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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Non-wettable, Oxidation-Stable, Brightly Luminescent, Perfluorodecyl-Capped Silicon Nanocrystal Film.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Here we describe for the first time the synthesis of colloidally stable, brightly luminescent perfluorodecyl-capped silicon nanocrystals and compare the properties of solutions and films made from them with those of their perhydrodecyl-capped relatives. The perfluorodecyl capping group compared to the perhydrodecyl capping group yields superior hydrophobicity and much greater resistance to air oxidation, the enhanced electron-withdrawing character induces blue shifts in the wavelength of photoluminescence, and the lower-frequency carbon-fluorine stretching modes disfavor non-radiative relaxation pathways and boost the absolute photoluminescence quantum yield. Together these attributes bode well for advanced materials and biomedical applications founded upon perfluorodecyl-protected silicon nanocrystals.
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Functional expression of chloride channels and their roles in the cell cycle and cell proliferation in highly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Physiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We previously demonstrated that the growth of the poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-2Z) was more dependent on the activities of volume-activated chloride channels than that of the normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69-SV40T). However, the activities and roles of such volume-activated chloride channels in highly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-1) are not clarified. In this study, it was found that a volume-activated chloride current and a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) were induced by 47% hypotonic challenges. The current density and the capacity of RVD in the highly differentiated CNE-1 cells were lower than those in the poorly differentiated CNE-2Z cells, and higher than those in the normal cells (NP69-SV40T). The chloride channel blockers, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) and tamoxifen inhibited the current and RVD. Depletion of intracellular Cl(-) abolished the RVD. The chloride channel blockers reversibly inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phases, but did not change cell viability. The sensitivity of the three cell lines to the chloride channel blockers was different, with the highest in poorly differentiated cells (CNE-2Z) and the lowest in the normal cells (NP69-SV40T). ClC-3 proteins were expressed in the three cells and distributed inside the cells as well as on the cell membrane. In conclusion, the highly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells functionally expressed the volume-activated chloride channels, which may play important roles in controlling cell proliferation through modulating the cell cycle, and may be associated with cell differentiation. Chloride channels may be a potential target of anticancer therapy.
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[Behaviors and brain glucose metabolism in a rat hyperlipidemia model with depression from chronic unpredictable mild stress].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the behaviors and brain glucose metabolism in a rat hyperlipidemia model with depression from chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS).
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The major cholesterol metabolite cholestane-3?,5?,6?-triol functions as an endogenous neuroprotectant.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Overstimulation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors is believed to be responsible for neuronal death of the CNS in various disorders, including cerebral and spinal cord ischemia. However, the intrinsic and physiological mechanisms of modulation of these receptors are essentially unknown. Here we report that cholestane-3?,5?,6?-triol (triol), a major metabolite of cholesterol, is an endogenous neuroprotectant and protects against neuronal injury both in vitro and in vivo via negative modulation of NMDA receptors. Treatment of cultured neurons with triol protects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, and administration of triol significantly decreases neuronal injury after spinal cord ischemia in rabbits and transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. An inducible elevation of triol is associated with ischemic preconditioning and subsequent neuroprotection in the spinal cord of rabbits. This neuroprotection is effectively abolished by preadministration of a specific inhibitor of triol synthesis. Physiological concentrations of triol attenuate [Ca(2+)]i induced by glutamate and decrease inward NMDA-mediated currents in cultured cortical neurons and HEK-293 cells transiently transfected with NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors. Saturable binding of [(3)H]triol to cerebellar granule neurons and displacement of [(3)H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors by triol suggest that direct blockade of NMDA receptors may underlie the neuroprotective properties. Our findings suggest that the naturally occurring oxysterol, the major cholesterol metabolite triol, functions as an endogenous neuroprotectant in vivo, which may provide novel insights into understanding and developing potential therapeutics for disorders in the CNS.
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Standardizing adverse drug event reporting data.
J Biomed Semantics
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an FDA database providing rich information on voluntary reports of adverse drug events (ADEs). Normalizing data in the AERS would improve the mining capacity of the AERS for drug safety signal detection and promote semantic interoperability between the AERS and other data sources. In this study, we normalize the AERS and build a publicly available normalized ADE data source. The drug information in the AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication, using a natural language processing medication extraction tool, MedEx. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) using a greedy algorithm. Adverse events are aggregated through mapping with the Preferred Term (PT) and System Organ Class (SOC) codes of Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). The performance of MedEx-based annotation was evaluated and case studies were performed to demonstrate the usefulness of our approaches.
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Effect of extended ?-conjugation structure of donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers on the photoelectronic properties.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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New donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers based on alkylthienylbenzodithiophene (BDTT) and alkoxynaphthodithiophene (NDT) have been synthesized and compared with their benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based analogues to investigate the effect of the extended ? conjugation of the polymer main chain on the physicochemical properties of the polymers. A systematic investigation into the optical properties, energy levels, field-effect transistor characteristics, and photovoltaic characteristics of these polymers was conducted. Both polymers demonstrated enhanced photovoltaic performance and increased hole mobility compared with the BDT-based analogue. However, the BDTT-based polymer (with ?-conjugation extension perpendicular to main chain) gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 5.07% for the single-junction polymer solar cell, whereas the NDT-based polymer (with ?-conjugation extension along the main chain) achieved the highest hole mobility of approximately 0.1?cm(2) V(-1) ?s(-1) based on the field-effect transistor; this indicated that extending the ? conjugation in different orientations would have a significant influence on the properties of the resulting polymers.
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[Automated segmentation of retina layer structures on optical coherence tomography].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Using the algorithm on the layered structure of the retina and quantitative analysis of the automatic segmentation technique is the key to the early diagnosis of glaucoma and other retinopathy on optical coherence tomography. Existing methods require high qulity image and have low reliability. This paper used the improved complex nonlinear diffuse filtering and other methods to solve this problem.
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Elevated expression level of long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 facilitates cell growth, migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies with a dismal survival rate. Recent studies have shown that high expression levels of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1) correlate with several solid tumors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and its clinical significance in pancreatic cancer remain to be elucidated. In the present study, our results showed that MALAT-1 expression levels were upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous controls. Consistently, higher expression level of MALAT-1 was found in all seven pancreatic cancer cell lines relative to the human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell. Further function analysis revealed that downregulation of MALAT-1 could inhibit tumor cell proliferation and decrease cell migration and invasion in vitro. The underlying mechanisms are possibly involved in inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, promoting cell apoptosis, suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reducing cancer stem-like properties. In conclusion, this study indicated that MALAT-1 may serve as an oncogenic lncRNA that is involved in malignancy phenotypes of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it may be used as a potential therapeutic target.
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Histone deacetylase 3 promotes pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, invasion and increases drug-resistance through histone modification of P27, P53 and Bax.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies with a dismal survival rate. Recent studies have shown that high expression levels of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) correlate with malignant phenotype. However, the expression patterns and biological role of HDAC3 in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. In this study, our data showed that a higher level of HDAC3 protein expression was found in pancreatic cancer as compared to paired paracancerous tissues. Consistently, higher expression level of HDAC3 was found in all of the eight pancreatic cancer cell lines relative to human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (HPDE). In addition, further function analysis revealed that HDAC3 can function as oncogenic protein, which could promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and may increase drug resistance. Moreover, the functional involvement of HDAC3 was partially correlated with post-induction repression of P53, P27 and Bax gene transcription, acting via H3K9 deacetylation. Taken together, our data suggest that HDAC3 participates in the pathogenesis and progression of pancreatic cancer through histone modification, which might be a pivotal epigenetic target against this devastating disease.
