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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Purification of high ammonia wastewater in a biofilm airlift loop bioreactor with microbial communities analysis.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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A 70 m(3) gas-liquid-solid three-phase flow airlift loop bioreactor, in which biofilm attached on granular active carbon carriers, was used for purification of the high ammonia wastewater from bioethanol production. Under the optimum operating conditions, COD and NH4 (+)-N average removal rate of 89.0 and 98.6 % were obtained at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Scanning electron microscopy was applied for observation of the biofilm formation. High contaminants removal efficiency was achieved by holding high biomass concentration in the reactor due to the attached biofilm over the carriers. The 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis indicated that 68.6 % of the clones were affiliated with the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and residual clones clustered with various sequences from uncultured bacteria. The presence of various anoxic/anaerobic bacteria indicated that the oxygen gradient inside the biofilm could provide appropriate micro-environment for nitrogen removal through simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.
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A comprehensive evaluation of fasting serum gastrin-17 as a predictor of diseased stomach in Chinese population.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Fasting serum gastrin-17 (FsG17) is considered as a noninvasive biomarker reflecting the structure and functional status of gastric mucosa, but its clinical utility remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate FsG17 comprehensively: establish the ranges and cut-off points of FsG17 levels in different gastric diseases, identify their influencing factors, and investigate the accuracy of FsG17 for identifying diseased stomach.
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Rosuvastatin reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but no clinical studies have investigated the role of statins in ischemia-reperfusion injury after PCI.
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Alterations in the serum proteome profile during the development of ovarian cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other malignant tumor of the female reproductive system. This is because the condition usually goes undetected until the late stages. The purpose of the present study is to identify alterations in the serum proteome profile during the development of ovarian cancer and to provide an experimental basis for discovering new and valuable serum biomarkers for the early detection of ovarian carcinoma. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to profile changes in the serum proteome of Fischer 344 rats with ovarian cancer during the progress of tumor development. Sera were collected from the rats on day A (1 week before injection of tumor cells), day B (4 weeks after injection), and day C (6 weeks after injection). Each sample was subjected to SELDI-TOF-MS testing. Peak detection and alignment and selection of peaks with the highest discriminatory power were performed using proteinchip biomarker software. Decision tree analyses were performed using biomarker pattern software. Finally, 3 peaks were found to be the most valuable ones (3759, 4659 and 9318 Da). The expression frequency of m/z 3759-Da peaks was downregulated and another two frequencies (4659 and 9318 Da) were upregulated, and the levels of expression of these three proteins showed the same tendency as the expression frequency during the development of ovarian cancer. The total accuracy rate of diagnosis at 4 and 6 weeks post-injection was 94.7 and 97.3%, respectively. Profiling the serum proteome changes during the process of the cancer development using SELDI-TOF-MS may provide useful information regarding carcinogenesis and facilitate discovery of novel serum biomarkers for early detection.
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Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18-44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Twenty elements were analyzed in blood and 3 in urine. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis were higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Urinary cadmium and lead were not related to fibroid diagnosis. Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. Differences between urinary and whole blood findings merit further investigation, as urinary cadmium has been considered a superior marker of exposure.
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Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3), a new topological insulator, has attracted much attention in recent years owing to its relatively simple band structure and large bulk band gap. Compared to bulk, few-layer Bi2Se3 is recently considered as a highly promising material. Here, we use a liquid-phase exfoliation method to prepare few-layer Bi2Se3 in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone or chitosan acetic solution. The resulted few-layer Bi2Se3 dispersion demonstrates an interesting absorption in the visible light region, which is different from bulk Bi2Se3 without any absorption in this region. The absorption spectrum of few-layer Bi2Se3 depends on its size and layer number. At the same time, the nonlinear and saturable absorption of few-layer Bi2Se3 thin film in near infrared is also characterized well and further exploited to generate laser pulses by a passive Q-switching technique. Stable Q-switched operation is achieved with a lower pump threshold of 9.3?mW at 974?nm, pulse energy of 39.8?nJ and a wide range of pulse-repetition-rate from 6.2 to 40.1?kHz. Therefore, the few-layer Bi2Se3 may excite a potential applications in laser photonics and optoelectronic devices.
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Temporal changes in serum biomarkers and risk for progression of gastric precancerous lesions: A longitudinal study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Effectively managing precancerous lesions is crucial to reducing the gastric cancer (GC) burden. We evaluated associations of temporal changes in multiple serological markers (pepsinogen I [PGI], PGII, PGI/II ratio, gastrin-17 and anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG) with risk for progression of gastric precancerous lesions. From 1997 to 2011, repeated esophagogastroduodenoscopies with gastric mucosal biopsies and blood sample collections were conducted on 2,039 participants (5,070 person-visits) in the Zhuanghe Gastric Diseases Screening Program, Liaoning, China. Serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized histologic criteria. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using generalized estimating equations for correlated binary outcomes. The ORs for progression of gastric conditions comparing those whose serum PGI, PGII, and anti-H. pylori IgG levels increased ?50% relative to those whose decreased ?50% were, respectively 1.67 (CI, 1.22-2.28), 1.80 (CI, 1.40-2.33) and 1.93 (CI, 1.48-2.52). The OR for those whose PGI/II ratio decreased ?50% relative to those whose increased ?50% was 1.40 (CI, 1.08-1.81), and for those whose PGII and anti-H. pylori IgG levels both increased ?50% relative to those whose levels both decreased ?50% the OR was 3.18 (CI, 2.05-4.93). Changes in gastrin-17 were not statistically significantly associated with progression. These findings suggest that temporal changes in serum PGI, PGII, PGI/II ratio, and anti-H. pylori IgG levels (especially PGII and anti-H. pylori IgG combined) may be useful for assessing and managing risk for progression of gastric precancerous lesions.
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Toll-like receptor 6 gene polymorphisms increase the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Chinese Holstein cattle.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Our present study aimed to investigate the effect of four SNPs (G1793A, C1859A, A1980G, G1934A) in toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) resistance in a case-control study. A total of 603 Chinese Holstein cattle (264 from a dairy farm of Henan province, 339 from Hubei province) were selected to analyze the genotype of TLR6 gene by PCR-RFLP. Genotype frequencies of C1859A and A1980G site differed significantly between bTB-infected and non-infected cows (?(2)=6.062, P=0.048 and ?(2)=6.749, P=0.034, respectively). Relative risk of tuberculosis incidence result showed that genotypes of AA or CA had greater relative risk (OR=2.730, 95%CI=0.869-8.573; OR=1.547, 95CI%=0.803-2.982, respectively) than those with genotype CC at C1859A site between bTB-infected and non-infected animals. Genotypes of GG or GA had greater relative risk (OR=2.986, 95%CI=1.245-7.165; OR=1.582, 95%CI=0.734-3.409, respectively) than those with genotype AA at A1980G site. No significant association can be inferred from G1793A and G1934A polymorphism site. The present study suggests that variants in the TLR6 gene are associated with susceptibility to bTB and the TLR6 gene may be considered as a candidate gene for bTB resistance.
