Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for extracellular vesicle-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging.
Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. As with the other rare inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, the study of these disorders provides important insights into basic biology and, in the case of DBA, ribosome biology; the disruption of which characterizes the disorder. Thus DBA serves as a paradigm for translational medicine in which the efforts of clinicians to manage DBA have informed laboratory scientists who, in turn, have stimulated clinical researchers to utilize scientific discovery to provide improved care. In this review we describe the clinical syndrome Diamond Blackfan anemia and, in particular, we demonstrate how the study of DBA has allowed scientific inquiry to create opportunities for progress in its understanding and treatment.
Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency. DBA exhibits marked phenotypic variability, commonly presenting with erythroid hypoplasia, less consistently with non-erythroid features. The p53 pathway, activated by abortive ribosome assembly, is hypothesized to contribute to the erythroid failure of DBA. We studied murine embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring a gene trap mutation in a ribosomal protein gene, either Rps19 or Rpl5. Both mutants exhibited ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency and polysome defects. Rps19 mutant ES cells showed significant increase in p53 protein expression, however, there was no similar increase in the Rpl5 mutant cells. Embryoid body formation was diminished in both mutants but nonspecifically rescued by knockdown of p53. When embryoid bodies were further differentiated to primitive erythroid colonies, both mutants exhibited a marked reduction in colony formation, which was again nonspecifically rescued by p53 inhibition. Cell cycle analyses were normal in Rps19 mutant ES cells, but there was a significant delay in the G2/M phase in the Rpl5 mutant cells, which was unaffected by p53 knockdown. Concordantly, Rpl5 mutant ES cells had a more pronounced growth defect in liquid culture compared to the Rps19 mutant cells. We conclude that the defects in our RPS19 and RPL5 haploinsufficient mouse ES cells are not adequately explained by p53 stabilization, as p53 knockdown appears to increase the growth and differentiation potential of both parental and mutant cells. Our studies demonstrate that gene trap mouse ES cells are useful tools to study the pathogenesis of DBA.
Classical 5q- syndrome is an acquired macrocytic anemia of the elderly. Similar to Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), an inherited red cell aplasia, the bone marrow is characterized by a paucity of erythroid precursors. RPS14 deletions in combination with other deletions in the region have been implicated as causative of the 5q- syndrome phenotype. We asked whether smaller, less easily detectable deletions could account for a syndrome with a modified phenotype. We employed single-nucleotide polymorphism array genotyping to identify small deletions in patients diagnosed with DBA and other anemias lacking molecular diagnoses. Diminutive mosaic deletions involving RPS14 were identified in a 5-year-old patient with nonclassical DBA and in a 17-year-old patient with myelodysplastic syndrome. Patients with nonclassical DBA and other hypoproliferative anemias may have somatically acquired 5q deletions with RPS14 haploinsufficiency not identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization or cytogenetic testing, thus refining the spectrum of disorders with 5q- deletions.
Spectrin tetramer is the major structural member of the membrane-associated skeletal network of red cells. We show here that disruption of the spectrin-ankyrin-band 3 link to the membrane leads to dissociation of a large proportion of the tetramers into dimers. Noncovalent perturbation of the linkage was induced by a peptide containing the ankyrin-binding site of the spectrin beta-chain, and covalent perturbation by treatment with the thiol reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). This reagent left the intrinsic self-association capacity of the spectrin dimers unaffected and disturbed only the ankyrin-band 3 interaction. The dissociation of spectrin tetramers on the membrane into functional dimers was confirmed by the binding of a spectrin peptide directed against the self-association sites. Dissociation of the tetramers resulted, we infer, from detachment of the proximal ends of the constituent dimers from the membrane, thereby reducing their proximity to one another and thus weakening their association. The measured affinity of the interaction of the peptides with the free dimer ends on the membrane permits an estimate of the equilibrium between intact and dissociated tetramers on the native membrane. This indicates that in the physiological state the equilibrium proportion of the dissociated tetramers may be as high as 5-10%. These findings enabled us to identify an additional important functional role for the spectrin-ankyrin-band 3 link in regulating spectrin self-association in the red cell membrane.
In addition to the loss of all the internal compartments, reticulocyte maturation is characterized by an extensive membrane remodeling. Exosomal secretion contributes to this process by eliminating specific proteins.
