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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Significance of detecting circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and its clinical value: a retrospective study.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Aims and background. Circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells may be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We investigated the relationship between circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells and hepatoma patient survival after different managements and survival periods. Methods and study design. Peripheral vein blood (5 ml) samples were obtained from 113 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and from 33 control subjects (9 with liver cirrhosis after hepatitis B, 14 with chronic hepatitis B, 10 healthy individuals) between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. To detect circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was amplified from total RNA extracted from whole blood by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results. Alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in 59 blood samples from the hepatocellular carcinoma patients (59/113, 52.2%). In contrast, there were no clinical control subjects whose samples showed detectable alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA. The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in blood seemed to be correlated with the stage (by TNM classification) of hepatocellular carcinoma, serum alpha-fetoprotein value, and the presence of intrahepatic metastasis, portal vein thrombosis, tumor diameter and/or distant metastasis. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in the blood of 25 patients showing distant metastasis at extrahepatic organs (100%), in contrast to 32 of 88 cases without metastasis (36.4%). All the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were followed. Seventeen patients with resection of a T 2 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a survival of 3.2 years after surgical management, 38 cases with resection of a T3 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a 1.3-year survival, and only 37 cases with T4 stage disease after different treatments except surgery survived for 0.6 years (P <0.01). Conclusions. The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in peripheral blood may be an indicator of circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which might predict hematogenous spreading metastasis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and may be a poor prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
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Ginsenoside-Rb2 inhibits dexamethasone-induced apoptosis through promotion of GPR120 induction in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) is an essential pathogenic factor of osteoporosis. Ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2), a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol glycoside extracted from ginseng, is a potent treatment for bone loss which raises interest regarding the bone metabolism area. In the present study, we found that dose-response Rb2 inhibited high dosage of dexamethasone (Dex)-induced apoptosis in primary murine BMMSCs. Interestingly, Rb2 promoted GPR120 induction, which is the unsaturated long chain fatty acid receptor. We further confirmed that GPR120-specific ShRNA reversed the inhibition of Rb2 on Dex-induced apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and reducing cell viability. In addition, Rb2 notably increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and Ras kinase activity dependently via the GPR120. The ERK1/2 activity-specific inhibitor U0126 remarkably blocked Rb2-induced anti-apoptotic effect in response to Dex-induced apoptosis. Together, dose-response Rb2 protected BMMSCs against Dex-induced apoptosis dependently by inducing GPR120 promoted Ras-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Therefore, in the prevalence of the abuse of Dex in the clinic, our findings suggest for the first time that Rb2 is not only a key to understand the link between Chinese medicine and the pathology of osteoporosis but also an underlying target for the treatment of bone complications in the foreseeable future.
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[Anatomical characteristics of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia and their taxonomic significance].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Anatomical features of the lamina and petiole of 11 species of Salvia had been compared. The microstructures of 11 species of Salvia were observed by paraffin method, and indexes such as the epidermis, xylems and phloems were measured. The data set was analyzed by principal components analysis method and cluster analysis method. The results indicated that the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were bifacial leaf, and the surface of laminae and petioles were covered with villous. The upper epidermis and lower epidermis of the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were constituted by a dense cuticular layer without stratum corneum. Differences existed in the structure of cross sectio mn of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia. Among them, upper epidermal thickness of nine different micromorphological characters could serve as one of the criteria to identify species of taxonomic Salvia. The identification of genetic relationship of these characters in Salvia were discussed in the paper to provide an evidence of anatomy in Salvia.
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Use of the UPOINT phenotype system in treating Chinese patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a prospective study.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The urinary, psychosocial, organ-specific, infection, neurological/systemic and tenderness (UPOINT) phenotype system has been validated to be an effective phenotype system in classifying patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in western populations. To validate the utility of the UPOINT system and evaluate the effect of multimodal therapy based on the UPOINT system in Chinese patients with CP/CPPS, we performed this study. Chinese patients with CP/CPPS were prospectively offered multimodal therapy using the UPOINT system and re-examined after 6 months. A minimum 6-point drop in National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptoms Index (NIH-CPSI) was set to be the primary endpoint. Finally, 140 patients were enrolled in the study. The percentage of patients with each domain was 59.3%, 45.0%, 49.3%, 22.1%, 37.9%, and 56.4% for the UPOINT, respectively. The number of positive domains significantly correlated with symptom severity, which is measured by total NIH-CPSI scores (r = 0.796, P< 0.001). Symptom duration was associated with a greater number of positive domains (r = 0.589, P< 0.001). With 6 months follow-up at least, 75.0% (105/140) had at least a 6-point improvement in NIH-CPSI after taking the therapy. All NIH-CPSI scores were significantly improved from original ones: pain 10.14 ± 4.26 to 6.60 ± 3.39, urinary 6.29 ± 2.42 to 3.63 ± 1.52, quality of life 6.56 ± 2.44 to 4.06 ± 1.98, and total 22.99 ± 7.28 to 14.29 ± 5.70 (all P< 0.0001). Our study indicates that the UPOINT system is clinically feasible in classifying Chinese patients with CP/CPPS and directing therapy.
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[Optimization and application of chemically defined medium for 13C metabolic flux analysis of Streptomyces rimosus M4018].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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The aim of this study is to develop a synthetic medium suitable for 13C metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) of Streptomyces rimosus. The cell growth rate and oxytetracycline production by S. rimosus M4018 were compared when M4018 cells were growth on the optimized chemically defined media with organic nitrogen sources or inorganic nitrogen sources. First, a synthetic medium contained KNO3 as the main nitrogen source was screened, then optimized by a response surface method. Using this new medium, the oxytetracycline yield was increased from 75.2 to 145.6 mg/L. Furthermore, based on the 13C-MFA, we identified that Entner-Doudoroff pathway does not exist in S. rimosus cells cultured in a chemically defined medium with feed of 100% 1-13C labeled glucose. This study is helpful for subsequent 13C-MFA application of S. rimosus.
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Glucocorticoids transcriptionally regulate miR-27b expression promoting body fat accumulation via suppressing the browning of white adipose tissue.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Long-term glucocorticoid treatment induces central fat accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. We demonstrate that microRNA-27b plays a central role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced central fat accumulation. Overexpression of miR-27b had the same effects as dexamethasone treatment in the inhibition of brown adipose differentiation and the energy expenditure of primary adipocyte. Conversely, antagonizing miR-27b function prevented dexamethasone suppression of the expression of BAT-specific genes. GCs transcriptionally regulate the miR-27b expression via a GR-mediated direct DNA binding mechanism, and miR-27b suppresses browning white adipose tissue by targeting the 3'UTR of Prdm16. In vivo, antagonizing miR-27b function in dexamethasone treated mice resulted in the efficient induction of brown adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT), improved GC-induced central fat accumulation. Collectively, our results indicate that miR-27b functions as a central target of glucocorticoid and as an upstream regulator of Prdm16 to control browning of WAT and consequently may represent a potential target in preventing obesity.