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Changes in behavior and in brain glucose metabolism in rats after nine weeks on a high fat diet: a randomized controlled trial.
Shanghai Arch Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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A high-fat diet (HFD) is a well-known risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular disease but the relationship between a HFD and depressive symptoms remains unknown.
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Cisplatin Activates Volume-Sensitive Like Chloride Channels Via Purinergic Receptor Pathways in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. However, the curative efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy is limited because of the occurrence of cisplatin resistance. Some researches indicate that activating the volume-sensitive Cl(-) channel might be a new strategy for the reduction of cisplatin resistance. However, little is known about the activation pathway of the Cl(-) channels activated by cisplatin. In this study, the cisplatin-activated chloride current was investigated using the whole cell patch-clamp technique in the poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-2Z cells), and the activation pathway of the current was also discussed. The results showed that extracellular application of cisplatin activated a Cl(-) current, showing the properties of significant outward rectification, intracellular ATP dependency, and a selectivity sequence of I(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > gluconate, and being inhibited by the Cl(-) channel inhibitors tamoxifen and extracellular ATP. These characteristics are similar to those of the volume-sensitive Cl(-) current in CNE-2Z cells, indicating that cisplatin induces the Cl(-) current by activating the volume-sensitive like chloride channel. The cisplatin-activated current was blocked by suramin (a wide-spectrum purinergic antagonist) and RB2 (a relatively selective P2Y antagonist). In addition, the current was depressed by extracellular application of apyrase. The apoptotic volume decrease induced by cisplatin was also attenuated by RB2. P2Y receptors were expressed in CNE-2Z cells. These results suggest that cisplatin can induce a Cl(-) current by activating volume-sensitive like Cl(-) channels through the P2Y purinoceptor pathway.
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TiO2(B) nanoparticle-functionalized WO3 nanorods with enhanced gas sensing properties.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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In this work, TiO2(B) nanoparticle (NP)-functionalized WO3 nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by a two-step solution strategy, with a hydrothermal process for WO3 NRs and hydrolyzation of Ti(OBu)4 for the functionalization of TiO2(B) NPs. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were employed to investigate the morphology, microstructure, crystalline nature and chemical composition of the prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs. SEM and TEM results revealed that the TiO2(B)-WO3 composite showed a rod-like nanostructure with a diameter in the range from 93 to 154 nm and a rough surface, which could increase the accessible surface area and the amount of surface active sites, thus improving the properties or performance of the as-prepared composite NRs. XRD and XPS analysis clearly verified that monoclinic TiO2(B) NPs, a metastable polymorph of TiO2, were successfully supported on the WO3 NRs. Gas sensing measurement results for several common reductive organic gases such as acetone, ethanol, ether, methanol and formaldehyde demonstrated that the sensor based on the as-obtained TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs exhibited obviously enhanced responses compared with a pure WO3 NR based sensor, as well as fast response-recovery speeds, good reproducibility and good stability, indicating their promising application in gas sensors. The excellent gas sensing performance could be attributed to the unique 1D rod-like nanostructure with a rough surface, the existence of TiO2-WO3 heterojunctions and the catalytic effect of the TiO2(B) NPs. The as-prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs will also have very good prospects in electrochromic devices and catalysis applications.
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Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Water-soluble polysaccharides were separated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) aqueous extract (MAE). The crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevag method. During the preparation process of maca polysaccharides, amylase and glucoamylase effectively removed starch in maca polysaccharides. Four Lepidium meyenii polysaccharides (LMPs) were obtained by changing the concentration of ethanol in the process of polysaccharide precipitation. All of the LMPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that LMP-60 showed good capability of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and superoxide radical at 2.0mg/mL, the scavenging rate was 52.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that maca polysaccharides had a high antioxidant activity and could be explored as the source of bioactive compounds.
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Isolation and identification of an endophytic fungus Pezicula sp. in Forsythia viridissima and its secondary metabolites.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In a survey of endophytic fungal biodiversity, an antimicrobial endophytic isolate zjwcf069 was obtained from twigs of Forsythia viridissima, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. Zjwcf069 was then identified as Pezicula sp. through combination of morphological and phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-rDNA. Zjwcf069 here represented the first endophytic fungus in Pezicula isolated from host F. viridissima. From the fermentation broth, four compounds were obtained through silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 under the guide of bioassay. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as mellein (1), ramulosin (2), butanedioic acid (3), and 4-methoxy-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (4). Compound 4 here stood for the very first time as natural product from microbes. In vitro antifungal assay showed that compound 1 displayed growth inhibition against 9 plant pathogenic fungi, especially Botrytis cinerea and Fulvia fulva with EC50 values below 50 ?g/mL. Endophytic fungi in medicinal plants were good resources for bioactive secondary metabolites.
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Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Learning and memory disorders arise from distinct age-associated processes, and aging animals are often used as a model of memory impairment. The root of Polygala tenuifolia has been commonly used in some Asian countries as memory enhancer and its memory improvement has been reported in various animal models. However, there is less research to verify its effect on memory functions in aged animals. Herein, the memory-enhancing effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia (EPT) on normal aged mice were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance tests. In MWM tests, the impaired spatial memory of the aged mice was partly reversed by EPT (100 and 200?mg/kg; P < 0.05) as compared with the aged control mice. In step-down tests, the nonspatial memory of the aged mice was improved by EPT (100 and 200?mg/kg; P < 0.05). Additionally, EPT could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue of the aged mice. The results showed that EPT improved memory functions of the aged mice probably via its antioxidant properties and via decreasing the activities of MAO and AChE.
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Bevacizumab plus capecitabine and cisplatin in Chinese patients with inoperable locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer: randomized, double-blind, phase III study (AVATAR study).
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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In the AVAGAST study, fluoropyrimidine and cisplatin plus bevacizumab did not significantly improve overall survival (OS) versus fluoropyrimidine and cisplatin plus placebo in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Geographic differences in efficacy were observed in AVAGAST, but the study only included 12 Chinese patients. AVATAR, a study similar in design to AVAGAST, was a randomized, double-blind, phase III study conducted in Chinese patients with advanced gastric cancer.
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[Application and radiation dose research of dual-source CT in aortic dissection after endovascular exclusion].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To evaluate dual-source CT in the Standford B aortic dissection in the postoperative follow-up and to compare radiation dose of dual-energy mode with single-energy scanning.
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Genetic analysis and major QTL detection for maize kernel size and weight in multi-environments.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Twelve major QTL in five optimal clusters and several epistatic QTL are identified for maize kernel size and weight, some with pleiotropic will be promising for fine-mapping and yield improvement. Kernel size and weight are important target traits in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding programs. Here, we report a set of quantitative trait loci (QTL) scattered through the genome and significantly controlled the performance of four kernel traits including length, width, thickness and weight. From the cross V671 (large kernel) × Mc (small kernel), 270 derived F2:3 families were used to identify QTL of maize kernel-size traits and kernel weight in five environments, using composite interval mapping (CIM) for single-environment analysis along with mixed linear model-based CIM for joint analysis. These two mapping strategies identified 55 and 28 QTL, respectively. Among them, 6 of 23 coincident were detected as interacting with environment. Single-environment analysis showed that 8 genetic regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5 and 9 clustered more than 60 % of the identified QTL. Twelve stable major QTLs accounting for over 10 % of phenotypic variation were included in five optimal clusters on the genetic region of bins 1.02-1.03, 1.04-1.06, 2.05-2.07, 4.07-4.08 and 9.03-9.04; the addition and partial dominance effects of significant QTL play an important role in controlling the development of maize kernel. These putative QTL may have great promising for further fine-mapping with more markers, and genetic improvement of maize kernel size and weight through marker-assisted breeding.