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fibroids: results from the ENDO study.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To evaluate the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and uterine fibroids, we used previously collected data from a cohort of women aged 18-44 years undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating hospital surgical centers (n=473). POP concentrations were measured in omental fat and serum. Presence of fibroids was defined on the basis of a postoperative diagnosis (n=99). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each POP by biologic medium were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for identified covariates. Concentrations were higher in omental fat than in serum for all POPs. Serum p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was the only POP associated with fibroids (per 1-SD increase in log-transformed p,p'-DDE OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.05-1.80)). In analyses excluding women diagnosed with endometriosis, a number of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in omental fat were associated with fibroids (PCB 99: 1.64 (1.08, 2.49); PCB 138: 1.64 (1.03, 2.59); PCB 146: 1.54 (1.01, 2.37); PCB 153: 1.88 (1.12, 3.13); PCB 196: 1.60 (1.02, 2.51); PCB 206: 1.52 (1.01, 2.29)). Although exploratory, our study suggests that PCBs may be associated with fibroids in the absence of other gynecologic disorders such as endometriosis, but the associations varied by biologic media with more POPs emerging when quantified in fat.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 7 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.31.
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Prevalence of BRCA1 gene mutation in breast cancer patients in Guangxi, China.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The prevalence of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 mutation in breast cancer patients of south China has not been well revealed. This study was to invest the prevalence of BRCA1 gene mutation in breast cancer patients in Guangxi, China, and to try reflecting its relevance in genetic counseling of breast cancer.
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Association between PTEN Gene IVS4 polymorphism and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a well established tumor suppressor gene. Recently, increasing studies investigated the association between PTEN IVS4 polymorphism (rs3830675) and risk of various types of cancer. However, the results from the individual studies were controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to elucidate whether PTEN IVS4 polymorphism was associated with cancer risk.
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A new polymorphism biomarker rs629367 associated with increased risk and poor survival of gastric cancer in chinese by up-regulated miRNA-let-7a expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Variant in pri-miRNA could affect miRNA expression and mature process or splicing efficiency, thus altering the hereditary susceptibility and prognosis of cancer. We aimed to assess miRNA-let-7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) as predicting biomarkers, and furthermore, its possible mechanisms.
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Phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor zardaverine exhibits potent and selective antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo independently of phosphodiesterase inhibition.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth common malignancy worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Targeted therapies for HCC are being extensively developed with the limited success of sorafinib. In the present study, we investigated the potential antitumor activity of zardaverine, a dual-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3/4 inhibitor in HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Although all zardaverine, PDE3 inhibitor trequinsin and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram increased intracellular cAMP levels through inhibiting PDE activity, only zardaverine significantly and selectively inhibited the proliferation of certain HCC cells, indicating that the antitumor activity of zardaverine is independent of PDE3/4 inhibition and intracellular cAMP levels. Further studies demonstrated that zardaverine induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest of sensitive HCC cells through dysregulating cell cycle-associated proteins, including Cdk4, Cdk6, Cdk2, Cyclin A, Cyclin E, p21 and Rb. Notably, Rb expression was reversely related to the cell sensitivity to zardaverine. The present findings indicate that zardaverine may have potential as targeted therapies for some HCC, and the likely mechanism of action underlying its selective antitumor activity may be related to its regulation of Rb or Rb-associated signaling in cell cycles.
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Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Abstract Objective. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. Material and methods. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. Results. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend < 0.0001), respectively. As mucosal H. pylori density score increased from 0 to 3, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers also increased from 24.7 to 44.8 EIU (p for trend < 0.0001). Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer was associated positively with serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17 concentrations and negatively with PGI/II ratio, and the association was the strongest for PGII. The mean PGII concentration of the patients in the highest quartile of IgG titer was twice the mean concentration of the patients in the lowest quartile (17.2 vs. 8.6 EIU, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. Our results suggest that serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer was associated positively with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.
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Pepsinogen I and II expressions in situ and their correlations with serum pesignogen levels in gastric cancer and its precancerous disease.
BMC Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio has been widely used as "serological biopsy" for the screening of gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis (GA). However, study concerning in situ expression of PGs is currently insufficient, particularly for their relationship with serum PGs levels. This study was designed to investigate in situ expression of PGI and PGII in subjects with normal mucosa (NOR), superficial gastritis (GS), GA and GC, and to evaluate the correlations between PGs expressions in situ and in serum.
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Effect of routine heparins treatment in acute coronary syndrome on serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein a concentration.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) has been suggested as a useful marker of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Serum PAPP-A concentrations are affected by unfractionated heparin (UFH) in ACS population, and we tried to investigate the time profile of effects of routine heparins treatment on serum PAPP-A concentrations in ACS population thoroughly and give advice to sample collection of related study.
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The neural correlates of the face attractiveness aftereffect: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Extensive behavioral evidence shows that our internal representation of faces, or face prototype, can be dynamically updated by immediate experience. This is illustrated by the robust attractiveness aftereffect phenomenon whereby originally unattractive faces become attractive after we are exposed to a set of unattractive faces. Although behavioral evidence suggests this effect to have a strong neural basis, limited neuroimaging evidence exists. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy methodology (fNIRS) to bridge this gap. During the pre-adaptation trials, participants judged the attractiveness of three sets of faces: normal/undistorted faces, compressed faces (the internal features and distances between them were compressed), and expanded faces (the internal features and distances between them were stretched). Then, participants were shown extremely compressed faces for 5min as adaptation stimuli, after which participants judged the same three sets of faces in post-adaptation trials. Behaviorally, after the adaptation trials, participants rated the compressed faces more attractive whereas they judged the other two sets of faces as less attractive, replicating the robust adaptation effect. fNIRS results showed that short-term exposure to compressed faces led to significant decreases in neural activity to all face types, but in a more extended network of cortical regions in the frontal and occipital cortexes for undistorted faces. Taken together, these findings suggest that the face attractiveness aftereffect mainly reflects changes in the neural representation of the face prototype in response to recent exposures to new face exemplars.