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Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and fruit/vegetable waste: Lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen waste (KW) and fruit/vegetable waste (FVW) were investigated for establishing engineering digestion system. The study was conducted from lab-scale to pilot-scale, including batch, single-phase and two-phase experiments. The lab-scale experimental results showed that the ratio of FVW to KW at 5:8 presented higher methane productivity (0.725L CH4/g VS), and thereby was recommended. Two-phase digestion appeared to have higher treatment capacity and better buffer ability for high organic loading rate (OLR) (up to 5.0g(VS)L(-1)d(-1)), compared with the low OLR of 3.5g(VS)L(-1)d(-1) for single-phase system. For two-phase digestion, the pilot-scale system showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one, except slightly lower maximum OLR of 4.5g(VS)L(-1)d(-1) was allowed. The pilot-scale system proved to be profitable with a net profit of 10.173$/ton as higher OLR (?3.0g(VS)L(-1)d(-1)) was used.
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Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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We seek to summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC), an uncommon type of renal cell carcinoma.
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Presence of notched QRS on paced electrocardiographs as a predictor of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on patients with advanced and refractory heart failure has made remarkable progress. Clinically, notched QRS (nQRS) is commonly seen on electrocardiographs (ECGs) with bundle branch block morphology and on paced ECGs after implantation of a CRT device, which may reflect the heterogeneity of ventricular myocardial depolarization and electrical activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with more nQRS myocardial segments on paced ECGs had a worse response to CRT than patients with fewer nQRS myocardial segments.
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Protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis via reducing reactive oxygen species and bone-resorbing cytokines.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Oxidative stress is a crucial pathogenic factor in the development of osteoporosis. Myricitrin, isolated from Myrica cerifera, is a potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that myricitrin possessed protective effects against osteoporosis by partially reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bone-resorbing cytokines in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). We investigated myricitrin on osteogenic differentiation under oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to establish an oxidative cell injury model. Our results revealed that myricitrin significantly improved some osteogenic markers in these cells. Myricitrin decreased lipid production and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPAR?2) expression in hBMSCs. Moreover, myricitrin reduced the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and IL-6 and partially suppressed ROS production. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Our results demonstrated that myricitrin supplementation reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and increased reduced glutathione (GSH) activity. Importantly, it ameliorated the micro-architecture of trabecular bones in the 4th lumbar vertebrae (L4) and distal femur. Taken together, these results indicated that the protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in ROS and bone-resorbing cytokines, suggesting that myricitrin may be useful in bone metabolism diseases, particularly osteoporosis.
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Association of the miR-149 Rs2292832 Polymorphism with Papillary Thyroid Cancer Risk and Clinicopathologic Characteristics in a Chinese Population.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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(1) Background: The genetic predisposition to papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is far from clearly elucidated. Rs2292832 is a genetic polymorphism that located in the precursor of mir-149 and has been studied in diverse cancers. Thus far, the role of rs2292832 in PTC tumorigenesis and progression was unclear; (2) Method: Rs2292832 was genotyped in 838 PTCs, 495 patients with thyroid benign tumors (BNs) and 1006 controls in a Chinese Han population. Clinicopathological data was collected and compared. The expression level of mature mir-149 was examined in 55 normal thyroid tissue samples; (3) Results: The CC genotype of rs2292832 was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTC compared with TT homozygote (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.72-2.20, p = 0.003) and TT/TC combined genotype (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.09, p = 0.005). Rs2292832 is an independent risk factor correlated with tumor invasion (p = 0.006) and higher T stage in PTC patients (p = 0.007), but uncorrelated with short-term disease persistence of PTC. PTC subjects carrying CC genotype have lower mir-149-5p expression than those with TC genotype (p = 0.002). Twelve predicted target genes have been identified by collaboratively using computational tools; (4) Conclusion: Rs2292832 was possibly involved in the susceptibility and local progression of PTC in Chinese patients, by altering the expression level of mir-149-5p and its target genes.
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Vapor-liquid equilibrium and critical asymmetry of square well and short square well chain fluids.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The critical behavior of square well fluids with variable interaction ranges and of short square well chain fluids have been investigated by grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The critical temperatures and densities were estimated by a finite-size scaling analysis with the help of histogram reweighting technique. The vapor-liquid coexistence curve in the near-critical region was determined using hyper-parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results for coexistence diameters show that the contribution of |t|(1-?) to the coexistence diameter dominates the singular behavior in all systems investigated. The contribution of |t|(2?) to the coexistence diameter is larger for the system with a smaller interaction range ?. While for short square well chain fluids, longer the chain length, larger the contribution of |t|(2?). The molecular configuration greatly influences the critical asymmetry: a short soft chain fluid shows weaker critical asymmetry than a stiff chain fluid with same chain length.
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Phylogenetic analyses on the diversity of Aspergillus fumigatus sensu lato based on five orthologous loci.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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One hundred isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus sensu lato mainly from China, as well as from Australia, France, India, Indonesia, Ireland, UK, and USA were analyzed to infer their sequence types (STs) and population diversity based on partial calmodulin, calcineurin regulatory subunit B, beta-tubulin, cytochrome C and calcineurin catalytic subunit A genes as well as their mating types, using ClonalFrame, Structure and MEGA software. Our results inferred 48 STs and showed that most of the STs or lineages evolved independently and without clear population structure among them. Whereas one lineage was recognized that could be a true population and in which one clade might diverge into another distinct lineage, namely, a cryptic species, A. neoellipticus. In addition, we found that mutation, parasexual, and sexual recombination could, respectively, play specific roles in the evolution of these fungi. Our results also showed that MAT1-1/MAT1-2 mating type ratios of A. fumigatus sensu lato was biased to nearly 1:1.4 (20/28) when clone-corrected, but when not clone-corrected, the ratio of MAT1-1/MAT1-2 was so biased as near 1:2 (35/65), which might mean that isolates with MAT1-2 are in the process of losing sexual ability preceding those with MAT1-1.