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Murine double minute 2 siRNA and wild-type p53 gene therapy interact positively with zinc on prostate tumours in vitro and in vivo.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Prostate cancer (PCa) often shows either mutations of the p53 gene or inactivation of the P53 protein. The latter may be due to up-regulation of mouse double minute 2 homologue (MDM2), which functions both as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to degrade P53 protein via the proteasome and an inhibitor of P53 transcriptional activation. Zinc plays a crucial role in stabilizing the P53 DNA binding domain, but PCa cells often lack the ability to accumulate sufficient zinc. In the present study, we explore the optimal approach to retention of P53 function. To restore the defective P53 pathway in PCa, we have explored a combined treatment of Pmp53 [a plasmid containing both mdm2 small interfering RNA (Si-MDM2) and the wild-type p53 gene] with zinc. This treatment retains the wild-type P53 conformation and function in PCa in vitro and in vivo. Combined treatments significantly inhibited tumour xenograft growth, retaining wild-type P53 conformation and enhancing its transcriptional regulation of p21 and bax gene expression, leading to the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. These in vivo findings were confirmed by in vitro culture of PCa PC-3 (p53 null) or DU145 (mutant p53) cells and showed a positive effect of the combined therapy on cell cycle arrest and massive apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the combined therapy of Pmp53 with zinc is an effective strategy that may open a new therapeutic avenue in some cancers expressing low levels of zinc and a defective P53 status.
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Cross-sectional study of attitudes about suicide among psychiatrists in Shanghai.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Attitudes and knowledge about suicide may influence psychiatrists' management of suicidal patients but there has been little research about this issue in China.
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Decreased expression of histone deacetylase 10 predicts poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aberrant expression of histone deacetylase (HDACs) was associated with carcinogenesis and progression of various tumors. However, the association of HDAC10 with clinical outcomes in gastric cancer patients is unclear. Thus, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the association of expression level of HDAC10 with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. The expression level of HDAC10 in 179 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissue specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). As a result, we found that expression of HDAC10 in gastric cancer was significantly decreased in gastric cancer tissues as compared with adjacent tissues (51.4% vs. 87.3%, P < 0.001). HDAC10 expression was significantly correlated with gender (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.015), histological grade (P = 0.009), tumor invasion (P = 0.033), lymph node metastatic status (P = 0.019) and tumor stage (P = 0.004), but not correlated with age and lauren classification (all P > 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the overall survival rate was significantly lower in the patients with low expression of HDAC10 compared with those patients with high HDAC10 (P < 0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that HDAC10 expression was an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients (P = 0.001). These results suggest that HDAC10 expression could see as a prognosis marker for gastric cancer patients.
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Retrospective identification of episodes of deliberate self-harm from emergency room registers in general hospitals: an example from Shanghai.
Arch Suicide Res
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using currently available emergency department (ED) records to retrospectively ascertain the prevalence and characteristics of episodes of medically treated deliberate self-harm (DSH). Discussions with ED staff identified 10 ED diagnoses in persons 12 years of age or older that were commonly used for episodes of DSH and another 7 injury-related diagnoses that could, under specific conditions, be acts of DSH. A retrospective analysis of the ED registry of one large general hospital in Shanghai for 2007 to 2010 identified all cases with one of these diagnoses. Diagnosis-specific algorithms based on the characteristics of each case were applied to classify cases as "probable DSH," "possible DSH" or "probably not DSH." The 1,495 cases of DSH identified accounted for 0.2% of all ED admissions over the 4 years; only 6 of them (0.4%) had an ED diagnosis of "suicide attempt." Three ED diagnoses-overdose of medication, fall from height, and pesticide ingestion-accounted for 1,275 (85.3%) of the DSH cases. There were substantial differences in the characteristics of male and female cases of DSH and a 43% drop in the proportion of ED admissions for DSH over the 4 years. In locations where it is not feasible to develop prospective registries of suicide attempts treated in EDs, retrospective analysis of ED records that use algorithms to classify the intentionality of injuries can provide estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of medically treated episodes of DSH.
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The usefulness of combined diagnostic CT and (99m)Tc-octreotide somatostatin receptor SPECT/CT imaging on pulmonary nodule characterization in patients.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of combination of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and somatostatin receptor imaging with (99m)Tc-octreotide acetate SPECT/CT in differentiation of benign pulmonary nodules from cancers.
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A Au-functionalized ZnO nanowire gas sensor for detection of benzene and toluene.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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A novel sensing hybrid-material of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs)-functionalized ZnO nanowires (Au-ZnO NWs) was successfully synthesized by a two-stage solution process. First, ZnO NWs were fabricated via a low-temperature one-pot hydrothermal method with SDSN introduced as a structure-directing agent. Afterward, the as-prepared ZnO NWs were used as supports to load Au NPs with small sizes via precipitating HAuCl4 aqueous solution with ammonia. The obtained samples were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, TEM and EDX. Both pristine and Au-ZnO NWs were practically applied as gas sensors to compare the effect of Au NPs on the sensing performances and the obtained results demonstrated that after functionalization by catalytic Au NPs, the hybrid sensor exhibited not only faster response and recovery speeds but also a higher response to benzene and toluene than the pristine ZnO sensor at 340 °C, especially showing high selectivity and long-term stability for low concentration toluene, which is rarely reported with this method, indicating its original sensor application in detecting benzene and toluene. To interpret the enhanced gas sensing mechanism, the strong spillover effect of the Au NPs and the increased Schottky barriers caused by the electronic interaction between Au NPs and ZnO NW support are believed to contribute to the improved sensor performance.
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Standardized drug and pharmacological class network construction.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Dozens of drug terminologies and resources capture the drug and/or drug class information, ranging from their coverage and adequacy of representation. No transformative ways are available to link them together in a standard way, which hinders data integration and data representation for drug-related clinical and translational studies. In this paper, we introduce our preliminary work for building a standardized drug and drug class network that integrates multiple drug terminological resources, using Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) and National Drug File Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) as network backbone, and expanding with RxNorm and Structured Product Label (SPL). The network consists of 39,728 drugs and drug classes. We calculated and compared structure similarity for each drug/drug class pair from ATC and NDF-RT, and analyzed constructed drug class network from chemical structure perspective.
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Standardizing drug adverse event reporting data.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field.
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Building a knowledge base of severe adverse drug events based on AERS reporting data using semantic web technologies.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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A semantically coded knowledge base of adverse drug events (ADEs) with severity information is critical for clinical decision support systems and translational research applications. However it remains challenging to measure and identify the severity information of ADEs. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a semantic web based approach for building a knowledge base of severe ADEs based on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) reporting data. We utilized a normalized AERS reporting dataset and extracted putative drug-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes in the domain of cardiac disorders. We validated the drug-ADE associations using ADE datasets from SIDe Effect Resource (SIDER) and the UMLS. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified and validated 2,444 unique Drug-ADE pairs in the domain of cardiac disorders, of which 760 pairs are in Grade 5, 775 pairs in Grade 4 and 2,196 pairs in Grade 3.
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Apatinib for chemotherapy-refractory advanced metastatic gastric cancer: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, phase II trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) who do not respond to or who experience progression with second-line chemotherapy have no treatment options that clearly confer a survival benefit. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of apatinib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, as a treatment option for heavily pretreated patients with mGC.
