers, we performed proteomic analysis of protein extracts from 5 extremely severe HFMD children and 5 healthy children.
Related JoVE Video
Three new secoiridoids, swermacrolactones A-C and anti-hepatitis B virus activity from Swertia macrosperma.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three new secoiridoids, swermacrolactones A-C (1-3), together with fourteen known compounds were isolated from Swertia macrosperma. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (IR, UV, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). By anti-HBV assay on the Hep G 2.2.15 cell line in vitro, the most active compound, luteolin (9), inhibited the secretion of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) with IC50 values of 0.02 and 0.02 mM, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution and genetic characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned dairy calves in Northeastern Chinas Heilongjiang Province.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cryptosporidium spp. are common parasites of humans and animals. Farm animals, especially pre-weaned calves, are considered to be one of main animal reservoir hosts of Cryptosporidium in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned calves using molecular tools and to assess zoonotic transmission and elucidate the public health significance in northeastern China.
Related JoVE Video
A real-time PCR for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus in penaeid shrimp.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a recently observed shrimp virus, which threats the cultured Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry. The specific aim of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of shrimp IMNV. A real-time PCR assay with a pair of primers to specifically amplify a 101bp IMNV cDNA fragment and a corresponding TaqMan probe was developed, which shown to be specific for IMNV without cross reaction with DNA samples prepared from four other shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic virus (IHHNV). The method could detect as low as one single copy of IMNV plasmid cDNA.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.