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Detection and evaluation of immunofunction of patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) with a high fatality rate. But the immunofunction was still unclear. The objective of our study was to assess the immunofunction in SFTS patients. Immunofunction test with flow cytometry which contains CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B cells and NK cells would be used for detecting serum samples collected from 34 SFTS cases and 20 healthy donors. We found that CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes were significantly diminished in SFTS compared to normal control. In contrast, the percentage of NK cells was elevated. Further analysis revealed that the number of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes showed that there was a more robust pattern of depression in acute phase and severe SFTS infection compared to the patients in recovery phase and mild SFTS infection. But NK cells were significantly increased in acute phase and severe SFTS. They reverted to the near normal levels in convalescent phase. Additionally, the levels of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes progressively decreased in death group when compared with the survival group, but the level of B cells was higher. The damages of immune system were obvious, and the immune dysfunction might be partly responsible for disease progression of patients with SFTSV infection.
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Response of tobacco to the Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 is mainly dependent on salicylic acid signaling pathway.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) was the first pathogen to be demonstrated to infect Arabidopsis and to cause disease symptoms in the laboratory setting. However, the defense response to Pst DC3000 was unclear in tobacco. In this report, the expression profiles of twelve defense response-related genes were analyzed after treatment with salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and pathogen Pst DC3000 by qRT-PCR. According to our results, it could be presented that the genes primarily induced by SA were also induced to higher levels after Pst DC3000 infection. SA accumulation could be induced to a higher level than that of JA after Pst DC3000 infection. In addition, SA could result in hypersensitive response (HR), which did not completely depend on accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These results indicated that tobacco mainly depended on SA signaling pathway rather than on JA signaling pathway in response to Pst DC3000. Further study demonstrated that JA could significantly inhibit the accumulation of SA and the generation of the HR induced by Pst DC3000.
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ZmLEA3, a multifunctional group 3 LEA protein from maize (Zea mays L.), is involved in biotic and abiotic stresses.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate to high levels during the late stage of seed maturation and in response to water deficit, and are involved in protecting higher plants from damage caused by environmental stresses, especially drought. In the present study, a novel maize (Zea mays L.) group 3 LEA gene, ZmLEA3, was identified and later characterized using transgenic tobacco plants to investigate its functions in abiotic and biotic stresses. Transcript accumulation demonstrated that ZmLEA3 was induced in leaves by high salinity, low temperature, osmotic and oxidative stress as well as by signaling molecules such as ABA, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The transcript of ZmLEA3 could also be induced by pathogens [Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (pst dc3000)]. ZmLEA3 is located in the cytosol and the nucles. Further study indicated that the ZmLEA3 protein could bind Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Overexpression of ZmLEA3 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and yeast (GS115) conferred tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Interestingly, we also found that overexpression of ZmLEA3 in transgenic tobacco increased the hypersensitive cell death triggered by pst dc3000 and enhanced the expression of PR1a, PR2 and PR4 when compared with the wild type. Thus, we proposed that the ZmLEA3 protein plays a role in protecting plants from damage by protecting protein structure and binding metals under osmotic and oxidative stresses. In addition, ZmLEA3 may also enhance transgenic plant tolerance to biotic stress.
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Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells attenuate the progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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: Previous studies have suggested the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to repair damaged kidney diseases. However, the effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (HuMSCs) on the progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) remains poorly understood. Adriamycin-induced nephropathy is a rodent model of chronic kidney disease that has been studied extensively and has enabled a greater understanding of the processes underlying the progression of FSGS. This study aimed to investigate the role of HuMSCs on the progression of kidney disease using a model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Human MSCs were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine to track their localization to the kidneys after infusion. Clinical parameters and histology suggested amelioration of FSGS in MSC-treated animals at 12 weeks, especially in those that received repeated doses. These results were associated with reduced serum interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?, transforming growth factor-? levels, connective tissue growth factor messenger RNA expression and upregulated serum IL-10 levels. In short, this experiment found that HuMSCs improved kidney fibrosis and modulated the inflammatory response, suggesting that xenogenic transplantation of HuMSCs is a novel approach for improving the progression of FSGS and may be a promising therapeutic intervention in the future.
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Trace elements and endometriosis: The ENDO Study.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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There has been limited study of trace elements and endometriosis. Using a matched cohort design, 473 women aged 18-44 years were recruited into an operative cohort, along with 131 similarly aged women recruited into a population cohort. Endometriosis was defined as surgically visualized disease in the operative cohort, and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed disease in the population cohort. Twenty trace elements in urine and three in blood were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds (aOR) of endometriosis diagnosis for each element by cohort. No association was observed between any element and endometriosis in the population cohort. In the operative cohort, blood cadmium was associated with a reduced odds of diagnosis (aOR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.98), while urinary chromium and copper reflected an increased odds (aOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.19; aOR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 5.64, respectively). The varied associations underscore the need for continued research.
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Helicobacter pylori-related host gene polymorphisms associated with susceptibility of gastric carcinogenesis: a two-stage case-control study in Chinese.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Stomach carcinogenesis progresses stepwise from normal mucosa/superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis (GA) to gastric cancer (GC). Host factors independent of or combined with Helicobacter pylori infection may modulate the carcinogenesis process. In this two-stage study, we selected 24 putative functional tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for six H.pylori-related host genes, MUC1, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11), IL-1B, PGC and PGA3-5, and analyzed their influence and interaction with H.pylori on the GA and GC risks. Using high-throughput genotyping, the 24 tagSNPs were preliminarily assessed in a screening population of 552 controls, 254 GA and 236 GC subjects; subsequently, five candidate tagSNPs for gastric diseases risk in the TLR4, PGC and PTPN11 genes were re-evaluated in a larger population of 1276 controls, 907GA and 714 GC subjects. We observed that PGC rs6458238, PGC rs4711690 and PTPN11 rs12229892 were associated with susceptibilities to GA and/or GC. Moreover, rs4711690 and rs12229892 and H.pylori demonstrated significant interaction effects on GA risk. In gastric cancerous specimens, we observed significantly higher messenger RNA level in the subjects carrying the PGC rs6458238 GA genotype than that in subjects with the common GG genotype. These findings indicated that genetic variations of two crucial H.pylori-related host genes, H.pyloris mucosal effecter PGC gene and H.pyloris cellular messenger PTPN11 gene, either dependent or independent of interaction with H.pylori, were associated with the risks of GC and/or GA that precede carcinoma. Functional studies and further independent large-scale studies especially in other ethnic populations are still needed to confirm our results.