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Discovery of Bufadienolides as a Novel Class of ClC-3 Chloride Channel Activators with Antitumor Activities.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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ClC-3 chloride (Cl(-)) channel has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell migration processes. Herein, we found that a series of bufadienolides isolated from toad venom were a novel class of ClC-3 Cl(-) channel activators with antitumor activities. Bufalin, which has the most potent antitumor activity, and 15?-acetyloxybufalin, which has no antitumor activity, were chosen as representative compounds to investigate the role of the ClC-3 Cl(-) channel. It was found that bufalin rapidly elicited activation of the ClC-3 Cl(-) channel and subsequently induced apoptosis through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was attenuated by pretreatment with Cl(-) channel blockers [tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid, NPPB] or ClC-3 small interfereing RNA. In summary, we discovered that activation of the ClC-3 Cl(-) channel, which subsequently induced inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, was involved in the antitumor activities of bufadienolides.
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[Applying graphics processing unit in real-time signal processing and visualization of ophthalmic Fourier-domain OCT system].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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This investigation introduces GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)- based CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) technology into signal processing of ophthalmic FD-OCT (Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography) imaging system, can realize parallel data processing, using CUDA to optimize relevant operations and algorithms, in order to solve the technical bottlenecks that currently affect ophthalmic real-time imaging in OCT system. Laboratory results showed that with GPU as a general parallel computing processor, the speed of imaging data processing using GPU+CPU mode is more than dozens times faster than traditional CPU platform based serial computing and imaging mode when executing the same data processing, which reaches the clinical requirements for two dimensional real-time imaging.
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Adsorption properties and preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanche deserticola by use of macroporous resins.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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A simple and efficient chromatographic method for large-scale preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides (mainly contain echinacoside and acteoside) from Cistanche deserticola was developed. The adsorption properties of eight macroporous resins were evaluated. Three selected resins were further screened depending on the adsorption kinetics curves, in which HPD300 resin showed the best separation efficiency. The adsorption isotherm data on HPD300 resin were fitted to the Freundlich equation in certain concentration range. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with HPD300 resin to optimize the separation process. The breakthrough curves showed that acteoside had a higher affinity to the resin than echinacoside. The contents of echinacoside and acteoside in the product increased from 1.79% and 1.43% in the crude extracts to 16.66% and 15.17%, with recovery yields of 80.41% and 90.17%, respectively. The purity of total phenylethanoid glycosides in the product was 76.58%.
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Dysregulated expression of FOXM1 isoforms drives progression of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) plays important roles in oncogenesis. However, the expression statuses of FOXM1 isoforms and their impact on and molecular basis in oncogenesis are unknown. We sought to determine the identities of FOXM1 isoforms in and the impact of their expression on pancreatic cancer development and progression using human tissues, cell lines, and animal models. Overexpression of FOXM1 mRNA and protein was pronounced in human pancreatic tumors and cancer cell lines. We identified five FOXM1 isoforms present in pancreatic cancer: FOXM1a, FOXM1b, and FOXM1c along with two isoforms tentatively designated as FOXM1b1 and FOXM1b2 because they were closely related to FOXM1b. Interestingly, FOXM1c was predominantly expressed in pancreatic tumors and cancer cell lines, whereas FOXM1a expression was generally undetectable in them. Functional analysis revealed that FOXM1b, FOXM1b1, FOXM1b2, and FOXM1c, but not FOXM1a, promoted pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. Consistently, FOXM1b, FOXM1b1, FOXM1b2, and FOXM1c activated transcription of their typical downstream genes. Also, Sp1 mechanistically activated the FOXM1 promoter, whereas Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) repressed its activity. Finally, we identified an Sp1- and KLF4-binding site in the FOXM1 promoter and showed that both Sp1 and KLF4 protein bound directly to it. Deletion mutation of this binding site significantly attenuated the transcriptional regulation of the FOXM1 promoter positively by Sp1 and negatively by KLF4. We showed that overexpression of specific FOXM1 isoforms critically regulates pancreatic cancer development and progression by enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Our findings strongly suggest that targeting specific FOXM1 isoforms effectively attenuates pancreatic cancer development and progression.
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Tamoxifen inhibits migration of estrogen receptor-negative hepatocellular carcinoma cells by blocking the swelling-activated chloride current.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Tamoxifen is a triphenylethylene non-steroidal antiestrogen anticancer agent. It also shows inhibitory effects on metastasis of estrogen receptor (EsR)-independent tumors, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. It was demonstrated in this study that, in EsR-negative and highly metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cells, tamoxifen-inhibited cell migration, volume-activated Cl(-) currents (I(Cl,vol)) and regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in a concentration-dependent manner with a similar IC(50). Analysis of the relationships between migration, I(Cl,vol) and RVD showed that cell migration was positively correlated with I(Cl,vol) and RVD. Knockdown of the expression of ClC-3 Cl(-) channel proteins by ClC-3 shRNA or siRNA inhibited I(Cl,vol), and cell migration, and these inhibitory effects could not be increased further by addition of tamoxifen in the medium. The results suggest that knockdown of ClC-3 expression may deplete the effects of tamoxifen; tamoxifen may inhibit cell migration by modulating I(Cl,vol) and cell volume. Moreover, tamoxifen decreased the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) and the effects were reversed by the PKC activator PMA. Activation of PKC by PMA could competitively downregulate the inhibitory effects of tamoxifen on I(Cl,vol). PMA promoted cell migration, and knockdown of ClC-3 expression by ClC-3 siRNA abolished the PMA effect on cell migration. The results suggest that tamoxifen may inhibit I(Cl,vol) by suppressing PKC activation; I(Cl,vol) may be an EsR-independent target for tamoxifen in the anti-metastatic action on cancers, especially on EsR-negative cancers. The finding may have an implication in the clinical use of tamoxifen in the treatments of both EsR-positive and EsR-negative cancers.
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Analysis of UGT1A1*28 genotype and SN-38 pharmacokinetics for irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer: results from a multicenter, retrospective study in Shanghai.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism, although closely linked with CPT-11-related adverse effects, cannot be used alone to guide individualized treatment decisions. However, CPT-11 dosage can be adjusted according to measured SN-38 pharmacokinetics. Our study is designed to investigate whether there is a relationship between SN-38 peak or valley concentrations and efficacy or adverse effects of CPT-11-based chemotherapy. We retrospectively studied 98 patients treated with advanced colorectal cancer in various UGT1A1*28 genotype groups (mainly (TA)6/(TA)6 and (TA)6/(TA)7 genotypes) treated with CPT-11 as first-line chemotherapy in Shanghai.
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The ClC-3 chloride channel associated with microtubules is a target of paclitaxel in its induced-apoptosis.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Recent evidences show that cationic fluxes play a pivotal role in cell apoptosis. In this study, the roles of Cl(-) channels in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis were investigated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Chloride current and apoptosis were induced by paclitaxel and inhibited by chloride channel blockers. Paclitaxel-activated current possessed similar properties to volume-activated chloride current. After ClC-3 was knocked-down by ClC-3-siRNA, hypotonicity-activated and paclitaxel-induced chloride currents were obviously decreased, indicating that the chloride channel involved in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis may be ClC-3. In early apoptotic cells, ClC-3 was up-regulated significantly; over-expressed ClC-3 was accumulated in cell membrane to form intercrossed filaments, which were co-localized with ?-tubulins; changes of ultrastructures and decrease of flexibility in cell membrane were detected by atomic force microscopy. These suggest that ClC-3 is a critical target of paclitaxel and the involvement of ClC-3 in apoptosis may be associated with its accumulation with membrane microtubules and its over activation.