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[Dynamic changes of polysaccharides content in Salvia miltiorrhiza root from different provenances].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To detect the content of polysaccharides in the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza collected from different provenances, and to discover the dynamic change rules of polysaccharides at various growing stages.
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Association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in mature microRNAs and the risk of thyroid tumor in a Chinese population.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in mature miRNAs (mmSNPs), some of which have been linked to cancer risk; however, it is unclear which mmSNPs contribute to the susceptibility to thyroid tumors. In the present study, we examined the influence of selected mmSNPs on the risk of thyroid tumor. After systematic in silico screening, seventeen mmSNPs were identified and genotyped in a Chinese population including 828 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 488 patients with benign thyroid tumor (BN), and 1038 cancer-free controls. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association of SNP genotypes and alleles with the risk of developing PTC and BN. Three SNPs (rs67106263 in mir-3144, GA versus GG, OR = 1.35, 1.09-1.68; rs4919510 in mir-608, CC versus GG/GC, OR = 0.76, 0.60-0.97; and rs79402775 in mir-933, AA versus GG/GA, OR = 1.76, 1.00-3.12) were associated with PTC risk. A combined effect of unfavorable genotypes was observed to give increased PTC risk in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, three SNPs (rs10061133 in mir-449b, rs79402775 in mir-933 and rs4919510 in mir-608) showed at least borderline correlations with the risk of BN. False-positive report probability was assessed for significant findings. The rs67106263 SNP was associated with the expression level of mir-3144 in thyroid tissue. These results indicate that mmSNPs may contribute to genetic susceptibility to thyroid tumors. Large validation and functional studies are required to further explore the role of mmSNPs in carcinogenesis.
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Tolerance-like innate immunity and spleen injury: a novel discovery via the weekly administrations and consecutive injections of PEGylated emulsions.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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There has been an increasing interest in the study of the innate immune system in recent years. However, few studies have focused on whether innate immunity can acquire tolerance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated tolerance in the innate immune system via the consecutive weekly and daily injections of emulsions modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), referred to as PEGylated emulsions (PE). The effects of these injections of PE on pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were studied in normal and macrophage-depleted rats. Additionally, we evaluated the antigenic specificity of immunologic tolerance. Immunologic tolerance against PE developed after 21 days of consecutive daily injections or the fourth week of PE administration. Compared with a single administration, it was observed that the tolerant rats had a lower rate of PE clearance from the blood, which was independent of the stress response. In addition, weekly PE injections caused injury to the spleen. Furthermore, the rats tolerant to PEs with the methoxy group (-OCH3) of PEG, failed to respond to the PEs with a different terminal group of PEG or to non-PEG emulsions. Innate immunity tolerance was induced by PE, regardless of the mode of administration. Further study of this mechanism suggested that monocytes play an essential role in the suppression of innate immunity. These findings provide novel insights into the understanding of the innate immune system.
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A comparative study of fast-track verus conventional surgery in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion: chinese experience.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Fast-track surgery (FTS), which combines various techniques with evidence-based adjustments, is aimed to reduce postoperative morbidity, attenuate surgical stress response, thereby accelerating recovery and shorting length of stay. To further investigate the effectiveness of fast-track surgery, we compared the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion for Chinese bladder cancer patients with FTS or with CS in our hospital. Patients with bladder cancer were included and divided into two consecutive groups: CS group and FTS group. Duration to first flatus and regular diet, postoperative hospital days, hospital expense, incidence of complications and postoperative surgical stress response were compared. There was no significant difference between the two groups in age, sex, BMI and postoperative TNM classification. Compared with the CS group, the FTS group had significantly shorter duration to first flatus, time to regular diet, postoperative hospital days and hospital expense, less complications, lower white blood count (WBC) and serum of C-reactive protein (CRP) on postoperative day 5 and 7. Our study indicates that FTS program is safe and efficacious for Chinese patients undergoing laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. It can accelerate recovery, reduce stress action, shorten postoperative hospitals days and reduce hospital expenses.
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Copper-catalyzed N-Alkynylations of sulfoximines with bromoacetylenes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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N-Alkynylated sulfoximines have been obtained by copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions starting from NH-sulfoximines and bromoacetylenes in moderate to good yields. The reaction conditions are mild, and the substrate scope is wide.
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A Non-Contact Capacitive Sensing System for Recognizing Locomotion Modes of Transtibial Amputees.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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This paper presents a non-contact capacitive sensing system (C-Sens) for locomotion mode recognition of transtibial amputees. C-Sens detects changes in physical distance between the residual limb and the prosthesis. The sensing front-ends are built into the prosthetic socket without contacting the skin. This novel signal source improves the usability of locomotion mode recognition systems based on electromyography (EMG) signals and systems based on capacitance signals obtained from skin contact. To evaluate the performance of C-Sens, we carried out experiments among six transtibial amputees with varying levels of amputation when they engaged in six common locomotive activities. The capacitance signals were consistent and stereotypical for different locomotion modes. Importantly, we were able to obtain sufficiently informative signals even for amputees with severe muscle atrophy (i.e. amputees lacking of quality EMG from shank muscles for mode classification). With phase-dependent quadratic classifier and selected feature set, the proposed system was capable of making continuous judgments about locomotion modes with an average accuracy of 96:3% and 94:8% for swing phase and stance phase, respectively (Experiment 1). Furthermore, the system was able to achieve satisfactory recognition performance after the subjects redonned the socket (Experiment 2). We also validated that C-Sens was robust to load bearing changes when amputees carried 5-kg weights during activities (Experiment 3). These results suggest that non-contact capacitive sensing is capable of circumventing practical problems of EMG systems without sacrificing performance and it is thus promising for automatic recognition of human motion intent for controlling powered prostheses.
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Prevalence of venous occlusion in patients referred for lead extraction: implications for tool selection.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Data concerning the incidence of venous obstruction in patients referred for lead extraction is limited. Thus, we aimed to assess the incidence of venous obstruction in patients referred for lead extraction and the implications for tool selection.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii (Teleostei, Carangidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Trachinotus blochii was determined using the polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence is 16,558?bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions. Overall base composition of its mitochondrial genome is estimated to be 29.21% for A, 15.74% for G, 26.49% for T, 28.56% for C, respectively, with a high A?+?T content (55.70%). The control region contains three conserved sequence blocks, a termination-associated sequence and a TATA box. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. blochii can provide a basic data for the studies on population structure, molecular systematic, stock evaluation and conservation genetics. It is also helpful to develop the rational management strategies for T. blochii resource.