Reticulocytes release small membrane vesicles termed exosomes during their maturation into erythrocytes. Exosomes are intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes released into the extracellular medium by fusion of these endosomal compartments with the plasma membrane. This secretion pathway contributes to reticulocyte plasma membrane remodeling by eliminating certain membrane glycoproteins. We show in this study that galectin-5, although mainly cytosolic, is also present on the cell surface of rat reticulocytes and erythrocytes. In addition, in reticulocytes, it resides in the endosomal compartment. We document galectin-5 translocation from the cytosol into the endosome lumen, leading to its secretion in association with exosomes. Galectin-5 bound onto the vesicle surface may function in sorting galactose-bearing glycoconjugates. Fittingly, we found that Lamp2, a major cellular glycoprotein presenting galectin-reactive poly-N-acetylactosamine chains, is lost during reticulocyte maturation. It is associated with released exosomes, suggestive of binding to galectin-5. Finally, we reveal that the uptake of rat reticulocyte exosomes by macrophages is dependent on temperature and the mechanoenzyme dynamin and that exosome uptake is decreased by adding galectin-5. These data imply galectin-5 functionality in the exosomal sorting pathway during rat reticulocyte maturation.
Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), the universal water channel, is responsible for rapid response of cell volume to changes in plasma tonicity. In the membrane of the red cell the concentration of the protein is tightly controlled. Here, we show that AQP-1 is partially lost during in vitro maturation of mouse reticulocytes and that it is associated with exosomes, released throughout this process. AQP-1 in young reticulocytes localizes to the plasma membrane and also in endosomal compartments and exosomes, formed both in vitro and in vivo. During maturation a part of the total pool of AQP-1 is differentially sorted and released via the exosomal pathway. A proteasome inhibitor, MG132, suppresses secretion of AQP-1, implying that ubiquitination is a sorting signal for its release. We further show that modulation of medium tonicity in vitro regulates the secretion of AQP-1, thus showing that extracellular osmotic conditions can drive sorting of selected proteins by the exosomal pathway. These results lead us to suggest that AQP-1 sorting into exosomes may be the mechanism by which the reticulocyte adapts to environmental changes during its maturation.
Although significant progress has been made in the past decades in our understanding of bone marrow failure syndromes and anemia, many pathological conditions of unknown origin remain. Mouse models have significantly contributed to our understanding of normal erythropoiesis and the pathogenesis of erythroid disorders. Recently, we identified in the scat (severe combined anemia and thrombocytopenia) mouse model a missense mutation (G125V) in the Rasa3 gene, encoding a Ras GTPase activating protein (GAP). RASA3 is lost during reticulocyte maturation through the exosomal pathway and is therefore absent in mature erythrocytes. In wild-type reticulocytes, RASA3 is bound to the plasma membrane, a prerequisite for its GAP activity, but is mislocalized to the cytosol in scat. This mislocalization leads to RASA3 loss of function and higher levels of Ras-GTP, the active form of Ras, are consistently found in scat mature red cells. Finally, RASA3 function is conserved among vertebrates, since erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis are impaired in zebrafish in which rasa3 is knocked-down by morpholinos, and RASA3 is expressed in human erythroleukemia cells as well as in primary cells. In this commentary, we highlight the critical, conserved and non-redundant function of RASA3 in the context of vertebrate erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. We notably discuss the mechanism of RASA3 downregulation and speculate on the most intriguing part of the phenotype observed in scat; the transient remission period.
Phenotype-driven approaches to gene discovery using inbred mice have been instrumental in identifying genetic determinants of inherited blood dyscrasias. The recessive mutant scat (severe combined anemia and thrombocytopenia) alternates between crisis and remission episodes, indicating an aberrant regulatory feedback mechanism common to erythrocyte and platelet formation. Here, we identify a missense mutation (G125V) in the scat Rasa3 gene, encoding a Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), and elucidate the mechanism producing crisis episodes. The mutation causes mislocalization of RASA3 to the cytosol in scat red cells where it is inactive, leading to increased GTP-bound Ras. Erythropoiesis is severely blocked in scat crisis mice, and ~94% succumb during the second crisis (~30 d of age) from catastrophic hematopoietic failure in the spleen and bone marrow. Megakaryopoiesis is also defective during crisis. Notably, the scat phenotype is recapitulated in zebrafish when rasa3 is silenced. These results highlight a critical, conserved, and nonredundant role for RASA3 in vertebrate hematopoiesis.
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