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Involvement of volume-activated chloride channels in H2O 2 preconditioning against oxidant-induced injury through modulating cell volume regulation mechanisms and membrane permeability in PC12 Cells.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The functions of chloride channels in preconditioning-induced cell protection remain unclear. In this report, we show that the volume-activated chloride channels play a key role in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) preconditioning-induced cell protection in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The preconditioning with 100 ?M H2O2 for 90 min protected the cells from injury induced by long period exposure to 300 ?M H2O2. The protective effect was attenuated by pretreatment with the chloride channel blockers, 5-nitro-2-3-phenylpropylamino benzoic acid (NPPB) and tamoxifen. H2O2 preconditioning directly activated a chloride current, which was moderately outward-rectified and sensitive to the chloride channel blockers and hypertonicity-induced cell shrinkage. H2O2 preconditioning functionally up-regulated the activities of volume-activated chloride channels and enhanced the regulatory volume decrease when exposure to extracellular hypotonic challenges. In addition, acute application of H2O2 showed distinctive actions on cell volume and membrane permeability in H2O2 preconditioned cells. In H2O2 preconditioned cells, acute application of 300 ?M H2O2 first promptly induced a decrease of cell volume and enhancement of cell membrane permeability, and then, cell volume was maintained at a relatively stable level and the facilitation of membrane permeability was reduced. Conversely, in control cells, 300 ?M H2O2 induced a slow but persistent apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) and facilitation of membrane permeability. H2O2 preconditioning also significantly up-regulated the expression of ClC-3 protein, the molecular candidate of the volume-activated chloride channel. These results suggest that H2O2 preconditioning can enhance the expression and functional activities of volume-activated chloride channels, thereby modulate cell volume and cell membrane permeability, which may contribute to neuroprotection against oxidant-induced injury.
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Identification and impact of hepatitis B virus DNA and antigens in pancreatic cancer tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Increasing evidence suggests that a link exists between hepatitis B virus (HBV) serum markers and pancreatic cancer (PC). In this study, HBsAg and HBcAg were expressed in 21.0% (34/162) of PC and 29.0% (47/162) of non-tumor pancreatic tissues, and they were significantly associated with chronic pancreatitis (P=0.000). The HBV S, C and X genes were identified in 20% (6/30) of PC and 26.9% (7/26) of non-tumor tissues by PCR. A serological survey revealed that the prevalence of HBV DNA and anti-HBc was significantly increased in PC patients compared with healthy controls. Our data suggest that HBV infection in the pancreas may play an etiologic role in PC.
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Comparative analysis of the genomes of Clostera anastomosis (L.) granulovirus and Clostera anachoreta granulovirus.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Clostera anastomosis (L.) granulovirus (CaLGV) and Clostera anachoreta granulovirus (ClanGV) are both capable of infecting each others native host insects. Despite this, we have little information on their genetic relationship. The complete nucleotide sequence of CaLGV was determined and compared with that of the genome of ClanGV. The circular, double-stranded DNA CaLGV genome (GenBank accession no. KC179784) had a G+C content of 46.7 % and was 101,818 bp in size (331 bp larger than the ClanGV genome). Overall, the CaLGV nucleotide sequence was found to be 90 % identical to that of ClanGV. It contained a total of 123 ORFs, 119 of which had ClanGV homologues, with an identical transcription direction and ORF organization. Seventy-five of the 119 ORFs showed 90 % or greater identity to their ClanGV homologues. CaLGV contained only a single identifiable homologous region (hrs)/repeat region (similar to ClanGV hr4). The mean frequency of nucleotide substitutions in the CaLGV/ClanGV coding regions was 8.33 %. CaLGV contained four unique ORFs (CaL23, CaL39, CaL48 and CaL92). Eight ORFs found in both CaLGV and ClanGV have no homologues in other baculoviruses. Intergenic regions of CaLGV and ClanGV occupied 6.6 % and 7 % of their respective genomes. CaLGV appears closer phylogenetically to ClanGV than to any other baculoviruses.
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Cocaine facilitates glutamatergic transmission and activates lateral habenular neurons.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Cocaine administration can be both rewarding and aversive. While much effort has gone to investigating the rewarding effect, the mechanisms underlying cocaine-induced aversion remain murky. There is increasing evidence that the lateral habenula (LHb), a small epithalamic structure, plays a critical role in the aversive responses of many addictive drugs including cocaine. However, the effects of cocaine on LHb neurons are not well explored. Here we show that, in acute brain slices from rats, cocaine depolarized LHb neurons and accelerated their spontaneous firing. The AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists, 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid, attenuated cocaine-induced acceleration. In addition, cocaine concentration-dependently enhanced glutamatergic excitation: enhanced the amplitude but reduced the paired pulse ratio of EPSCs elicited by electrical stimulations, and increased the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs in the absence and presence of tetrodotoxin. Dopamine and the agonists of dopamine D1 (SKF 38393) and D2 (quinpirole) receptors, as well as the dopamine transporter blocker (GBR12935), mimicked the effects of cocaine. Conversely, both D1 (SKF83566) and D2 (raclopride) antagonists substantially attenuated cocaines effects on EPSCs and firing. Together, our results provide evidence that cocaine may act primarily via an increase in dopamine levels in the LHb that activates both D1 and D2 receptors. This leads to an increase in presynaptic glutamate release probability and LHb neuron activity. This may contribute to the aversive effect of cocaine observed in vivo.
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Differential attentional bias in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Cognitive theorists relate anxiety disorders to the way in which emotional information is processed. The existing research suggests that patients with anxiety disorders tend to allocate their attention toward threat-related information selectively, and this may differ among different types of anxious subjects. The aim of this study was to explore attentional bias in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) using the emotional Stroop task and compare the differences between them.
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The rs2233678 polymorphism in PIN1 promoter region reduced cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Published evidence suggests that the rs2233678 (-842 G>C) polymorphism in the PIN1 (peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans somerase NIMA-interacting 1) promoter region may be associated with cancer risk; however, the conclusion is still inconclusive.
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Effects of low-level autonomic stimulation on prevention of atrial fibrillation induced by acute electrical remodeling.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Rapid atrial pacing (RAP) can induce electrical and autonomic remodeling and facilitate atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent reports showed that low-level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (LLVNS) can suppress AF, as an antiarrhythmic effect. We hypothesized that LLVNS can reverse substrate heterogeneity induced by RAP.
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Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway supports cancer cell growth during cancer radiotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Tumor growth after radiotherapy is a commonly recognized cause of therapeutic failure. In this way, we examined tumor cell growth after radiotherapy by establishing a cancer cell growth model in vitro. We accomplished this model by seeding non-irradiated firefly luciferase2 and green fluorescent protein fusion gene (Fluc) labeled living cancer reporter cells onto a feeder layer of irradiated cancer cells. The living tumor cell growth was monitored by bioluminescence imaging. The living reporter cells grew faster when seeded onto lethally irradiated feeder cells than when seeded onto non-irradiated feeder cells or when seeded in the absence of feeder cells. We found that the expression levels of the Shh and Gli1 proteins, both of which are critical proteins in Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, were increased after irradiation and that this expression was positively correlated with reporter cell growth. Moreover, the dying cell stimulation of living tumor cell growth was enhanced by the addition of SHH signaling agonists and inhibited by SHH signaling antagonists. SHH agonists also enhanced reporter cell growth in the absence of irradiated feeder cells, suggesting this mechanism plays a role in feeder cell growth stimulation. Given these results, we conclude that SHH signaling activation plays an important role during tumor repopulation after radiotherapy.