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Physical activity offsets the negative effects of a high-fructose diet.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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This study aimed to determine the interaction between a high-fructose diet and PA levels on postprandial lipidemia and inflammation in normal-weight, recreationally active individuals.
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Obstructive jaundice and perioperative management.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The causes of obstructive jaundice are varied, but it is most commonly due to choledocholithiasis; benign strictures of the biliary tract; pancreaticobiliary malignancies; and metastatic disease. Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice is generally considered to be associated with a higher incidence of complications and mortality. Therefore, it poses a considerable challenge to the anesthesiologist, surgeons, and the intensive care team. However, appropriate preoperative evaluation and optimization can greatly contribute to a favorable outcome for perioperative jaundiced patients. This article outlines the association between obstructive jaundice and perioperative management, and reviews the clinical and experimental studies that have contributed to our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Pathophysiology caused by obstructive jaundice involving coagulopathies, infection, renal dysfunction, and other adverse events should be fully assessed and reversed preoperatively. The depressed cardiovascular effects of obstructive jaundice are worth noticing because it has complicated mechanisms and needs to be further explored. Alterations of anesthesia-related drugs induced by obstructive jaundice are varied and clinicians should be aware of the possible need for a decrease in the anesthetic dose. Recommendations concerning the perioperative management of the patients with obstructive jaundice including preoperative biliary drainage, anti-infection, nutrition support, coagulation reversal, cardiovascular evaluation, perioperative fluid therapy, and hemodynamic optimization should be taken.
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PDGF-BB secreted by preosteoclasts induces angiogenesis during coupling with osteogenesis.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Osteogenesis during bone modeling and remodeling is coupled with angiogenesis. A recent study showed that a specific vessel subtype, strongly positive for CD31 and endomucin (CD31(hi)Emcn(hi)), couples angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Here, we found that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) secreted by preosteoclasts induces CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel formation during bone modeling and remodeling. Mice with depletion of PDGF-BB in the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell lineage show significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone mass, serum and bone marrow PDGF-BB concentrations, and fewer CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels compared to wild-type mice. In the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mouse model, serum and bone marrow levels of PDGF-BB and numbers of CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels are significantly lower compared to sham-operated controls. Treatment with exogenous PDGF-BB or inhibition of cathepsin K to increase the number of preosteoclasts, and thus the endogenous levels of PDGF-BB, increases CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel number and stimulates bone formation in OVX mice. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase PDGF-BB secretion from preosteoclasts offer a new therapeutic target for treating osteoporosis by promoting angiogenesis and thus bone formation.
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Bluffing promotes overconfidence on social networks.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The overconfidence, a well-established bias, in fact leads to unrealistic expectations or faulty assessment. So it remains puzzling why such psychology of self-deception is stabilized in human society. To investigate this problem, we draw lessons from evolutionary game theory which provides a theoretical framework to address the subtleties of cooperation among selfish individuals. Here we propose a spatial resource competition model showing that, counter-intuitively, moderate values rather than large values of resource-to-cost ratio boost overconfidence level most effectively. In contrast to theoretical results in infinite well-mixed populations, network plays a role both as a "catalyst" and a "depressant" in the spreading of overconfidence, especially when resource-to-cost ratio is in a certain range. Moreover, when bluffing is taken into consideration, overconfidence evolves to a higher level to counteract its detrimental effect, which may well explain the prosperity of this "erroneous" psychology.
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N-Arylations of sulfoximines with 2-arylpyridines by copper-mediated dual N-H/C-H activation.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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A high-yielding method providing rapid access to new N-arylated sulfoximines has been developed. A stoichiometric amount of copper facilitates the C-H activation of 2-arylpyridines which then undergo oxidative C-N cross-couplings with various sulfoximine derivatives.
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Phase transition behaviours of a single dendritic polymer.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Dendritic polymers with highly branching structures exhibit many unique properties. In this paper, a computational study using the Wang-Landau sampling technique is carried out to reveal the phase transition behaviours of dendritic homopolymers with various branching structures. Two types of dendritic homopolymers, dendrimers/dendrigrafts (D/D) and hyperbranched (HB) polymers are studied. It is found that with increasing degree of branching in the dendritic polymer, the liquid-solid (LS) transition temperature increases and the coil-globule (CG) transition becomes weak. Additionally, under similar degrees of branching and polymerization, D/D polymers have a higher LS transition temperature than HB polymers. The reason is that the D/D polymers have greater regularity in the radial distribution of the branching units, which facilitates monomer packing during the LS transition. The distinctive internal unit distribution at various temperatures is quantitatively analysed. Our results show the importance of dendritic polymer structure regularity in phase transition behaviours and are valuable in guiding the structural design of dendritic macromolecules for functionalization applications.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei, Carangidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus was determined by the overlapped polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence is 16,544 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions. Overall base composition of its mitochondrial genome is estimated to be 28.68% for A, 16.27% for G, 26.00% for T, 29.06% for C, respectively, with a high A+T content (54.68%). The control region contains three conserved sequence blocks, a termination-associated sequence and a TATA box. The sequence data of T. carolinus can provide useful information for the studies on population structure, molecular systematic, stock evaluation and conservation genetics. It is also helpful to develop the rational management strategies for T. carolinus resource.
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Blast-induced traumatic brain injury of goats in confined space.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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To study blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) characteristics in confined space.
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Synthesis of 1H-indazoles from N-tosylhydrazones and nitroaromatic compounds.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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A new method for the synthesis of 1H-indazoles from readily available N-tosylhydrazones and nitroaromatic compounds has been developed. This transformation occurs under transition-metal-free conditions and shows a wide substrate scope. The method has been successfully applied to the formal synthesis of a bioactive compound, WAY-169916.
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Percutaneous Intrarenal Cyst Marsupialization and Simultaneous Nephrolithotomy in Selected Patients: Killing Two Birds With One Stone?
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To assess the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of percutaneous intrarenal cyst marsupialization and simultaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of a renal cyst with ipsilateral calculi in selected patients.
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Modified laparoscopic intragastric surgery and endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric stromal tumor originating from the muscularis propria.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and security of the modified laparoscopic intragastric surgery (MLIGS) and the endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric stromal tumors (GSTs) originating from the muscularis propria.
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Iron-catalyzed hetero-cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions of sulfoximines with diarylmethanes: a new route to N-alkylated sulfoximines.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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An efficient iron-catalyzed C-N bond formation by hetero-cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) between sulfoximines and diarylmethanes is described. The reaction shows good functional group tolerance and provides N-alkylated sulfoximines in moderate to good yields.
