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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis herd breakdowns in Spain 2009/2011.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period). Seven possible causes were considered: i) residual infection; ii) introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii) sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv) contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v) presence of infected goats in the farm; vi) interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii) contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence) were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4-25.6), followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8-15.8). The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0-45.4) of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs.
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Spatio-temporal variability of bovine tuberculosis eradication in Spain (2006-2011).
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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In this study we analyzed the space-time variation of the risk of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle between 2006 and 2011. The results indicated that at country level, there were no significant temporal changes between years, but, at county level bTB evolution was more heterogeneous. In some counties, between some years, the prevalence and the incidence of the disease was higher as compared to the global rate in the rest of the counties of Spain. The analysis of potential risk factors indicated that both, a large number of movements from counties with high incidence (>1%), and presence of bullfighting cattle herds increased bTB risk. Red deer abundance, number of goats and number of mixed cattle-goat farms were not significantly associated with the prevalence/incidence of bTB.
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On the use of Ethephon as abscising agent in cv. Crimson Seedless table grape production: Combination of Fruit Detachment Force, Fruit Drop and metabolomics.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The effect of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon, in the following ETH) as abscising agent on cv. Crimson Seedless table grape was investigated by means of Fruit Detachment Force (FDF) and Fruit Drop (FD) analyses combined with a metabolomic study carried out by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effectiveness of ETH as abscising agent was ascertained with ETH concentration ranging from 1.4 to 4.0g/L in a two-year study. The ETH treatments caused berry drops higher than 40% and induced an increase of tartaric acid, procyanidin P2, terpenoid derivatives and peonidin-3-glucoside as well as a decrease of catechin and epicatechin. HRMS-NMR covariance analysis was carried out to correlate the fluctuations of tartaric acid NMR signals to those of MS peaks of the secondary metabolites affected by ETH treatments.
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Early- versus late-onset systemic sclerosis: differences in clinical presentation and outcome in 1037 patients.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ? 30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ? 60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients.
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Evaluation of different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis in sheep.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Six serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis, due to Brucella melitensis were evaluated. Reference serum samples from sheep of known B. melitensis infection status (n=118) were assessed using the Rose Bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT) and four commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), including two indirect ELISAs (iELISAs), one competitive ELISA (cELISA) and one blocking ELISA (bELISA). The highest differential positive rates (DPR) were obtained with the cELISA and bELISA, while the lowest DPR was estimated using iELISAs. A latent class analysis was performed to estimate the accuracy of the CFT, RBT and bELISA using 1827 sera from sheep undergoing testing as part of a surveillance and control programme. Lower sensitivity and specificity were obtained for the three serological tests when the field samples were used. A higher DPR was achieved by the CFT, compared to bELISA and RBT. The results suggest that ELISAs, and particularly the bELISA, might be suitable for inclusion in the European Union legislation on intra-community trade for diagnosing B. melitensis infection in sheep, as it has a similar test performance compared to the RBT.
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Risk factors associated with negative in-vivo diagnostic results in bovine tuberculosis-infected cattle in Spain.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Despite great effort and investment incurred over decades to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB), it is still one of the most important zoonotic diseases in many areas of the world. Test-and-slaughter strategies, the basis of most bTB eradication programs carried out worldwide, have demonstrated its usefulness in the control of the disease. However, in certain countries, eradication has not been achieved due in part to limitations of currently available diagnostic tests. In this study, results of in-vivo and post-mortem diagnostic tests performed on 3,614 animals from 152 bTB-infected cattle herds (beef, dairy, and bullfighting) detected in 2007-2010 in the region of Castilla y León, Spain, were analyzed to identify factors associated with positive bacteriological results in cattle that were non-reactors to the single intradermal tuberculin test, to the interferon-gamma (IFN-?) assay, or to both tests applied in parallel (Test negative/Culture + animals, T-/C+). The association of individual factors (age, productive type, and number of herd-tests performed since the disclosure of the outbreak) with the bacteriology outcome (positive/negative) was analyzed using a mixed multivariate logistic regression model.