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A novel FoxM1-caveolin signaling pathway promotes pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a principal structural component of caveolar membrane domains, contributes to cancer development but its precise functional roles and regulation remain unclear. In this study, we determined the oncogenic function of Cav-1 in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer and in human tissue specimens. Cav-1 expression levels correlated with metastatic potential and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both mouse and human pancreatic cancer cells. Elevated levels in cells promoted EMT, migration, invasion, and metastasis in animal models, whereas RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown inhibited these processes. We determined that levels of Cav-1 and the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 correlated directly in pancreatic cancer cells and tumor tissues. Enforced expression of FoxM1 increased Cav-1 levels, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of FoxM1 had the opposite effect. FoxM1 directly bound to the promoter region of Cav-1 gene and positively transactivated its activity. Collectively, our findings defined Cav-1 as an important downstream oncogenic target of FoxM1, suggesting that dysregulated signaling of this novel FoxM1-Cav-1 pathway promotes pancreatic cancer development and progression.
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Differential expression and roles of volume-activated chloride channels in control of growth of normal and cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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We have previously shown that chloride channel activities were cell cycle-dependent and were involved in cell proliferation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. In this study, the expression and roles of volume-activated chloride channels in cell growth were investigated in the poorly-differentiated human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell (CNE-2Z) and its counterpart, the normal human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell (NP69-SV40T). Consistent with growth ability, the background chloride currents recorded under isotonic condition, the volume-activated chloride currents induced by 47% hypotonic challenges and the hyponinicity-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD) were much larger in CNE-2Z cells than in NP69-SV40T cells, suggesting the up-regulation of expression of volume-activated chloride channels in cancerous cells. This was proved by the up-regulation of ClC-3 proteins, a candidate of volume-activated chloride channels, in the cancerous cells. Functional inhibition of chloride channel activities by the chloride channel blockers, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and tamoxifen, and knock-down of ClC-3 expression by specific ClC-3 siRNA attenuated the background currents, suppressed the activation of volume-activated chloride currents, decreased the hyponinicity-induced RVD and inhibited cell growth in the cancerous and normal cells. However, the sensitivities of the cancerous cells were much higher than that of the normal cells. Our data suggest that volume-activated chloride channels play a more important role in control cell proliferation in the cancerous cells than in the normal cells; the growth of cancerous cells is more dependent on the activities of volume-activated chloride channels than that of the normal cells. ClC-3 protein may be considered as a potential tumor marker and therapeutic target for human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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ClC-3 is a main component of background chloride channels activated under isotonic conditions by autocrine ATP in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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In this study, the activation mechanisms of the background chloride current and the role of the current in maintaining of basal cell volume were investigated in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Under isotonic conditions, a background chloride current was recorded by the patch clamp technique. The current presented the properties similar to those of the volume-activated chloride current in the same cell line and was inhibited by chloride channel blockers or by cell shrinkage induced by hypertonic challenges. Extracellular applications of reactive blue 2, a purinergic receptor antagonist, suppressed the background chloride current in a concentration-dependent manner under isotonic conditions. Depletion of extracellular ATP with apyrase or inhibition of ATP release from cells by gadolinium chloride decreased the background current. Extracellular applications of micromolar concentrations of ATP activated a chloride current which was inhibited by chloride channel blockers and hypertonic solutions. Extracellular ATP could also reverse the action of gadolinium chloride. Transfection of CNE-2Z cells with ClC-3 siRNA knocked down expression of ClC-3 proteins, attenuated the background chloride current and prevented activation of the ATP-induced current. Furthermore, knockdown of ClC-3 expression or exposures of cells to ATP (10 mM), the chloride channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) and tamoxifen, or reactive blue 2 increased cell volume under isotonic conditions. The results suggest that ClC-3 protein may be a main component of background chloride channels which can be activated under isotonic conditions by autocrine/paracrine ATP through purinergic receptor pathways; the background current is involved in maintenance of basal cell volume.
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[Preliminary study on autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation for lower limb chronic venous ulcer].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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To investigate the effectiveness of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation on lower limb chronic venous ulcer.
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Combining betulinic acid and mithramycin a effectively suppresses pancreatic cancer by inhibiting proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Both betulinic acid (BA) and mithramycin A (MIT) exhibit potent antitumor activity through distinct mechanisms of Sp1 inhibition. However, it is unknown whether a combination of these two compounds results in a synergistic inhibitory effect on pancreatic cancer growth and/or has a therapeutic advantage over gemcitabine. In xenograft mouse models of human pancreatic cancer, treatment with either BA or MIT alone showed dose-dependent antitumor activity but led to systemic side effects as measured by overall weight loss. Treatment with a nontoxic dose of either compound alone had only marginal antitumor effects. Importantly, combination treatment with nontoxic doses of BA and MIT produced synergistic antitumor activity, including inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The treatment combination also produced less discernible side effects than therapeutic doses of gemcitabine. Moreover, combined treatment of BA and MIT resulted in drastic inhibition of Sp1 recruitment onto Sp1 and VEGF promoters, leading to transcriptional inhibition of both Sp1 and VEGF and downregulation of Sp1 and VEGF protein expression. Ectopic overexpression of Sp1 rendered tumor cells resistant to BA, MIT, and the combination of the two. Overall, our findings argue that Sp1 is an important target of BA and MIT and that their combination can produce an enhanced therapeutic response in human pancreatic cancer.
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Clinical predictors of familial depression in Han Chinese women.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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A number of clinical features potentially reflect an individuals familial vulnerability to major depression (MD), including early age at onset, recurrence, impairment, episode duration, and the number and pattern of depressive symptoms. However, these results are drawn from studies that have exclusively examined individuals from a European ethnic background. We investigated which clinical features of depressive illness index familial vulnerability in Han Chinese females with MD.
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Lack of association between stretch-activated and volume-activated Cl? currents in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Stretch-activated chloride currents (I(Cl,SA) ) have been considered to be a component of volume-activated chloride currents (I(Cl,vol) ) for some time. This is due to a similarity in biophysical and pharmacological properties that involve a membrane curvature-induced mechanism and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton induced by cell swelling or membrane stretch. In the present study, we demonstrated that current density, along with the time taken from the activation of currents to the peak, were significantly different between the two currents, in highly metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, the activation of I(Cl,vol) or I(Cl,SA), induced maximally by hypotonic solutions or membrane stretch, respectively, did not affect the following activation of the other one. Moreover, neither inhibition of I(Cl,vol) by sh-ClC-3 transfection, nor functional blocking of I(Cl,vol) by intracellular dialysis of anti-ClC-3 antibody had an effect on the activation and properties of I(Cl,SA). Collectively, our results suggest that I(Cl,SA) is different from I(Cl,vol) in activation mechanism and/or in molecular entity responsible for formation of the currents. ClC-3 is involved in the activation of I(Cl,vol), but not of I(Cl,SA).
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Synthesis and gas sensing properties of ?-Fe(2)O(3)@ZnO core-shell nanospindles.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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?-Fe(2)O(3)@ZnO core-shell nanospindles were synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal approach, and characterized by means of SEM/TEM/XRD/XPS. The ZnO shell coated on the nanospindles has a thickness of 10-15 nm. Considering that both ?-Fe(2)O(3) and ZnO are good sensing materials, we have investigated the gas sensing performances of the core-shell nanocomposite using ethanol as the main probe gas. It is interesting to find that the gas sensor properties of the core-shell nanospindles are significantly enhanced compared with pristine ?-Fe(2)O(3). The enhanced sensor properties are attributed to the unique core-shell nanostructure. The detailed sensing mechanism is discussed with respect to the energy band structure and the electron depletion theory. The core-shell nanostructure reported in this work provides a new path to fabricate highly sensitive materials for gas sensing applications.