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A novel method for detecting 7-methyl guanine reveals aberrant methylation levels in Huntington disease.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Guanine methylation is a ubiquitous process affecting DNA and various RNA species. N-7 guanine methylation (7-MG), although relatively less studied, could have a significant role in normal transcriptional regulation as well as in the onset and development of pathological conditions. The lack of a sensitive method to accurately quantify trace amounts of altered bases such as 7-MG has been a major deterrent in delineating its biological function(s). Here we report the development of methods to detect trace amounts of 7-MG in biological samples using electrochemical detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of compounds. We further sought to assess global alterations in DNA methylation in Huntington disease (HD), where transcriptional dysregulation is a major factor in pathogenesis. The developed method was used to study guanine methylation in cytoplasmic and nuclear nucleic acids from human and transgenic mouse HD brain and controls. Significant differences were observed in the guanine methylation levels in mouse and human samples, consistent with the known transcriptional pathology of HD. The sensitivity of the method makes it capable of detecting subtle aberrations. Identification of changes in methylation pattern will provide insights into the molecular mechanism changes that translate into onset and/or development of symptoms in diseases such as HD.
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Association of two ERCC4 tagSNPs with susceptibility to atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer in Chinese.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Genetic polymorphisms in excision repair cross-complementing group 4 (ERCC4) may contribute to the risk of cancer development. However, there are few reports regarding to susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) or its precursor, atrophic gastritis (AG). Thereby, we investigated the association between two tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) rs6498486 and rs254942, which represents the majority of common SNPs of ERCC4 gene, and the risks of GC and AG development in a sex- and age-matched case-control designed study. We found that rs6498486 polymorphism was associated with a reduced AG risk in total population (for AC vs. AA: OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.52-0.94, P=0.016; for AC/CC vs. AA: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.51-0.92, P=0.010) as well as in the subpopulation of youngers (age<60years) (for AC/CC vs. AA: OR=0.67, 95%CI=0.45-0.99, P=0.048). For the rs254942 polymorphism, compared with the common TT genotype, the genotypes of CT and CT/CC were only observed to reduce AG risk in the subgroups of males (for CT vs. TT: OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.45-0.90, P=0.012; for CT/CC vs. TT: OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.47-0.92, P=0.016) and youngers (for CT vs. TT: OR=0.72, 95%CI=0.53-0.97, P=0.035; for CT/CC vs. TT: OR=0.74, 95%CI=0.55-0.99, P=0.045). However, no significant statistical association of the two SNPs with GC susceptibility was observed in the total population. Only rs6498486 AC and AC/CC genotypes were found to be marginally associated with a reduced GC risk in the subgroup of males (for AC vs. AA: OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.49-0.99, P=0.043; for AC/CC vs. AA: OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.50-0.99, P=0.046). Our findings suggested that the ERCC4 rs6498486 and rs254942 may be associated with AG risk. Further validation of our results in larger populations and additional studies evaluating their molecular function are required.
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Risk factors associated with endometriosis: importance of study population for characterizing disease in the ENDO Study.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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We sought to identify risk factors for endometriosis and their consistency across study populations in the Endometriosis: Natural History, Diagnosis, and Outcomes (ENDO) Study.
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Achieving and maintaining of short-cut nitrification in a cyclic activated sludge system.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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A lab-scale Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) system was operated more than 5 months to evaluate the effects of the operation mode on nitrogen removal performance and investigate a feasible method for achieving short-cut nitrification in the system. Results showed that nitrogen was removed by conventional biological nitrification and denitrification in traditional operation mode (fill/aeration 2 h, settle 1 h, decant 1 h), whereas short-cut nitrification and denitrification was the main nitrogen removal pathway in modified operation mode and the nitrogen removal performance was enhanced. Short-cut nitrification was successfully achieved in CAST system at 17 ± 1 °C by adjusting operation conditions and the average total nitrogen removal efficiency increased by 11.4% compared to traditional mode. It was assumed that low dissolved oxygen (<1.0 mg/L) limitation combined with free ammonia (0.28-0.34 mg/L) inhibition on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria caused nitrite accumulation in modified mode. During maintaining period of short-cut nitrification, preset aeration time enhanced ammonium-oxidizing bacteria dominance. It was also found that low DO could result in overgrowth of filamentous microorganisms and poor sludge settleability. The pH variation could provide effective information for controlling aeration duration in modified mode. However, no evident breakpoint appeared on pH and DO profiles in traditional mode.
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Competition for cofactor-dependent DNA binding underlies Hox phenotypic suppression.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Hox transcription factors exhibit an evolutionarily conserved functional hierarchy, termed phenotypic suppression, in which the activity of posterior Hox proteins dominates over more anterior Hox proteins. Using directly regulated Hox targeted reporter genes in Drosophila, we show that posterior Hox proteins suppress the activities of anterior ones by competing for cofactor-dependent DNA binding. Furthermore, we map a motif in the posterior Hox protein Abdominal-A (AbdA) that is required for phenotypic suppression and facilitates cooperative DNA binding with the Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd). Together, these results suggest that Hox-specific motifs endow posterior Hox proteins with the ability to dominate over more anterior ones via a cofactor-dependent DNA-binding mechanism.
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Markers of inflammation predict the long-term risk of developing chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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In animal models, inflammatory processes have been shown to have an important role in the development of kidney disease. In humans, however, the independent relation between markers of inflammation and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not known. To clarify this, we examined the relationship of several inflammatory biomarker levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-? receptor 2, white blood cell count, and interleukin-6) with the risk of developing CKD in a population-based cohort of up to 4926 patients with 15 years of follow-up. In cross-sectional analyses, we found that all these inflammation markers were positively associated with the outcome of interest, prevalent CKD. However, in longitudinal analyses examining the risk of developing incident CKD among those who were CKD-free at baseline, only tumor necrosis factor-? receptor 2, white blood cell count, and interleukin-6 levels (hazard ratios comparing highest with the lowest tertile of 2.10, 1.90, and 1.45, respectively), and not C-reactive protein (hazard ratio 1.09), were positively associated with incident CKD. Thus, elevations of most markers of inflammation predict the risk of developing CKD. Each marker should be independently verified.