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Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of the heterobimetallic complexes [RuClCp(PPh?)-?-dmoPTA-1?P:2?²N,N-MCl?] (M = Co, Ni, Zn; dmoPTA = 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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The synthesis and characterization of three novel heterobimetallic derivatives of general formula [RuClCp(PPh?)-?-dmoPTA-1?P:2?²N,N-MCl?] (M = Co (1), Ni (2) and Zn (3), dmoPTA = 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) are described. The sizes of their diffusing units are in agreement with the solid-state structures of 2 and 3, supporting a similar solid-state structure for complex 1. The diamagnetic ruthenium-zinc derivative 3 was fully characterized in solution at 193 K by NMR. Electrochemical properties of the complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, supporting the influence of the {MCl?} moiety on the electronic properties of the Ru-unit. For the three complexes the GI?? values were in the range 0.8-6.5 ?M and comparable to those of the standard anticancer drug cis-platin in the same cell lines.
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Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012.
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The systemic lupus erythematosus IRF5 risk haplotype is associated with systemic sclerosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic autoimmune disease in which the genetic component plays an important role. One of the strongest SSc association signals outside the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region corresponds to interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a major regulator of the type I IFN pathway. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether three different haplotypic blocks within this locus, which have been shown to alter the protein function influencing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, are involved in SSc susceptibility and clinical phenotypes. For that purpose, we genotyped one representative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of each block (rs10488631, rs2004640, and rs4728142) in a total of 3,361 SSc patients and 4,012 unaffected controls of Caucasian origin from Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and United Kingdom. A meta-analysis of the allele frequencies was performed to analyse the overall effect of these IRF5 genetic variants on SSc. Allelic combination and dependency tests were also carried out. The three SNPs showed strong associations with the global disease (rs4728142: P ?=?1.34×10(-8), OR ?=?1.22, CI 95% ?=?1.14-1.30; rs2004640: P ?=?4.60×10(-7), OR ?=?0.84, CI 95% ?=?0.78-0.90; rs10488631: P ?=?7.53×10(-20), OR ?=?1.63, CI 95% ?=?1.47-1.81). However, the association of rs2004640 with SSc was not independent of rs4728142 (conditioned P ?=?0.598). The haplotype containing the risk alleles (rs4728142*A-rs2004640*T-rs10488631*C: P ?=?9.04×10(-22), OR ?=?1.75, CI 95% ?=?1.56-1.97) better explained the observed association (likelihood P-value ?=?1.48×10(-4)), suggesting an additive effect of the three haplotypic blocks. No statistical significance was observed in the comparisons amongst SSc patients with and without the main clinical characteristics. Our data clearly indicate that the SLE risk haplotype also influences SSc predisposition, and that this association is not sub-phenotype-specific.
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Refractory iron-deficiency anemia and gluten intolerance - Response to gluten-free diet.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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refractory iron-deficiency anemia has a multifactorial origin related to various gastrointestinal conditions, with celiac disease plus malabsorption and IBD together with isolated gluten intolerance being most common.
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Limitations of spoligotyping and variable-number tandem-repeat typing for molecular tracing of Mycobacterium bovis in a high-diversity setting.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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This study describes the attempt to trace the first Mycobacterium bovis outbreak in alpacas (Lama pacos) in Spain by spoligotyping and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis. Due to high genotype diversity, no matching source was identified, but local expansion of a clonal group was found and its significance for molecular tracing is discussed.
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Primary melanoma of the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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Primary melanoma of the adrenal gland is exceptionally rare as demonstrated by the few cases reported in the medical literature, and it has a high fatality rate. We present the case of a patient with two relapses and survival to date.
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Differences between pediatric and adult celiac disease.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune condition (involves 1-2% of the general population) that develops at any age in life but manifests differently in children and adults.