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Volume-sensitive chloride channels are involved in maintenance of basal cell volume in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Chloride channels are expressed ubiquitously in different cells. However, the activation and roles of volume-activated chloride channels under normal isotonic conditions are not clarified, especially in lymphatic cells. In this study, the activation of basal and volume-activated chloride currents and their roles in maintenance of basal cell volume under isotonic conditions were investigated in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Molt4 cells. The patch-clamp technique and time-lapse image analysis were employed to record whole-cell currents and cell volume changes. Under isotonic conditions, a basal chloride current was recorded. The current was weakly outward-rectified and volume-sensitive and was not inactivated obviously in the observation period. A 47% hypertonic bath solution and the chloride channel blockers NPPB and tamoxifen suppressed the current. Exposure of cells to 47% hypotonic bath solution activated further the basal current. The hypotonicity-activated current possessed properties similar to those of the basal current and was inhibited by NPPB, tamoxifen, ATP and hypertonic bath solution. Furthermore, extracellular hypotonic challenges swelled the cells and induced a regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Extracellular applications of NPPB, tamoxifen and ATP swelled the cells under isotonic conditions and inhibited the RVD induced by hypotonic cell swelling. The results suggest that some volume-activated chloride channels are activated under isotonic conditions, resulting in the appearance of the basal chloride current, which plays an important role in the maintenance of basal cell volume in lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Chloride channels can be activated further to induce a regulatory volume recovery when cells are swollen.
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[Isolation and identification of an endophytic fungus of Polygonatum cyrtonema and its antifungal metabolites].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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Endophytic fungi in medicinal plants produce a variety of bioactivity compounds. In this study, an endophytic fungus zjqy610 with antifungal activity was isolated from Polygonatum cyrtonema in Zhejiang Qingyuan Baishanzu Mountain nature reserve.
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pH-Responsive chitosan-mediated graphene dispersions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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Homogeneous aqueous suspensions of graphene have been prepared by chemical reduction of graphene oxide in the presence of chitosan. The graphene sheets in thus prepared suspensions can be switched reversibly between a well dispersed and a more aggregated state with pH as a stimulus.
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The Fas-FADD death domain complex structure reveals the basis of DISC assembly and disease mutations.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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The death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formed by the death receptor Fas, the adaptor protein FADD and caspase-8 mediates the extrinsic apoptotic program. Mutations in Fas that disrupt the DISC cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Here we show that the Fas-FADD death domain (DD) complex forms an asymmetric oligomeric structure composed of 5-7 Fas DD and 5 FADD DD, whose interfaces harbor ALPS-associated mutations. Structure-based mutations disrupt the Fas-FADD interaction in vitro and in living cells; the severity of a mutation correlates with the number of occurrences of a particular interaction in the structure. The highly oligomeric structure explains the requirement for hexameric or membrane-bound FasL in Fas signaling. It also predicts strong dominant negative effects from Fas mutations, which are confirmed by signaling assays. The structure optimally positions the FADD death effector domain (DED) to interact with the caspase-8 DED for caspase recruitment and higher-order aggregation.
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KLF4? up-regulation promotes cell cycle progression and reduces survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor associated with tumor suppression and oncogenesis. KLF4 suppresses pancreatic tumorigenesis by unknown mechanisms; we investigated alterations that might affect KLF4 function and lead to tumor formation.
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ClC-3 chloride channels are essential for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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ClC-3, a gene encoding a candidate protein for volume-activated chloride (C(-)) channels, may be involved in tumor development. Herein we report a study using an antisense "knock-down" strategy to investigate the mechanism by which ClC-3 affects cell proliferation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. With immunoblots and MTT assays we demonstrated that the expression of ClC-3 was cell cycle dependent and in a similar concentration-dependent manner, an antisense oligonucleotide specific for ClC-3 inhibited ClC-3 protein expression and cell proliferation. The expression level of ClC-3 correlated with cell proliferation. Moreover, in the cells exposed to a ClC-3 antisense oligonucleotide, the cloning efficiency was inhibited, and cells were arrested in the S phase. The ClC-3 antisense oligonucleotide inhibited the volume-activated C(-) current (I(Cl,vol)) and the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the I(Cl,vol) or RVD was positively correlated with cell proliferation in the treated cells. In conclusion, ClC-3 is involved in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression through a mechanism involving modulation of I(Cl,vol) and RVD. CIC-3 may represent a therapeutic target in human cancer.
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Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of mixed-ligand complexes of palladium(II) with aromatic diimine and 4-toluenesulfonyl-L-amino acid dianion.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
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Eight new palladium(II) complexes (1a-2d) with 4-toluenesulfonyl-l-amino acid dianion and diimine (bipy and phen) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectra techniques. Crystal structure of the complex (2d) has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The cytotoxicity was tested by MTT and SRB assays. The results indicate that the complexes (1a-2d) have selectivity against tested carcinoma cell lines. The complex (2c) has the best cytotoxicity among the eight complexes, moreover its cytotoxicity is better than that of cisplatin against BGC-823, Bel-7402 and KB cell lines. It suggests that both aromatic diimine and 4-toluenesulfonyl-L-amino acid have important effect on cytotoxicity.
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Simultaneous analysis of diosgenin and sarsasapogenin in Asparagus officinalis byproduct by thin-layer chromatography.
Phytochem Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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Asparagus officinalis L. has several biological activities including antifungal, antiviral and antitumoral activities due to the steroidal saponins. Normally diosgenin and sarsasapogenin are analysed separately by thin-layer chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV or HPLC-ELSD), which is time-consuming and expensive, so we need to find a rapid solution to this problem.
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Platycodon grandiflorum induces apoptosis in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells through mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC., a Chinese food and medicine, has been used as expectorant traditionally. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum extract (PGE) on SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to monitor cell numbers, Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to examine cell apoptosis, caspases activation. Bcl-2 and Bax expressions and mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Our result showed that PGE-induced apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol. The data indicate that PGE may have anti-tumor effect mainly via caspase-3 and caspase-9 dependent apoptotic pathway.
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Lithium inhibits cell volume regulation by acting on chloride channels and modifies ultrastructures of the cell membrane in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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Lithium salts have been used as a class of mood stabilizing agents to treat bipolar disorders for over a century. Although lithium is known to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration, the underlying mechanisms have not been well-explored. Emerging evidence indicates that cell volume regulation and volume-activated chloride channels are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. To understand the mechanism of lithiums actions, we investigated the effect of lithium chloride on cell volume regulation and volume-activated chloride channels in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2Z. Our results show that lithium chloride attenuates regulatory volume decrease induced by 47% hypotonic challenges in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 756 microM. Using the patch clamp techniques, we further show that lithium chloride concentration-dependently (IC(50)=440 microM) inhibits the volume-activated chloride current as well as the background chloride current. Furthermore, using a nanoscale atomic force microscope, we show that lithium chloride prevents the hypotonic challenge-induced changes in the ultrastructures of the cell membrane. These changes include an increase in the number and the size of the small holes, which are observed in the surface of the cell membrane under isotonic conditions. The lithium chloride-induced inhibition in cell volume regulation, in volume-activated chloride current and in the ultrastructures of the cell membrane may contribute to its effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration.