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A prospective clinical study in hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with stringent cessation criteria for adefovir.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Adefovir is usually applied for therapy of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but its effectiveness after cessation is still unknown. This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adefovir treatment with strict cessation criteria in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients and to identify potentially important factors. One hundred forty-five HBeAg-negative CHB patients who had received adefovir treatment for at least 24 months and for whom serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA had remained undetectable for at least 18 months before cessation were included. They were followed up monthly during the first four months and at 3-month or 6-month intervals thereafter. Patients with ?10(4) copies of HBV DNA per mL were defined as relapsed. In total, 95 patients relapsed within the follow-up time, and more than 93% relapsed within 12 months after adefovir cessation. Cumulative relapse rates at months 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 were 53.8%, 61.4%, 65.5%, 65.5%, 65.5% and 65.5%, respectively. Age was the only factor associated with relapse, with lower relapse rates in younger patients shown by Cox regression analysis. HBsAg seroconversion occurred in 12 patients, and none of them relapsed during follow-up. The effectiveness of adefovir therapy does not persist in HBeAg-negative CHB patients, even when strict cessation criteria are applied, except for patients aged ? 25 years. HBsAg seroconversion is the ideal endpoint of adefovir treatment.
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ZmMPK17, a novel maize group D MAP kinase gene, is involved in multiple stress responses.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a pivotal role in a range of biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we isolated a novel group D MAPK gene, ZmMPK17, from maize (Zea mays L.). ZmMPK17 is localized mainly to the nucleus and its C-terminal domain extension is believed to be essential for this. Northern-blot analysis indicated that ZmMPK17 transcription is involved in response to exogenous signaling molecules such as abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene and induced by low temperature and osmotic stress. Hydrogen peroxide and Ca²? mediate PEG-induced downregulation of ZmMPK17 at transcription level and Ca²? also mediates low temperature-induced expression of ZmMPK17. Overexpression of ZmMPK17 in tobacco (Nicotonia tobaccum) accumulated less reactive oxygen species under osmotic stress by affecting antioxidant defense systems. Transgenic tobacco exhibited enhanced tolerance to cold by means of an increased germination rate, and increased proline and soluble sugar levels relative to control plants. The transcription levels of NtERD10 genes were higher in ZmMPK17-overexpressing lines than in control plants under cold and osmotic stress conditions. ZmMPK17-overexpressing plants displayed enhanced resistance to viral pathogens, and the expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR1a was significantly increased, indicating that ZmMPK17 might be involved in SA-mediated pathogen defense-signaling pathways.
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Maize ZmMEK1 is a single-copy gene.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade constitutes a conserved signaling module in eukaryotes. MAPK kinase (MAPKK) plays a crucial role in a MAPK cascade. ZmMEK1 is the first characterized MAPKK gene in maize. Although ZmMEK1 has been studied in detail in biochemical level, the genomic organization of ZmMEK1 gene is obscure. In this research, we clarified ZmMEK1 is a single-copy gene in the maize genome. Southern blot analysis using 3 specific region of ZmMEK1 cDNA as a probe revealed the presence of distinct single bands in each lane of EcoRI and HindIII. Although previous Southern blot analysis using full-length ZmMEK1 cDNA as a probe revealed several hybridizing bands, we showed here that all bands come from one genomic fragment corresponding to ZmMEK1 gene. Furthermore, ZmMEK1 was induced by PEG, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA) and was down-regulated by NaCl.
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Preparation of reactive oxygen scavenging peptides from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin gelatin: optimization using response surface methodology.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Gelatin extracted from tilapia skin was hydrolyzed with Properase E. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the hydrolysis condition (temperature [T], enzyme-to-substrate ratio [E/S], pH and reaction time [t]), to obtain the hydrolysate with the highest hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity. The optimum conditions obtained were T of 44.2 °C, E/S of 2.2%, pH of 9.2, and t of 3.4 h. The predicted •OH scavenging activity of the hydrolysate under the optimum conditions was 60.7%, and the actually experimental scavenging activity was 60.8%. The hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration, and 4 fractions were collected. The fraction TSGH4 (MW<2000 Da) showed the strongest •OH scavenging activity with the highest yield. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities of TSGH4 with different concentrations were investigated in 5 model systems, including superoxide anion radical (•O2), •OH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and nitric oxide (NO•), compared with reduced glutathione (GSH). The results showed that TSGH4 significantly scavenged these ROS, and could be used as a functional ingredient in medicine and food industries.
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ZmMKK4 regulates osmotic stress through reactive oxygen species scavenging in transgenic tobacco.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKKs) are important components of MAPK cascades, which are universal signal transduction modules and play important role in regulating both plant development and biotic or abiotic stress responses. In this study, we identified the group C MAPKK gene, ZmMKK4, in maize (Zea mays L.). Overexpression of ZmMKK4 in tobacco enhanced tolerance to osmotic stress by increased proline content and antioxidant enzyme (POD) activities compared with wild-type plants. RT-PCR revealed that one peroxidase (POX) gene, NtPOX1, was higher in ZmMKK4-overexpressing plants than in the wild-type plants. In addition, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ZmMKK4-overexpressing plants is much less than that of wild-type plants. These results suggest that ZmMKK4 may be involved in ROS signaling. Taken together, these results indicate that ZmMKK4 is a positive regulator of osmotic stress by regulating scavenging of ROS in plants.
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Using a simplified Bishop score to predict vaginal delivery.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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The Bishop score is the most commonly used method to assess the readiness of the cervix for induction. However, it was created without modern statistical methods. Our objective was to determine whether a simplified score can predict vaginal delivery equally well.
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Nutritional characteristics of proteins from the volva and pileus in cultivated mushroom Dictyophora rubrovolvata.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Dictyophora rubrovolvata is one of the commercially important mushroom species in China. However, its volva and pileus account for about 65% of the whole mushroom (by fresh weight), and most of them are dumped without utilization. To effectively utilize the waste, the present study determined their proximate composition and investigated the nutritional characteristics of their proteins via the analysis of amino acid composition and protein fractionation. The results showed that the volva and pileus were rich in protein with 26.74% and 15.55% (dry basis), respectively. Predicted protein efficiency ratio values of proteins of the volva and pileus were 2.8 and 2.2, and the amino acid scores were 96 and 85.The albumin was the highest fraction both in the volva and pileus, accounting for 69.52% and 27.91% of the crude protein. The protein quality of the volva was therefore higher than that of the pileus. The volva might be developed as resource of high-quality vegetable-base protein.
