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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prevalence of dementia in the oldest old: The Monzino 80-plus population based study.
Alzheimers Dement
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Epidemiological studies commonly include too few of the oldest old to provide accurate prevalence rates of dementia in older age groups. Estimates of the number of those affected, necessary for healthcare planning, are thus flawed. The objective is to estimate the prevalence of dementia and levels of dementia severity in a very large population of oldest old and to investigate the relation between age and dementia prevalence in the extreme ages.
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The stigma of low opioid prescription in the hospitalized multimorbid elderly in Italy.
Intern Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of opioid prescriptions in hospitalized geriatric patients. Other aims were to evaluate factors associated with opioid prescription, and whether or not there was consistency between the presence of pain and prescription. Opioid prescriptions were gathered from the REgistro POliterapie Societa` Italiana di Medicina Interna (REPOSI) data for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012. 1,380 in-patients, 65+ years old, were enrolled in the first registry run, 1,332 in the second and 1,340 in the third. The prevalence of opioid prescription was calculated at hospital admission and discharge. In the third run of the registry, the degree of pain was assessed by means of a numerical scale. The prevalence of patients prescribed with opioids at admission was 3.8 % in the first run, 3.6 % in the second and 4.1 % in the third, whereas at discharge rates were slightly higher (5.8, 5.3, and 6.6 %). The most frequently prescribed agents were mild opioids such as codeine and tramadol. The number of total prescribed drugs was positively associated with opioid prescription in the three runs; in the third, dementia and a better functional status were inversely associated with opioid prescription. Finally, as many as 58 % of patients with significant pain at discharge were prescribed no analgesic at all. The conservative attitude of Italian physicians to prescribe opioids in elderly patients changed very little between hospital admission and discharge through a period of 5 years. Reasons for such a low opioid prescription should be sought in physicians' and patients' concerns and prejudices.
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Electrocardiographic monitoring for new prescriptions of quetiapine co-prescribed with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine from 2005 to 2009. A population study on community-dwelling older people in Italy.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The aims of this study are to analyse, in community-dwelling people aged 65+ living in Italy's Lombardy Region, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring for new users of the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine co-prescribed with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) or memantine and to find independent predictors of ECG monitoring before and after the starting of this prescription.
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Changes in drug prescribing to Italian community-dwelling elderly people: the EPIFARM-Elderly Project 2000-2010.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To investigate the changes in the last decade (2000-2010) in drug prescribing among community-dwelling elderly people aged 65-94 years, in relation to age and sex.
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Prevention of inappropriate prescribing in hospitalized older patients using a computerized prescription support system (INTERcheck(®)).
Drugs Aging
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Polypharmacy is very common among older adults and can lead to inappropriate prescribing, poor adherence to treatment, adverse drug events and the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Electronic prescription database software may help to prevent inappropriate prescribing and minimize the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. INTERcheck(®) is a Computerized Prescription Support System (CPSS) developed in order to optimize drug prescription for elderly people with multimorbidity.
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Prognostic value of estimated glomerular filtration rate in hospitalized elderly patients.
Intern Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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A multicenter observational study, REPOSI (REgistro POliterapie Società Italiana di Medicina Interna), was conducted to assess the prognostic value of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on in-hospital mortality, hospital re-admission and death within 3 months, in a sample of elderly patients (n = 1,363) admitted to 66 internal medicine and geriatric wards. Based on eGFR, calculated by the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula, subjects at hospital admission were classified into three groups: group 1 with normal eGFR (?60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), reference group), group 2 with moderately reduced eGFR (30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and group 3 with severely reduced eGFR (<30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Patients with the lowest eGFR (group 3) on admission were more likely to be older, to have a greater cognitive and functional impairment and a high rate of comorbidities. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that severely reduced eGFR at the time of admission was associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 3.00; 95 % CI 1.20-7.39, p = 0.0230), but not with re-hospitalization (OR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.54-1.76, p = 0.9156) or mortality at 3 months after discharge (OR 1.93; 95 % CI 0.92-4.04, p = 0.1582). On the contrary, an increased risk (OR 2.60; 95 % CI 1.13-5.98, p = 0.0813) to die within 3 months after discharge was associated with decreased eGFR measured at the time of discharge. Our study demonstrates that severely reduced eGFRs in elderly patients admitted to hospital are strong predictors of the risk of dying during hospitalization, and that this measurement at the time of discharge helps to predict early death after hospitalization.