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17?-Estradiol inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis through promotion of TFII-I-dependent Grp78 induction in osteoblasts.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Although many studies have suggested that estrogen prevents postmenopausal bone loss partially due to its anti-apoptosis effects in osteoblasts, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that 17?-estradiol (17?-E?), one of the primary estrogens, inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts. Interestingly, 17?-E?-promoted Grp78 induction, but not CHOP induction in response to ER stress. We further confirmed that Grp78-specific siRNA reversed the inhibition of 17?-E? on ER stress-induced apoptosis by activating caspase-12 and caspase-3. Moreover, we found that 17?-E? markedly increased the phosphorylated TFII-I levels and nuclear localization of TFII-I in ER stress conditions. 17?-E? stimulated Grp78 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of TFII-I and enhanced the binding of TFII-I to the Grp78 promoter. In addition, 17?-E? notably increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and Ras kinase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. The ERK1/2 activity-specific inhibitor U0126 remarkably blocked 17?-E?-induced TFII-I phosphorylation and Grp78 expression in response to ER stress. Together, 17?-E? protected MC3T3-E1 cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis by promoting Ras-ERK1/2-TFII-I signaling pathway-dependent Grp78 induction.
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Identification of miRNAs involved in pear fruit development and quality.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that take part in regulating genes through mediating gene expressions at the post-transcriptional level in plants. Previous studies have reported miRNA identification in various plants ranging from model plants to perennial fruit trees. However, the role of miRNAs in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit development is not clear. Here, we investigated the miRNA profiles of pear fruits from different time stages during development with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and bioinformatics analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression levels of miRNAs.
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microRNA-145 inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion by targeting ROCK1.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Osteosarcoma (OS), a malignant mesenchymal sarcoma, is the most frequent primary bone tumor, with a peak incidence in young children and adolescents. The downregulation of microRNA?145 (miRNA/miR?145) has previously been identified to be associated with the aggressiveness and metastasis of OS. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism by which miR?145 inhibits OS remains largely unknown. The present study demonstrated that miR?145 was significantly downregulated in OS tissues and KHOS and U2OS cell lines. Rho?associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, was identified as a novel target of miR?145. Ectopic expression of miR?145 notably suppressed the protein expression of ROCK1 without affecting its mRNA level. Furthermore, the expression of ROCK1 was significantly increased in the OS tissues and in the KHOS and U2OS cells. It was further demonstrated that the overexpression of miR?145 downregulated KHOS and U2OS cell proliferation and invasion, which was reversed by restoration of ROCK1. To the best of our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time that, as a tumor suppressor, miRNA?145 inhibits OS cell proliferation and invasion, at least in part by directly targeting ROCK1. These results indicate that miR?145 may be a potential candidate for the diagnosis and treatment of OS.
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Friedel-Crafts bottom-up synthesis of fluorene-based soluble luminescent organic nanogrids.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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A series of fluorene-based grid molecules (so-called Grid fluorenes) have been synthesized by means of shape-supported cyclization, starting from H-shaped precursors via the alternative Friedel-Crafts reactions of fluorenols and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions with key cyclization yields up to 26%. Fluorenol approaches and nanogrids open a door to soluble one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanoporous polymers as next-generation polymer mechano-semiconductors facing a new era of consciousness.
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miR-137 regulates the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by targeting ephrin-type A receptor 7.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate gene expression. Post?transcriptional regulation by miRNAs is important for organism development. In addition, endothelial cells are key regulators of angiogenesis. By using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)?2,5?diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), migration and gelatin sponge-chorioallantoic membrane assays, it was demonstrated that when miR-137 was overexpressed, cell viability and migration decreased. In addition, it was observed that blocking endogenous miR-137 increased cell viability and migration. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the 3'?untranslated region (3'UTR) of the ephrin type-A receptor 7 (EPHA7) has a putative binding site for miR-137. miR-137 is able to directly bind to the EPHA7 3'UTR and negatively regulate the expression of EPHA7. miR-137 is also able to decrease the growth and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The identification of the function of miR-137 and its target gene EPHA7 in HUVECs may provide novel insights into the mechanisms of angiogenesis.
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Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China.
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Effect of the human SOD1-G93A gene on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in NSC-34 cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are a frequent cause of the lethal neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The nuclear factor erythroid 2?related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway is the major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, however, its role in ALS remains to be fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether the human SOD1-G93A gene affected the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in an ALS cell model. The soma became round and the number of neurites decreased in the NSC-34 cells transfected with the hSOD1-G93A gene, and the neurites were shorter and oxidative stress was increased compared with the normal NSC-34 cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 and
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Cooperation with both synergistic and local interactions can be worse than each alone.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Cooperation is ubiquitous ranging from multicellular organisms to human societies. Population structures indicating individuals' limited interaction ranges are crucial to understand this issue. But it remains unknown to what extend multiple interactions involving nonlinearity in payoff influence the cooperation in structured populations. Here we show a rule, which determines the emergence and stabilization of cooperation, under multiple discounted, linear, and synergistic interactions. The rule is validated by simulations in homogenous and heterogenous structured populations. We find that the more neighbours there are the harder for cooperation to evolve for multiple interactions with linearity and discounting. For synergistic scenario, however, distinct from its pairwise counterpart, moderate number of neighbours can be the worst, indicating that synergistic interactions work with strangers but not with neighbours. Our results suggest that the combination of different factors which promotes cooperation alone can be worse than that with every single factor.
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Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a pie. The proposer suggests how to split the pie. The responder can either accept or reject the deal. If an agreement is not reached, neither player gets anything. Both game theory and evolutionary game theory predict the rational solution that the proposer offers the smallest possible share and the responder accepts it. Fairness thus requires additional mechanisms for natural selection to favor it. Studies to date assumed that individuals have competed for the fixed size of pies, in sharp contrast with real situations, where randomness is ubiquitous. Here we study the impact of random allocation of pies on the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms.
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SGK1 is involved in cardioprotection of urocortin-1 against hypoxia/reoxygenation in cardiomyocytes.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Urocortin-1 (UCN1) exerts protective effects on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in the heart. Serum- and glucocorticoid- responsive kinase-1 (SGK1), a serine-threonine kinase, has been shown to be crucial for cardiomyocyte survival. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether SGK1 is involved in UCN1-induced cardioprotection.