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Laboratory and field testing of an automated atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species sampling-analysis system.
J Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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In this study, various laboratory and field tests were performed to develop an effective automated particle-bound ROS sampling-analysis system. The system uses 2 7-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) fluorescence method as a nonspecific, general indicator of the particle-bound ROS. A sharp-cut cyclone and a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) were used to collect PM(2.5) atmospheric particles into slurry produced by a DCFH-HRP solution. The laboratory results show that the DCFH and H(2)O(2) standard solutions could be kept at room temperature for at least three and eight days, respectively. The field test in Rochester, NY, shows that the average ROS concentration was 8.3 ± 2.2 nmol of equivalent H(2)O(2)?m(-3) of air. The ROS concentrations were observed to be greater after foggy conditions. This study demonstrates the first practical automated sampling-analysis system to measure this ambient particle component.
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Down-regulation of PKHD1 induces cell apoptosis through PI3K and NF-?B pathways.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Mutations in PKHD1 (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease gene 1) gene cause the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), encoded by PKHD1, is a membrane-associated receptor-like protein. Although it is widely accepted that cystogenesis is mostly due to aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis, it is still unclear how apoptosis is regulated. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship among apoptosis, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in FPC knockdown kidney cells. We show that PKHD1-silenced HEK293 cells demonstrate a higher PI3K/Akt activity. Selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt using LY294002 or wortmannin in these cells increases serum starvation-induced HEK293 cell apoptosis with a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and higher caspase-3 activity. PI3K/Akt inhibition also leads to increased NF-?B activity in these cells. We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in apoptotic function in PKHD1-silenced cells, and PI3K/Akt inhibition correlates with upregulation of NF-?B activity. These observations provide a potential platform for determining FPC function and therapeutic investigation of ARPKD.
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Oxidation of acetyl-pyrimidine wastewater by Fenton process.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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In this study, contaminant degradation, priority performance, intermediates, and kinetics in catalytic oxidation of Acetyl-Pyrimidine wastewater by Fenton reagent were investigated. In batch experiments, the main parameters that govern the complex reactive system, i.e. temperature, pH, Fe²+, and H?O? initial concentrations have been studied. The results showed total COD and Acetyl-Pyrimidine removal was above 50% and 90% respectively under the following oxidation conditions: T at 25 °C, pH at 3.5, H?O? at 300 mmol/l, Fe²+ at 40 mmol/l, with the reaction time 2 h. Control experiment and UV-Infrared spectrums analysis indicated that Acetyl-Pyrimidine was removed prior to the small molecule organic. The reaction fit to a first-order rate equation and the activation energy of Pyrimidine was 2.365 kJ/mol.
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Prepregnancy risk factors for antepartum stillbirth in the United States.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2010
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To identify possible prepregnancy risk factors for antepartum stillbirth and to determine whether these factors identify women at higher risk for term stillbirth.
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Precursors for late preterm birth in singleton gestations.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2010
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To characterize precursors for late preterm birth in singletons and incidences of neonatal morbidities and perinatal mortality by gestational age and precursor.
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Respiratory morbidity in late preterm births.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Late preterm births (340/7-366/7 weeks) account for an increasing proportion of prematurity-associated short-term morbidities, particularly respiratory, that require specialized care and prolonged neonatal hospital stays.
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Dissecting the functional specificities of two Hox proteins.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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Hox proteins frequently select and regulate their specific target genes with the help of cofactors like Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth). For the Drosophila Hox protein Sex combs reduced (Scr), Exd has been shown to position a normally unstructured portion of Scr so that two basic amino acid side chains can insert into the minor groove of an Scr-specific DNA-binding site. Here we provide evidence that another Drosophila Hox protein, Deformed (Dfd), uses a very similar mechanism to achieve specificity in vivo, thus generalizing this mechanism. Furthermore, we show that subtle differences in the way Dfd and Scr recognize their specific binding sites, in conjunction with non-DNA-binding domains, influence whether the target gene is transcriptionally activated or repressed. These results suggest that the interaction between these DNA-binding proteins and the DNA-binding site determines the architecture of the Hox-cofactor-DNA ternary complex, which in turn determines whether the complex recruits coactivators or corepressors.
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Regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis through fibrocystin-prosaposin interaction.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Mutations in PKHD1 (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease gene 1) gene cause the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). It is widely accepted that cystogenesis is owing to aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis, increased fluid secretion, and extracellular matrix abnormality. Fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), the encoded protein product by PKHD1, is a single transmembrane protein and believed to be a novel receptor-like molecule. FPC has been located mainly on the plasma membrane and cilium/basal body. However, its biological functions remain poorly understood. To investigate the roles of FPC in the pathogenesis of ARPKD, we searched for FPC-interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay, and found a novel partner, prosaposin. Prosaposin is a glycoprotein with multiple functions. With GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation, we confirmed the interaction between FPC and prosaposin. In order to study the effects of FPC-prosaposin interaction on cell proliferation and apoptosis, we have made stable cell lines in which FPC was overexpressed or knocked down alone or in combination with prosaposin overexpression. By MTT assay, we found that FPC knockdown and prosaposin overexpression increased cell proliferation, respectively, while overexpression of FPC C-tail did the opposite. With apoptosis assay, we found that overexpression of FPC C-tail promoted cell apoptosis. However, overexpression of prosaposin significantly enhanced cell survival in FPC knockdown cells. All these findings indicated that FPC and prosaposin may play significant roles in regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Taken together, we have disclosed a novel signaling pathway of FPC, which may be important for the pathogenesis of ARPKD.
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[Protective effects of Siwuheji on cisplatin induced ovarian dysfunction in mice].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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To evaluate the protective effects of siwuheji on cisplatin-induced ovarian impairing and explore its possible mechanisms in mice.
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Functional characterization of the NF-kappaB binding site in the human NOD2 promoter.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), a member of the NOD protein family, plays an important role in innate immunity. In response to pathogen attack, NOD2 stimulates cytokine and defensin production by activating nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, a key transcription factor responsible for mediating downstream reactions. However, the mechanism linking NOD2 regulation and NF-kappaB activation is poorly understood. Using bioinformatics, we found a completely preserved canonical NF-kappaB binding site in the NOD2 core promoter (-16 to -25 bp) in both humans and chimpanzees. The functional role of this NF-kappaB binding site was investigated using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter system, site-directed mutagenesis, the NF-kappaB activation inhibitor (JSH-23) and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The results show that the NF-kappaB binding site is critical for regulation of the NOD2 gene. Either deletion of the NF-kappaB binding elements within the NOD2 promoter or treatment with an NF-kappaB activation inhibitor could lead to a significant loss of NOD2 promoter activity as detected by reporter gene assay. The canonical NF-kappaB binding site was bound by NF-kappaB as determined by the ChIP method. Based on these results, we suggest a positive feedback regulation between NF-kappaB and NOD2, which may represent an efficient mechanism in response to pathogen invasion.