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Antipsychotics prescription and cerebrovascular events in Italian older persons.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Meta-analyses have found conflicting evidence on the link between antipsychotics and cerebrovascular events (CVEs). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association between any antipsychotic prescription and CVEs in Italian elderly; second, to compare the effect of typical and atypical antipsychotics on CVEs; and third, to investigate the effect of antipsychotics on CVEs in the subgroup of persons coprescribed with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). Administrative claims from community-dwelling people aged 65 to 94 years living in Northern Italy were analyzed using a retrospective case-control design, from 2003 to 2005. The primary outcome measure was a hospital discharge diagnosis of CVEs during 2005. Four age-, sex-, and local health unit-matched control subjects were identified for each case. Antihypertensive drugs, anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, and AChEI were used as covariates in conditional logistic regression models testing the odds ratio (OR) for CVEs due to antipsychotics use. Three thousand eight hundred fifty-five cases of CVEs were identified and matched with 15,420 control subjects. In multiadjusted models, the association of any antipsychotics, typical or atypical with CVEs, was not significant. When antipsychotics were categorized according to the number of boxes prescribed during the observational period, being prescribed with at least 19 boxes of typical antipsychotics was significantly associated with CVEs (OR, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-5.5). An interaction was found between any antipsychotic and AChEI coprescription on CVEs (OR, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.92). In conclusion, only typical antipsychotics were associated with an increased odd of CVEs, but the association was duration dependent. Persons prescribed simultaneously with AChEI and antipsychotics may be at a lower risk of CVEs.
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Joint use of cardio-embolic and bleeding risk scores in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Scores for cardio-embolic and bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation are described in the literature. However, it is not clear how they co-classify elderly patients with multimorbidity, nor whether and how they affect the physicians decision on thromboprophylaxis.
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Drug-drug interactions in a cohort of hospitalized elderly patients.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of patients exposed to potentially severe drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at hospital admission and discharge and the related risk of in-hospital mortality and adverse clinical events, readmission, and all-cause mortality at 3?months.
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Geographical differences in the prevalence of chronic polypharmacy in older people: eleven years of the EPIFARM-Elderly Project.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To compare the geographical differences in the prevalence of chronic polypharmacy in community-dwelling older people over 11 years.
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Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in elderly patients with multimorbidity.
Intern Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (TP) is known to reduce venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical inpatients, but the criteria for risk-driven prescription, safety and impact on mortality are still debated. We analyze data on elderly patients with multimorbidities admitted in the year 2010 to the Italian internal medicine wards participating in the REPOSI registry to investigate the rate of TP during the hospital stay, and analyze the factors that are related to its prescription. Multivariate logistic regression, area under the ROC curve and CART analysis were performed to look for independent predictors of TP prescription. Association between TP and VTE, bleeding and death in hospital and during the 3-month post-discharge follow-up were explored by logistic regression and propensity score analysis. Among the 1,380 patients enrolled, 171 (15.2 %) were on TP during the hospital stay (162 on low molecular weight heparins, 9 on fondaparinux). The disability Barthel index was the main independent predictor of TP prescription. Rate of fatal and non-fatal VTE and bleeding during and after hospitalization did not differ between TP and non-TP patients. In-hospital and post-discharge mortality was significantly higher in patients on TP, that however was not an independent predictor of mortality. Among elderly medical patients there was a relatively low rate of TP, that was more frequently prescribed to patients with a higher degree of disability and who had an overall higher mortality.
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A new generation of antipsychotics: pharmacology and clinical utility of cariprazine in schizophrenia.
Ther Clin Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cariprazine is a potential antipsychotic awaiting approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. It is a dopamine D2- and D3-receptor partial agonist, with higher affinity for D3 receptors, as opposed to the D2 antagonism of most older antipsychotic agents. Like most lipophilic antipsychotics, it undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP), mainly the highly variable 3A4, with the formation of active metabolites. However, the parent compound - particularly its active didesmethyl derivative - is cleared very slowly, with elimination half-lives in schizophrenic patients ranging from 2-5 days for cariprazine to 2-3 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine. Exposure to the latter was several times that for cariprazine, although didesmethyl-cariprazine did not reach steady state within the 3 weeks of 12.5 mg/day dosing. Preliminary information on its therapeutic role comes from press releases and a few abstracts presented at scientific meetings. In short-term controlled trials, it was more effective than placebo in reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, with an effective dose range of 1.5-12 mg/day. Although cariprazine was associated with a higher incidence of akathisia and extrapyramidal side effects than placebo, it did not cause weight gain, metabolic abnormalities, prolactin increase, or corrected QT prolongation. Similarly, cariprazines efficacy and tolerability for the treatment of bipolar disorder (manic/mixed and depressive episodes) was established in the dose range of 3-12 mg/day, although again no long-term data are available. Well-designed clinical trials, mainly direct "head-to-head" comparisons with other second-generation antipsychotic agents, are needed to define the therapeutic role and safety profile of cariprazine in schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
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Association between clusters of diseases and polypharmacy in hospitalized elderly patients: results from the REPOSI study.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Although the association between multimorbidity and polypharmacy has been clearly documented, no study has analyzed whether or not specific combinations of diseases influence the prescription of polypharmacy in older persons. We assessed which clusters of diseases are associated with polypharmacy in acute-care elderly in-patients.