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Characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Polysaccharides were extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge using response surface methodology (RSM) with ultrasonication. A Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the extraction parameters to maximize the polysaccharide extraction yield. The polysaccharide SMP-U1 was isolated and characterized; then the antioxidant and antiproliferation activities were evaluated in vitro. The modified optimal conditions were an ultrasonic power of 180 W, an extraction temperature of 54°C, and an extraction time of 32 min, achieving an extraction yield of 40.54±0.25%. The results indicate that SMP-U1 has significant antioxidant activity, scavenging the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. It has also exhibited effect on the proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells Bcap-37 and human esophageal carcinoma cells Eca-109, especially at a concentration of 0.30 mg/mL. In conclusion, SMP-U1 has remarkable in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferation activity, and has potential for application as a natural antioxidant or antitumor agent.
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Spatial distribution and accumulation of Hg in soil surrounding a Zn/Pb smelter.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Nonferrous metal smelting is an important atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission source that has significant local and global impacts. To quantify the impact of Hg emission from non-ferrous metal smelter on the surrounding soil, an integrated model parameterizing the processes of smelter emission, air dispersion, atmospheric deposition and Hg accumulation in soil was developed. The concentrations of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) around the smelter and the spatial distribution of Hg in the surrounding soil were measured and compared with the model results. Atmospheric deposition of Hg emitted from the smelter was identified as the main source of Hg accumulation in the surrounding soil. From 1960 to 2011, the smelter emitted approximately 105 t of Hg into the atmosphere, of which 15 t deposited locally and resulted in an increase of Hg concentration in soil from 0.12 to 1.77 mg kg(-1). A detailed examination of wind rose and model data suggested that the area within 1.0-1.5 km northwest and southeast of the smelter was most severely impacted. It was estimated that the smelter operation from 1969 to 1990, when large scale emission controls were not implemented, resulted in 6450 ?g m(-2)yr(-1) of Hg net deposition and a model simulated increase of 0.40 mg kg(-1) of Hg accumulation in the soil. During the period from 1991 to 2011, atmospheric Hg emission from the smelter alone increased the average concentration in soil from 0.41 mg kg(-1) to 0.45 mg kg(-1). In the past 50 years, over 86% of Hg emitted from this smelter went into the global pool, indicating the importance of controlling Hg emissions from non-ferrous metal smelters.
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MiR-23a-mediated migration/invasion is rescued by its target, IRS-1, in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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To determine the interaction between insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and miR-23a on the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and to examine IRS-1 expression in NSCLC tissues and its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics.
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Mercury concentrations in forest soils and stream waters in northeast and south China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) is generally higher in China than in North America and Europe. Transport and methylation of Hg deposited in forest ecosystems may cause health risks to humans. We collected water samples from 117 small streams, and soil samples from 25 sites in forested areas in northeast and south China during 2011-2013 to investigate the spatial distribution of Hg. Results showed that Hg concentration in surface soil (0-5 cm in depth) was generally higher in south China (97.8 ± 36.0 ?g/kg) than that in the northeast (44.0 ± 14.1 ?g/kg). In contrast, the Hg concentration in stream water was higher in northeast China (17.2 ± 11.0 ng/L) than that in the south (6.2 ± 6.4 ng/L). Hg concentrations in surface soil were positively correlated with Hg concentrations in the overlying litter Oe/Oa horizon (r(2)=0.84). Hg concentrations in stream water were positively correlated to DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentrations (r(2)=0.43) and to the Hg concentration in the litter Oe/Oa horizon (r(2)=0.69). Because the litter Oe/Oa horizon represents Hg accumulated by foliage, the positive correlations indicate that atmospheric Hg deposition was an important factor affecting Hg concentrations in soils and stream water.
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Rab25 is responsible for phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT?mediated cisplatin resistance in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Rab25, a member of the Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatase, was reported to have an essential role in the development of human epithelial ovarian cancer. The present study demonstrated that Rab25 mediated the sensitivity of ovarian cancer to cisplatin, a first?line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer in the clinic. Overexpression of Rab25 and increased phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling were detected in cisplatin?resistant SKOV?3 cells compared with those in cisplatin?sensitive ES?2 cells. The results of the present study indicated that cisplatin resistance was primarily due to reduced G1 cell cycle arrest following cisplatin treatment in SKOV?3 cells. By contrast, the corresponding phenomenon was not observed following treatment with a Rab25?specific small interfering RNA or treatment with the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002. Of note, inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway reduced Rab25 gene expression and sensitized SKOV?3 cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, knockdown of Rab25 showed an effect comparable with blocking the PI3K/AKT pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that PI3K/AKT and Rab25 significantly contributed to cisplatin resistance in human epithelial ovarian cancer; in addition, silencing Rab25 or inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway markedly increased the sensitivity of these cells to cisplatin.
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Removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution using iminodiacetic acid derivative functionalized SBA-15 as adsorbents.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Three different functional SBA-15 were prepared by a post-grafting method using three iminodiacetic acid derivatives of ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A), diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid (DT4A), and 1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotriacetic acid (CyD3A), which were used as adsorbents for removal of uranium(vi) from aqueous solution. These materials were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, TEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments, and elemental analysis. The effect of pH, ionic strength, contact time, solid-liquid ratio, initial metal ion concentration, temperature, and coexisting ions on uranium(vi) sorption behaviors of the functionalized SBA-15 was studied. Typical sorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) were determined for the sorption process, and the maximum sorption capacity was calculated. The influence of functional groups on uranium(vi) sorption was also discussed. As a result, compared with other current U(vi) sorbents (granite, kaolin, attapulgite), SBA-15-1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotriacetic acid (SBA-15-CyD3A) possessed good selective sorption properties, which had potential application in separation of uranium(vi).
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Significant SNPs have limited prediction ability for thyroid cancer.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Recently, five thyroid cancer significantly associated genetic variants (rs965513, rs944289, rs116909374, rs966423, and rs2439302) have been discovered and validated in two independent GWAS and numerous case-control studies, which were conducted in different populations. We genotyped the above five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Han Chinese populations and performed thyroid cancer-risk predictions with nine machine learning methods. We found that four SNPs were significantly associated with thyroid cancer in Han Chinese population, while no polymorphism was observed for rs116909374. Small familial relative risks (1.02-1.05) and limited power to predict thyroid cancer (AUCs: 0.54-0.60) indicate limited clinical potential. Four significant SNPs have limited prediction ability for thyroid cancer.