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Covalent immobilization of redox protein via click chemistry and carbodiimide reaction: direct electron transfer and biocatalysis.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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In this paper, a simple, facile and general strategy was proposed for the covalent biofunctionalization of Au surface with hemoglobin (Hb). Structurally well-defined azide-terminated organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were formed on Au surface from a mixture solution of azidoundecanethiol and dilute thiol. 4-Pentynoic acid was used as a bifunctional linker to immobilized Hb via a selective, reliable, robust click reaction and a widely used carbodiimide reaction. The surface modification was characterized by reflectance absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The experimental data indicate that the proposed methodology is a highly versatile strategy for quantitative, stable and covalent attachment of biomacromolecules onto solid interface. The Hb functionalized Au electrode shows a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible peaks at about -0.210 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol/L pH 5.0 buffers, which stands for the reduction and oxidation of Hb Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. The electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) was estimated to be 0.78 s(-1). The maximal surface coverage (Gamma) of the immobilized Hb was 8.3 x 10(-12) mol cm(-2), indicating the formation of a monolayer. Moreover, the biocatalytic activity of the Hb biofunctonalized electrode was investigated and an excellent electrocatalytic reduction toward O(2) and H(2)O(2) was observed.
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Characteristics of nickel doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sputtering.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Nickel-doped zinc oxide thin films were prepared by the magnetron sputtering method. We have studied the structure and optical properties of the samples by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical transmittance. The chemical ingredients were examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and the charge state of Ni ions in the ZnO:Ni films was characterized by X-ray photoelectronic spectrometry (XPS). From the XRD spectra of the samples, it was obvious that there was no second phase, but the doping can disturb the ZnO crystal lattice and change the lattice parameters. All the films prepared have a wurtzite structure and grow mainly along the c-axis orientation. The magnetic measurments showed that the samples exhibit no ferromagnetism above room temperature.
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Nitric oxide and pancreatic cancer pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Pancreatic cancer is hallmarked by aggressive biology and extreme lethality and very high mortality rates. The underlying molecular mechanism of its rapid development and progression is unclear, however. Recent identification and functional validation of nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreatic cancer suggest a role for NO in the pathogenesis of this disease. Conceivably, overproduction of NO imposes an adverse selection pressure on the tumor microenvironment, which causes genetic and epigenetic changes in tumor and tumor stromal cells and promotes the evolution of these cells into more malignant cells conferred with a tremendous survival and growth advantage. Designing effective strategies targeting NO to control pancreatic cancer development and progression requires a full understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling of NO production and action in the tumor microenvironment.
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Organochlorine pesticides in consumer fish and mollusks of Liaoning province, China: distribution and human exposure implications.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Fish and mollusk samples were collected from markets located in 12 cities in Liaoning province, China, during August and September 2007, and 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. DDT, HCH, endosulfan, chlordane, and HCB were the dominating OCPs, with mean concentrations and ranges of, respectively, 15.41 and 0.57 to 177.56 ng/g, 0.84 and below detection limit (BDL) to 22.99 ng/g, 1.31 and BDL to 13.1 ng/g, 1.05 and BDL to 15.68 ng/g, and 0.63 and BDL to 9.21 ng/g in all fish and mollusk samples. The concentrations of other OCPs generally were low and were detectable in a minority of samples, reflecting the low levels of these OCPs in the study region. In general, OCP concentrations were obviously higher in fish than in mollusks, and higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish, which indicated, first, that freshwater fish are more easily influenced than seawater fish and mollusks by OCP residues in agricultural areas and, second, that there are different biota accumulation factors for OCPs between fish and mollusk. To learn the consumption of fish and mollusk, 256 questionnaires were sent to families in 12 cities of Liaoning province. Using the contamination data, average estimated daily intakes of OCPs via fish and mollusk consumption were calculated, which were used for exposure assessment. The public health risks caused by exposure to OCPs in the course of fish and mollusk consumption were compared to noncancer benchmarks and cancer benchmarks.
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Status of bi- and multi-nuclear platinum anticancer drug development.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Cisplatin has become one of the most commonly used compounds for the treatment of a wide spectrum of human malignancies. Unfortunately, cisplatin has several major drawbacks. Driven by the impressive impact of cisplatin on cancer chemotherapy, great efforts have been made to develop new derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. Among the over 30 platinum agents which have entered clinical trials after the onset of clinical studies with cisplatin in the early 1970s, only carboplatin and oxaliplatin have received worldwide approval so far, nedaplatin, lobaplatin and heptaplatin have gained regionally limited approval. It has become quite evident that mere analogues of cisplatin or carboplatin will not probably offer any substantial clinical advantages over the existing drugs. Therefore, people turned to synthesize non-classical platinum anticancer drugs which were capable of forming a different range of DNA adducts which could display a different spectrum of anticancer activity compared to cisplatin. This review will summarize the structural types and structure-activity rules of non-classical bi- and multi-nuclear platinum anticancer drugs, and discuss their future potential as anticancer agents.
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Combined treatment of pancreatic cancer with mithramycin A and tolfenamic acid promotes Sp1 degradation and synergistic antitumor activity.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Mithramycin (MIT) and tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibit the activity of the transcription factor Sp1. In the present study, we investigated whether pancreatic cancer treatment with a combination of these compounds has a synergistic effect on Sp1 activity, tumor growth, and their underlying response mechanisms. Treatment of pancreatic tumor xenografts with MIT and TA produced dose-dependent antitumor activity, and significant antitumor activity of either compound alone was directly associated with systemic side effects. Combination treatment with nontoxic doses of both compounds produced synergistic antitumor activity, whereas treatment with a nontoxic dose of either compound alone lacked a discernible antitumor effect. Synergistic therapeutic effects correlated directly with synergistic antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis in vitro. Moreover, combination treatment resulted in Sp1 protein degradation, drastically downregulating expression of Sp1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Our findings established that Sp1 is a critical target of TA and MIT in human pancreatic cancer therapy, rationalizing clinical studies to determine the effect of existing pancreatic cancer therapy regimens on Sp1 signaling in tumors and normal pancreatic tissue, and the ability of Sp1-targeting strategies to modify cancer responses.
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Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of iodo-bridged binuclear platinum(II) complexes.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Seven new iodo-bridged binuclear platinum(II) complexes [Pt(L)I2]2 (1-7) (L=n-butylamine, isopropylamine, m-toluidine, p-toluidine, diethylamine, N-methylaniline and aniline) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, thermal analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra techniques. The cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assay. The results indicate that they have selectivity against tested carcinoma cell lines. For example, the complexes (3 and 7) have better cytotoxicity than cisplatin against Bel-7402 cell line, the complexes (2-5 and 7) have better cytotoxicity than cisplatin against Hela cell line. The results suggest that the species of amine has important effect on cytotoxicity, when L=m-toluidine, p-toluidine and aniline, the complexes have better cytotoxicity against tested carcinoma cell lines.
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Status of non-classical mononuclear platinum anticancer drug development.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Cisplatin has become one of the most commonly used compounds for the treatment of a wide spectrum of human malignancies. Unfortunately, cisplatin has several major drawbacks. Driven by the impressive impact of cisplatin on cancer chemotherapy, great efforts have been made to develop new derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. Among the over 30 platinum agents which have entered clinical trials after the onset of clinical studies with cisplatin in the early 1970s, only carboplatin and oxaliplatin have received worldwide approval so far, nedaplatin, lobaplatin and heptaplatin have gained regionally limited approval. It has become quite evident that mere analogues of cisplatin or carboplatin will not probably offer any substantial clinical advantages over the existing drugs. Consequently, attention turned to the synthesis of non-classical platinum anticancer drugs which were capable of forming a different range of DNA adducts which could display a different spectrum of anticancer activity compared to cisplatin. The status of non-classical bi- and multi-nuclear platinum anticancer drug development has been reviewed. This review will summarize the structural types and structure-activity of non-classical mononuclear platinum anticancer drugs, and discuss their future potential as anticancer agents.
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