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A Population-based study of dementia in the oldest old: the Monzino 80-plus study.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Despite being the fastest growing and the most cognitively impaired age group, the oldest olds are under-represented in clinical research. The purpose of this study was to describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the survey population and investigate possible differences in demographic, cognitive, functional, and behavioral characteristics between oldest old with and without any performance on cognitive tests and between oldest old alive and those deceased prior to the interview.
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Cholinesterase inhibitor use in Alzheimers disease: the EPIFARM-Elderly Project.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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This study was designed to examine the prevalence of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) use and the proportions of patients treated with ChEIs by using an administrative prescription database of prevalent and incident cases of mild to moderate Alzheimers disease (AD) in relation to age and duration of therapy.
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Drug utilization and polypharmacy in an Italian elderly population: the EPIFARM-elderly project.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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To investigate the prescribing patterns and the prevalence of polypharmacy in community-dwelling elderly people, and to analyze the association of chronic medications and number of drug prescriptions with age and sex.
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Polypharmacy, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality among elderly patients in internal medicine wards. The REPOSI study.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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We evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with polypharmacy and investigated the role of polypharmacy as a predictor of length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality.
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New atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia: iloperidone.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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The optimal treatment of schizophrenia poses a challenge to develop more effective treatments and safer drugs, to overcome poor compliance, discontinuation and frequent switching with available antipsychotics. Iloperidone is a new dopamine type 2/serotonin type 2A (D(2)/5-HT(2A)) antagonist structurally related to risperidone, expected to give better efficacy with less extrapyramidal symptoms than D(2) receptor antagonist antipsychotics. In double-blind phase III trials iloperidone reduced the symptoms of schizophrenia at oral doses from 12 to 24 mg. It was more effective than placebo in reducing positive and negative syndrome total score and Brief Psychiatric Rating scale scores; it was as effective as haloperidol and risperidone in post-hoc analysis. Its long-term efficacy was equivalent to that of haloperidol. The most common adverse events were dizziness, dry mouth, dyspepsia and somnolence, with few extrapyramidal symptoms and metabolic changes in short- and long-term studies in adults. Akathisia was rare, but prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc) interval was comparable to haloperidol and ziprasidone, which is of particular concern. Further comparative studies are needed to clarify the benefit/risk profile of iloperidone and its role in the treatment of schizophrenia.
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Predicting the clinical relevance of drug interactions from pre-approval studies.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Drug interactions (DIs) may result in adverse drug events that could be prevented, but in many cases the available information on potential DIs is not easily transferable to clinical practice. The majority of studies date from preclinical or premarketing phases, using animals or human-derived sources that may not accurately reflect the growing clinical complexity of high-risk populations, such as the elderly, women, children, patients with chronic disease, polytherapy and impaired organ functions. Thus, at the time of approval of a new drug the information in the summary of product characteristics refers to potential DIs, but lacks specific management recommendations and is of limited clinical utility. Therefore, we set out to review in vitro and in vivo methods to predict and quantify potential DIs, to see whether these studies could help the physician tackle daily problems of the assessment and choice of combined drug therapies, and to propose, from a clinical point of view, how premarketing studies could be improved so as to help the physician at the patients bedside. Preclinical and premarketing study design needs to be improved to make information easily accessible and clinically transferable. Studies should also take into account appropriate sample size, duration, co-morbidity, number of coadministered drugs, within- and between-subject variability, specific at-risk populations and/or drugs with a relatively narrow therapeutic window, and clinical endpoints. After premarketing development in situations where there is potential high risk of serious adverse events, specific phase IV studies (and/or active pharmacovigilance studies) should be required to monitor and quantitatively assess their clinical impact.
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Use and misuse of antipsychotic drugs in patients with dementia in Alzheimer special care units.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2009
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The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of antipsychotic use and investigate their association with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and other clinical predictors. Patients with dementia, aged 65 and above and resident in 35 Alzheimer special care units were sequentially enrolled into a 18-month prospective observational study. Data on sociodemographic, cognitive, functional, behavioural and clinical characteristics and drug exposure were collected at baseline and at 6-month intervals up to 18 months. The prevalence of antipsychotic use and the association with BPSD and clinical predictors were analysed. Of the 349 patients with dementia enrolled in the study, 209 (60%) were taking at least one antipsychotic. Risperidone and promazine were the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic; 40.7% simultaneously received a benzodiazepine, 20% an antidepressant. More than 50% were still taking antipsychotics at 18 months of follow-up. No associations were found between antipsychotic use and level of cognitive impairment, basal activity of daily living disability and comorbidity. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of antipsychotics was highest in patients in the highest quartiles of Neuropsychiatric Inventory Scale score (III quartile, odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.23; IV quartile, odds ratio: 2.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.61-3.26). This study found high rate of use of antipsychotics in patients with dementia resident in Alzheimer special care units, frequent associations with other psychotropic medications and a strong correlation with BPSD.