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TAZ promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the upregulation of connective tissue growth factor expression in neuroblastoma cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Neuroblastoma (NB) is a neuroendocrine cancer that occurs most commonly in infants and young children. The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and its primary downstream effectors are TAZ and yes?associated protein 1 (YAP). The effect of TAZ on the metastatic progression of neuroblastoma and the underlying mechanisms involved remain elusive. In the current study, it was determined by western blot analysis that the migratory and invasive properties of SK?N?BE(2) human neuroblastoma cells are associated with high expression levels of TAZ. Repressed expression of TAZ in SK?N?BE(2) cells was shown to result in a reduction in aggressiveness of the cell line, by Transwell migration and invasion assay. In contrast, overexpression of TAZ in SK?N?SH human neuroblastoma cells was shown by Transwell migration and invasion assays, and western blot analysis, to result in epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased invasiveness. Mechanistically, the overexpression of TAZ was demonstrated to upregulate the expression levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), by western blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, while the knockdown of TAZ downregulated it. Furthermore, TAZ was shown by luciferase assay to induce CTGF expression by modulating the activation of the TGF??/Smad3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that the overexpression of TAZ induces EMT, increasing the invasive abilities of neuroblastoma cells. This suggests that TAZ may serve as a potential target in the development of novel therapies for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
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Quantitative trait loci for mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) identified using a RIL population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.), a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs).
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Penicillium fusisporum and P. zhuangii, two new monoverticillate species with apical-swelling stipes of section Aspergilloides isolated from plant leaves in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Two new Penicillium species isolated from plant leaves are reported here, namely, P. fusisporum (type strain AS3.15338T?=?NRRL 62805T?=?CBS 137463T) and P. zhuangii (type strain AS3.15341T?=?NRRL 62806T?=?CBS 137464T). P. fusisporum is characterized by fast growth rate, apical-swelling monoverticillate penicilli, verrucose stipes, fusiform to oblong conidia about 3.5-4×2-2.5 µm and cinnamon-colored sclerotia. While P. zhuangii presents a moderate growth rate, it also bears apical-swelling monoverticillate penicilli but its stipes are smooth-walled, and produces ovoid to globose smooth-walled conidia about 3-3.5 µm. Both species belong to section Aspergilloides, and P. fusisporum is related to "P. thomii var. flavescens", while P. zhuangii is morphologically similar to P. lividum. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of calmodulin and beta-tubulin genes both show that the two new taxa form distinct monophyletic clades.
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Dose-dependent effect of estrogen suppresses the osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation of osteoblasts via canonical Wnt signaling pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fat infiltration within marrow cavity is one of multitudinous features of estrogen deficiency, which leads to a decline in bone formation functionality. The origin of this fat is unclear, but one possibility is that it is derived from osteoblasts, which transdifferentiate into adipocytes that produce bone marrow fat. We examined the dose-dependent effect of 17?-estradiol on the ability of MC3T3-E1 cells and murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC)-derived osteoblasts to undergo osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation. We found that 17?-estradiol significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.05); calcium deposition; and Alp, Col1a1, Runx2, and Ocn expression levels dose-dependently. By contrast, 17?-estradiol significantly decreased the number and size of lipid droplets, and Fabp4 and PPAR? expression levels during osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of brown adipocyte markers (Myf5, Elovl3, and Cidea) and undifferentiated adipocyte markers (Dlk1, Gata2, and Wnt10b) were also affected by 17?-estradiol during osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation. Western blotting and immunostaining further showed that canonical Wnt signaling can be activated by estrogen to exert its inhibitory effect of osteo-adipogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate the dose-dependent effect of 17?-estradiol on the osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and BMMSCs likely via canonical Wnt signaling. In summary, our results indicate that osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation modulated by canonical Wnt signaling pathway in bone metabolism may be a new explanation for the gradually increased bone marrow fat in estrogen-inefficient condition.
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Aspiration-based partner switching boosts cooperation in social dilemmas.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Most previous studies concerning linking dynamics often assumed that links pairing individuals should be identified and treated differently during topology adjusting procedure, in order to promote cooperation. A common assumption was that cooperators were expected to avoid being exploited by quickly breaking up relationships with defectors. Then the so-called prosocial links linking two cooperators (abbreviated as CC links hereafter) would be much favored by evolution, whereby cooperation was promoted. However, we suggest that this is not always necessary. Here, we developed a minimal model in which an aspiration-based partner switching mechanism was embedded to regulate the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Individuals adjusted social ties in a self-questioning manner in line with the learning theory. Less game information was involved during dynamic linking and all links were tackled anonymously irrespective of their types (i.e., CD links, DD links, or CC links). The main results indicate that cooperation flourishes for a broad range of parameters. The denser the underlying network, the more difficult the evolution of cooperation. More importantly, moderate aspirations do much better in promoting the evolution of altruistic behavior and for most cases there exists the optimal aspiration level that most benefits cooperation. Too strong or too weak selection intensity turns out to be pretty conducive to the evolution of cooperation in such a dynamical system.
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Development and validation of an animal model of prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain: evaluating from inflammation of the prostate to pain behavioral modifications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common type of prostatitis. Due to the lack of a suitable animal model partly, the pathogenesis for this condition is obscure. In the current study we developed and validated an animal model for nonbacterial prostatitis and prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain in rats with the use of intraprostatic injection of ?-carrageenan.
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Lymph node ratio for postoperative staging of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lymph node metastasis has a significant impact on laryngeal cancer prognosis. The role of lymph node ratio (LNR, ratio of metastatic to examined nodes) in the staging of laryngeal cancer was not reported.
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[Types and risk factors of arrhythmia on young patients with acute coronary syndrome in Henan province].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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The types and risk factors of arrhythmia were analyzed on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients under the age of 44 years who were hospitalized in Henan province between September 2009 to June 2012.
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Non-contact capacitance sensing for continuous locomotion mode recognition: Design specifications and experiments with an amputee.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Locomotion mode recognition plays an important role in the control of powered lower-limb prostheses. In this paper, we present a non-contact capacitance sensing system (C-Sens) to measure the interfacial signals between the residual limb and the prosthetic socket. The system includes sensing front-ends, a sensing circuit, a control circuit and foot pressure insoles. In the proposed system, the electrodes are fixed on the inner surface of the socket, which couple with the human body forming capacitors. The foot pressure insoles are built for detecting gait phases. The data sequence is controlled by the control circuit. To evaluate the capacitance sensing system, experiments with a transtibial amputee are carried out and seven kinds of locomotion modes are recorded. With the continuous phase dependent classification method and the quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) classifier, the average recognition accuracies are 93.8% and 95.0% for the stance phase and the swing phase respectively. The results show the potential of the proposed system for the control of powered lower-limb prostheses.