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Conjugating folic acid to gold nanoparticles through glutathione for targeting and detecting cancer cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were modified with glutathione (GSH) to form GSH-capped GNPs, which have carboxyl groups on the surface of these nanoparticles. Then folic acid (FA) was conjugated with GNPs through the reaction between amino group of FA and carboxyl group of GSH. These folic acid-conjugated nanoparticles (FA-GSH-GNPs) were stable in aqueous solution over a broad range of pH and ionic strength values. The targeting of FA-GSH-GNPs in human cervices carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) with high-level folate receptor expression was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). No cellular uptake of these nanoparticles was observed in A549 cells lack of folate receptor. HeLa cells and mouse fibroblasts incubated with FA-GSH-GNPs were assayed by measuring the relative absorbance of the supernatant collected at low-speed centrifugation. Based on this simple spectroscopic method, HeLa cells have been detected with a detection limit of 10(2)cells/mL.
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Long-term physical and neurologic development in newborn infants with isolated single umbilical artery.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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This study compared birth parameters and the longitudinal course in physical and neurologic development between children with 2 and 3 vessel umbilical cords.
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High sensitive detection of cancer cell with a folic acid-based boron-doped diamond electrode using an AC impedimetric approach.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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An electrochemical impedance method at a fixed frequency (10Hz) is used to detect folate receptor-rich cancer cells with the interaction between folic acid immobilized on gold nanoparticles deposited on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode surface and its receptor over-expressed on cancer cell membrane without additional labeling. Experimental results have shown that the BDD electrode modified with folic acid can clearly denote folate receptor-rich cancer cells, such as HeLa cells, at a concentration down to 10 cells mL(-1). The high sensitivity of BDD electrode is resulted from the change of field effect and surface charge density of BDD after cancer cells attachment. The BDD electrodes can be regenerated with 0.1M citric acid/glycine/HC1 at pH 3.0 and used seven times again. Therefore, electrochemical technique with BDD electrode has been introduced for cancer cells detection and a simple method to detect folate receptor-rich cancer cells without additional labeling has been developed.
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Application of particle-size analysis in coagulation/flocculation for reclamation of a secondary effluent.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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Reclaimed secondary effluent is an important alternative water resource for urban areas; the particle-size distribution approach was applied in this study for purpose of screening and evaluating treatment processes for reclamation of a secondary effluent. Two particle-size analysing technologies namely (1) the laser light scattering technology and (2) the sequential membrane filtration technology were used in this study; particulate characteristics of the secondary effluent, of the reclaimed water by coagulation and of the reclaimed water by combined coagulation/flocculation were investigated. Optimisation of coagulation and/or combined coagulation/flocculation technologies were carried out with the help of particulate analysis of priority pollutants, following which studies on turbidity removing mechanisms of both processes were discussed. Comparison studies indicated that increase of turbidity removal efficiency by flocculation happened mainly in the particulate range of 0.2-0.3 microm and 5-8 microm; flocculation did not help or even slightly deteriorated turbidity removal of particles whose sizes are smaller than 0.2 microm and/or in the range of 0.3-5 microm.
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[Study on phytoestrogenic-like effects of four kinds of Chinese medicine including Radix Rehmanniae Preparata, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Rhizoma Chuanxiong].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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To explore the phytoestrogenic-like effects of four kinds of Chinese medicine including Radix rehmanniae preparata, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Rhizoma Chuanxiong.
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Self-expanding hemostatic polymer for control of exsanguinating extremity bleeding.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Prehospital management of exsanguinating extremity injuries (EEI) includes direct compression or tourniquets or both. Direct compression may be ineffective in deep wounds and requires a person committed to compressing. Tourniquets may cause severe ischemic damage and may be ineffective in proximal wounds. This study aims to examine a new self-expanding hemostatic polymer (SEHP) for control of EEI. In contact with blood, the polymer absorbs the aqueous component of blood and exerts a tamponade effect by expanding against the walls of the wound cavity.
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Saccular neck venous aneurysm on color duplex sonography: an analysis of 12 cases.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2009
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To discuss the characteristics of saccular neck venous aneurysm on color duplex sonography.
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Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) frame protein.
Molecules
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Tilapia frame protein was hydrolyzed by different proteases, including properase E, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, neutrase, gc106 and papain, to obtain antioxidant peptides. The tilapia frame protein hydrolysate (TFPH) obtained by trypsin exhibited the highest degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. Three series of peptides (TFPH1, TFPH 2 and TFPH 3) were obtained by ultrafiltration of TFPH through molecular weight cut-off membranes of 5, 3 and 1 kDa, respectively, and their IC(50) values on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (•O(2)), hydrogen peroxides (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) activities were determined and compared with glutathione (GSH). The results showed that TFPH1 had the highest antioxidant activity. TFPH1 was further purified using ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Finally, two antioxidant peptides were identified and the amino acid sequences were identified as Asp-Cys-Gly-Tyr (456.12 Da) and Asn-Tyr-Asp-Glu-Tyr (702.26 Da), respectively. The IC(50) values of two peptides on hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were 27.6 and 38.4 μg/mL, respectively.
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Effect of BoLA-DRB3 exon2 polymorphisms on lameness of Chinese Holstein cows.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
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The involvement of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) in immune system and its role in susceptibility/resistance to infectious diseases has been extensively studied. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the association between BoLA and gait scores. Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in BoLA gene are associated with susceptibility of lameness in 435 Chinese Holstein cows. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3.2 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with three restriction endonucleases (BstUI, BstYI and HaeIII). The relationship between the polymorphisms in BoLA-DRB3.2 gene and gait scores was analyzed by least-squares linear model. The gait score was non-significant among all five BstUI-RFLP and BstYI-RFLP genotypes. However, analysis of seven HaeIII-RFLP genotypes revealed a significantly higher gait score for AB genotype than others. In conclusion, BoLA-DRB3.2 may be a candidate gene for lameness susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cows.