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How pre-marketing data can be used for predicting the weight of drug interactions in clinical practice.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
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Unexpected drug interactions have led to the withdrawal of many drugs, raising concern about the gap between what is known at the time of approval and the risk of serious effects in the longer term, particularly in high-risk populations generally excluded from drug development. This is because the majority of drug interaction studies are done using in vitro methods, or in healthy young volunteers who may not reflect the complexity of patients, and the settings in which the drug will be used in clinical practice. Pre-marketing interaction studies should therefore be designed to make information easily accessible and clinically transferable. They should be adequate in terms of sample size, population, comorbidity, phenotyping and/or genotyping, end-points and outcome measures, and conducted in conditions of dose, route and timing of co-administration that reproduce the proposed therapeutic indications of the new drug. Although young volunteers have the advantage of minimizing some confounding effects introduced by diseases or polypharmacy, patients drawn from populations for whom the drug is intended would be more relevant and accurate, providing the studies are feasible and safe.
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Risk factors for hospital readmission of elderly patients.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
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The aim of this study was to identify which factors were associated with a risk of hospital readmission within 3 months after discharge of a sample of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine and geriatric wards.
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Adverse clinical events and mortality during hospitalization and 3 months after discharge in cognitively impaired elderly patients.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
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Controversial findings are reported on hospital outcome in cognitively impaired patients. The aim of this study was to explore mortality risk according to cognitive status during hospitalization and after 3 months in elderly patients.
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Critical appraisal of lurasidone in the management of schizophrenia.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
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Lurasidone is a new atypical antipsychotic in the benzoisothiazoles class of chemicals. Like most second-generation antipsychotics it is a full antagonist at dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors, and is a partial agonist at 5-HT(1A) receptors, a property shared by some but not all older agents. It has much greater affinity for 5-HT(7) subtype receptors than other atypical antipsychotics. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that lurasidone is reasonably rapidly absorbed, with bioavailability appearing to be increased by food. Lurasidone undergoes extensive metabolism to a number of metabolites, some of which retain pharmacological activities. Metabolism is mainly by CYP3A4, resulting in steady-state concentrations that vary between individuals and are potentially affected by strong inducers and inhibitors of this enzyme. Short-term clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of lurasidone in acute schizophrenia, with doses of 40 and 80 mg/day giving significant improvements from baseline in the PANSS and BPRS scores. The most common adverse events are nausea, vomiting, akathisia, dizziness, and sedation, with minimal increases in the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Lurasidone did not raise the risk of QTc interval prolongation, although additional studies are required. Long-term trials are also needed to assess the risk of new-onset diabetes. Ongoing trials in patients with bipolar disorder are being completed but, again, efficacy and safety have been investigated only in a few short-term clinical trials.
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Changes in trend of antipsychotics prescription in patients treated with cholinesterase inhibitors after warnings from Italian Medicines Agency. Results from the EPIFARM-Elderly Project.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
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The objective of the study was to assess the trend of antipsychotic prescription in elderly patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) from 2002 to 2008 and the changes subsequent to two main official warnings issued by the Italian Medicines Agency to restrict their use. Elderly patients aged 65-94years who received at least one prescription of ChEIs between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2008 were selected. We used data on prescriptions from the Lombardy Region Drug Administrative Database (Italy). The first prescription of one ChEI was used as the index day to calculate the prescription of an antipsychotic. The prescription of atypical antipsychotics in patients exposed to ChEIs declined from 21.0% in 2002 to 14.6% in 2008 (OR 0.92; 95%CI:0.90, 0.94; p<0.001), while the prescribing prevalence of typicals slightly increased (OR 1.08; 95%CI:1.03, 1.13; p=0.001). In relation to the two warnings, the prevalence of patients who received a prescription of antipsychotics was significantly lower in 2005 than 2004 (23.1% vs. 28.0%; OR 0.79; 95%CI:0.73-0.86; p<0.001) and in 2007 than 2006 (19.4% vs. 23.0%; OR 0.79; 95%CI:0.73-0.86; p<0.001). After the first safety warning the prevalence of prescriptions for risperidone and olanzapine dropped significantly, and there was a significant increase for quetiapine. Haloperidol prescriptions increased, especially after the second warning. Despite regulatory warnings issued to discourage the use of antipsychotics, they are still frequently prescribed to patients taking ChEIs. Awaiting further studies to clarify their therapeutic role, physicians should prescribe antipsychotics very cautiously and only after careful risk-benefit assessment.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.