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Improved renormalization group theory for critical asymmetry of fluids.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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We develop an improved renormalization group (RG) approach incorporating the critical vapor-liquid equilibrium asymmetry. In order to treat the critical asymmetry of vapor-liquid equilibrium, the integral measure is introduced in the Landau-Ginzbug partition function to achieve a crossover between the local order parameter in Ising model and the density of fluid systems. In the implementation of the improved RG approach, we relate the integral measure with the inhomogeneous density distribution of a fluid system and combine the developed method with SAFT-VR (statistical associating fluid theory of variable range) equation of state. The method is applied to various fluid systems including square-well fluid, square-well dimer fluid and real fluids such as methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), trifluorotrichloroethane (C2F3Cl3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The descriptions of vapor-liquid equilibria provided by the developed method are in excellent agreement with simulation and experimental data. Furthermore, the improved method predicts accurate and qualitatively correct behavior of coexistence diameter near the critical point and produces the non-classical 3D Ising criticality.
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Pd-catalyzed cyclization and carbene migratory insertion: new approach to 3-vinylindoles and 3-vinylbenzofurans.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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A Pd-catalyzed stereoselective synthesis of 3-vinylindoles and 3-vinylbenzofurans has been developed. The reaction merges the alkyne-based Pd-catalyzed cyclization and Pd carbene migratory insertion in a single catalytic cycle, generating a C-C single bond and a C?C double bond in one operation.
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A Simple and Reliable Method for Distinguishing Danshen in Salvia: Simultaneous Quantification of Six Active Compositions by HPLC.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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A simple and reliable method for distinguishing Danshen is important to evaluate the quality and clinical efficiency of these species. An HPLC method was developed for the determination of protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA in 23 samples of Salvia. The analytes were separated on an Agilent XDB C18 reversed-phase column coupled with a Phenomenex C18 guard column using a gradient elution of acetonitile-0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate 0.8 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. The method allowing the simultaneous quantification of six major active compositions was optimized and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification. The LOD ranged from 0.019 to 0.850 µg/mL (R(2) ? 0.9998). Accuracy, precision and reproducibility were all within the required limits. The average recovery between 96.49 and 102.16% and the relative standard deviations were <3.01%. Based on the six compositions content and clustering result, this research results suggest that these six major active compositions could be distinguishing markers for Danshen and non-Danshen.
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[Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population, and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure.
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Supramolecular luminescence from oligofluorenol-based supramolecular polymer semiconductors.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Supramolecular luminescence stems from non-covalent exciton behaviors of active ?-segments in supramolecular entities or aggregates via intermolecular forces. Herein, a ?-conjugated oligofluorenol, containing self-complementary double hydrogen bonds, was synthesized using Suzuki coupling as a supramolecular semiconductor. Terfluorenol-based random supramolecular polymers were confirmed via concentration-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The photoluminescent spectra of the TFOH-1 solution exhibit a green emission band (g-band) at approximately ~520 nm with reversible features, as confirmed through titration experiments. Supramolecular luminescence of TFOH-1 thin films serves as robust evidence for the aggregates of g-band. Our results suggest that the presence of polyfluorene ketone defects is a sufficient condition, rather than a sufficient-necessary condition for the g-band. Supramolecular electroluminescence will push organic devices into the fields of supramolecular optoelectronics, spintronics, and mechatronics.
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A treatment option for severe cerebellar hemorrhage with ventricular extension in elderly patients: intraventricular fibrinolysis.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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External ventricular drainage (EVD) combined with intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) is rarely used in severe spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage (SCH) with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Recently, the treatment strategy was repeatedly performed in our hospital to elderly patients with severe SCH + IVH. To analyze its clinical value, we compared it to two treatment strategies which now commonly are used for these patients: conservative management (CM) and clot evacuation (CE). In this study, a total of 118 cases were observed, of which 28 cases received CM, 43 cases received EVD + IVF and 47 cases received CE. The Glasgow Coma Scale score, frequency of complication, mortality in one month, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at six months, and causes of death were analyzed. The outcomes of patients in the CM group were extremely poor compared to patients undergoing surgery (P = 0.034) and the mortality was up to 61.3 % (18/28), which was much higher than those of the two surgical groups (P = 0.026). No significant difference was found in mortality and mRS between the two surgical groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the CE group mostly died of deterioration of comorbidities and postoperative complications, whereas more deaths occurred in the CM group and the EVD + IVF group due to rebleeding, brainstem compression, perilesional edema and tight posterior fossa (? (2), P = 0.006). It is suggested that EVD + IVF is a treatment option for elderly patients with severe SCH + IVH.
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Medium-term outcomes of cemented prostheses and cementless modular prostheses in revision total hip arthroplasty.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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There is an increasing trend towards cementless modular femoral prostheses for revision hip replacement surgery, especially in patients with severe proximal femoral bone defects. However, for minor femoral bone defects, the benefit of cementless modular is not clear. We designed a retrospective cross-sectional study to compare outcomes of the two femoral implant designs. There were no significant differences in terms of visual analog pain scores, Harris hip scores, femoral bone restoration, stem subsidence, leg length correction, or overall complication rate. Three femoral reoperations (11%) occurred in the cemented group, and two (9%) in the cementless modular group. One femoral stem re-revised (4%) in the cemented group due to recurrent deep infection. Five-year survival for femoral reoperation was 88.2% for patients with the cemented implant and 91.3% for cementless group. Both groups had good clinical and radiological outcomes for femoral revision in patients with minor femoral bone defects during medium-term follow-up.
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Penicillium kongii, a new terverticillate species isolated from plant leaves in China.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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A new Penicillium species isolated from plant leaves, characterized by restricted growth, terverticillate penicilli, ovoid to ellipsoidal conidia and a red soluble pigment on yeast extract sucrose agar is reported here. Penicillium kongii sp. nov. belongs to subgenus Penicillium section Brevicompacta and is morphologically similar to P. bialowiezense and P. brevicompactum. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from calmodulin gene, ?-tubulin gene and rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 show that P. kongii forms a distinctive clade.
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Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoners Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population.
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Confirmation of papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies of chromosomes 14q13, 9q22, 2q35 and 8p12 in a Chinese population.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were previously reported to be associated with thyroid cancer in European populations in two genome-wide association studies (GWAS): rs965513 (9q22.33), rs944289 (14q13.3), rs116909374 (14q13.3), rs966423 (2q35) and rs2439302 (8p12). Only the first two SNPs have been validated in independent populations and none were replicated in Chinese populations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.