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Development and strategies of VEGFR-2/KDR inhibitors.
Future Med Chem
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VEGF is an important signaling protein involved in both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. As an essential receptor protein tyrosine kinase propagating cellular signal transduction processes, VEGFR-2 is a central target for drug discovery against tumor-associated angiogenesis. Since the autophosphorylation of VEGFR-2 represents a key step in this signal pathway that contributes to angiogenesis, the discovery of small molecule inhibitors that block this reaction has attracted great interest for novel drugs research and development. Advances in the understanding of catalytic cleft and the conformational changes of DFG motif have resulted in the development of small molecule inhibitors known as type I and type II. High-resolution crystal structures of various inhibitors in complex with the receptor offer an insight into the relationship among binding modes, inhibition mechanisms, activity, selectivity and resistance. To control selectivity, improve activity and introduce intellectual property novelty, the strategies for the further development are discussed through structural and conformational analysis in this review.
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Perfluorochemicals and endometriosis: the ENDO study.
Epidemiology
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Environmental chemicals may be associated with endometriosis. No published research has focused on the possible role of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) despite their widespread presence in human tissues.
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Applying real-time control for achieving nitrogen removal via nitrite in a lab-scale CAST system.
Environ Technol
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In this study, a bench-scale Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) reactor (72?L), fed with domestic sewage, was operated in alternating anoxi-aerobic operation mode to investigate the feasibility of achieving short-cut nitrification and denitrification with a real-time control strategy. An online system for controlling the length of the aeration and stirring phases was implemented, based on pH and oxidation-reduction potential signals, to switch between aerobic and anoxic sequences. Results show that the real-time control strategy was successful in achieving a stable nitrogen removal performance. Furthermore, short-cut nitrification can be achieved by controlling aeration length under the modified real-time control strategy. Gradually reducing the energy supply for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria caused the limitation of their growth and, finally, their elimination. When short-cut nitrification was obtained, the nitrite pathway became the primary way for nitrogen removal, and aeration duration was reduced by 28.4%.
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Neonatal mortality by attempted route of delivery in early preterm birth.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
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We sought to study neonatal outcomes in early preterm births by delivery route.
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ZmMKK3, a novel maize group B mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase gene, mediates osmotic stress and ABA signal responses.
J. Plant Physiol.
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are important intracellular signaling modules and function as a convergent point for crosstalk during abiotic stress signaling. In this article, we isolated a novel group B MAPKK gene, ZmMKK3, from Zea mays. ZmMKK3 protein might be localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. RNA blot analysis indicated that the ZmMKK3 transcription was up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and PEG, and that H(2)O(2) mediated PEG-induced expression of ZmMKK3. Constitutive expression of ZmMKK3 in Nicotiana tabacum reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation under osmotic stress by affecting antioxidant defense systems and alleviated reactive oxygen species-mediated injury under oxidative stress. Transgenic tobacco exhibited attenuated ABA sensitivity by means of an increased germination rate and main root growth. Taken together, these results indicate that ZmMKK3 is a positive regulator of osmotic tolerance and ABA signaling in plants.
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Overexpression of a multiple stress-responsive gene, ZmMPK4, enhances tolerance to low temperature in transgenic tobacco.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in mediating biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we found that ZmMPK4 protein was predominantly localized in the nucleus. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ZmMPK4 transcription in maize leaves was up-regulated by low temperature, high temperature and exogenous signaling molecules such as hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate and ethephon. Hydrogen peroxide acted as second messenger to mediate 4°C-induced up-regulation of ZmMPK4 mRNA. Transgenic tobacco of overexpressing ZmMPK4 accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS), more peroxidase and catalase activities, more proline and soluble sugar contents, and more stress-responsive genes expression, leading to enhancing low temperature stress tolerance compared to the control plants. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that ZmMPK4 positively regulates low temperature stress tolerance in plants.
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Rescue therapy for lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: adefovir monotherapy, adefovir plus lamivudine or entecavir combination therapy.
Intern. Med.
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We aimed to compare the cumulative efficacy and resistance of ADV monotherapy, ADV add-on LAM (ADV + LAM), ADV and ETV (ADV + ETV) combination therapy in LAM-resistant patients.
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Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 1 and 9 genes and their association with tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cattle.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that play a pivotal role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Studies have shown that TLR variants play roles in various human infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the functional genetic variations at positions C632T, G1409A, A1475C, G1550A and G1596A in TLR1 and at A2700G and A3156G in TLR9 confer susceptibility or resistance to bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Genotyping of the TLR1 and TLR9 gene polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in 586 Chinese Holstein cows (154 infected with bTB, 432 non-infected). The frequencies of the GH and HH genotypes at TLR1-G1596A differed significantly between bTB-infected and non-infected animals [p=0.001 for both GH and HH; GH odds ratio (OR)=2.43 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.47-4.03); and HH OR=1.49 95% CI (0.85-2.62)]. There was a trend toward an increased relative risk of tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the CD genotype at the TLR1-A1475C locus [p=0.056, OR=1.59 95% CI (0.98-2.58)]. The present study suggests that variants in the TLR1 gene are associated with susceptibility to bTB, whereas no significant association can be inferred from the polymorphisms in the TLR9 gene.
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ZmHSP16.9, a cytosolic class I small heat shock protein in maize (Zea mays), confers heat tolerance in transgenic tobacco.
Plant Cell Rep.
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Various organisms produce HSPs in response to high temperature and other stresses. The function of heat shock proteins, including small heat shock protein (sHSP), in stress tolerance is not fully explored. To improve our understanding of sHSPs, we isolated ZmHSP16.9 from maize. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis reveal this to be a cytosolic class I sHSP. ZmHSP16.9 expressed in root, leaf and stem tissues under 40 °C treatment, and was up-regulated by heat stress and exogenous H?O?. Overexpression of ZmHSP16.9 in transgenic tobacco conferred tolerance to heat and oxidative stresses by increased seed germination rate, root length, and antioxidant enzyme activities compared with WT plants. These results support the positive role of ZmHSP16.9 in response to heat stress in plant.
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Graphene enhances the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction.
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Graphene can inhibit non-specific DNA fragments, and the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be retained even after eight rounds of repeated amplification in the presence of graphene in the form of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). In the figure, the numbers at the top give the number of rounds of PCR; lanes marked with C correspond to controls (no RGO), and the concentration of RGO in the other samples is 12 ?g mL(-1) .
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.