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Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of bovine tuberculosis diagnostic tests in naturally infected cattle herds using a Bayesian approach.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Test-and-slaughter strategies have been the basis of bovine tuberculosis (BT) eradication programs worldwide; however, eradication efforts have not succeeded in certain regions, and imperfect sensitivity and specificity of applied diagnostic techniques have been deemed as one of the possible causes for such failure. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostic tools has been impaired by the lack of an adequate gold standard to define positive and negative individuals. Here, a Bayesian approach was formulated to estimate for the first time sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the tests [single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test, and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) assay] currently used in Spain. Field data from the first implementation of IFN-? assay (used in parallel with SIT test 2-6months after a first disclosure SIT test) in infected beef, dairy and bullfighting cattle herds from the region of Castilla and Leon were used for the analysis. Model results suggested that in the described situation: (i) Se of SIT test was highly variable (40.1-92.2% for severe interpretation, median=66-69%), and its Sp was high (>99%) regardless interpretation criteria; (ii) IFN-? assay showed a high Se (median=89-90% and 83.5% for 0.05 and 0.1 cut-off points respectively) and an acceptable Sp (85.7% and 90.3% for 0.05 and 0.1 thresholds) and (iii) parallel application of both tests maximized the combined Se (95.6% using severe SIT and 0.05 cut-off point in the IFN-? assay). These results support the potential use of the IFN-? assay as an ancillary technique for routine BT diagnosis.
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Rates of, and risk factors for, severe infections in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases receiving biological agents off-label.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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The purpose of this observational study was to analyze the rates, characteristics and associated risk factors of severe infections in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) who were treated off-label with biological agents in daily practice.
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Diagnosis delay and follow-up strategies in colorectal cancer. Prognosis implications: a study protocol.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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Controversy exists with regard to the impact that the different components of diagnosis delay may have on the degree of invasion and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The follow-up strategies after treatment also vary considerably. The aims of this study are: a) to determine if the symptoms-to-diagnosis interval and the treatment delay modify the survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and b) to determine if different follow-up strategies are associated with a higher survival rate.
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Mass vaccination as a complementary tool in the control of a severe outbreak of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus in Extremadura, Spain.
Prev. Vet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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We report the evolution of an outbreak of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the region of Extremadura (Spain) involving more than 1000 herds and nearly 40,000 animals. S19 vaccination of young cattle combined with a test and slaughter strategy did not result in a rapid decrease in herd prevalence and animal incidence; these parameters showed a constant decreasing trend only when a combination of restriction of cattle movements, increased test frequency, S19 vaccination and mass RB51 vaccination (with yearly revaccinations) were applied to all susceptible populations. These measures were applied for 5 years; abortions following RB51 vaccination of pregnant cows were limited to the first inoculation and the involvement of the vaccine strain could only be demonstrated in 78 out of 897 abortions. Our results demonstrate the usefulness - and lack of significant side effects - of RB51 mass vaccination as a complementary tool to control bovine brucellosis outbreaks in areas where the disease cannot be contained using more conservative approaches.
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Management of an outbreak of brucellosis due to B. melitensis in dairy cattle in Spain.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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Brucella melitensis is a major human and animal pathogen, with a wide host range that includes all domestic ruminant species, although small ruminants are its preferred hosts. Outbreaks in cattle due to B. melitensis have become a worldwide emerging problem particularly difficult to control due to the lack of knowledge on the epidemiology in this host species and of an effective vaccine. However, combination of molecular tools and strict biosecurity measures can help to solve these difficulties and eventually eradicate the disease from infected herds. In the present report, management of an outbreak in Spain involving four farms, more than 2000 cattle and several human cases is described. Application of Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) allowed identifying the most likely source of infection. Stamping out and test-and-slaughter strategies were applied, proving their usefulness to control the outbreak depending on infection level, and without the need of other alternative measures.
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Effect of paratuberculosis on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a cattle herd with a mixed infection using interferon-gamma detection assay.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) detection assay is being applied as an ancillary test to tuberculin tests in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis to detect the maximum number of infected animals. Among possible factors influencing the performance of tuberculosis-diagnostic tests, paratuberculosis, a widespread disease in Spain and other European countries, has been pointed out as a cause of false positive reactions. Still, its effect on the sensitivity of these tests in cattle has yet to be fully characterized. The impact of paratuberculosis in the apparent sensitivity of IFN-gamma assay was studied in a bullfighting cattle herd with a mixed tuberculosis-paratuberculosis infection, using culture of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis as the gold standard to determine the infection status of every animal. A total of 218 animals were slaughtered and sampled for bacteriology after blood sampling. IFN-gamma assay showed a lower apparent sensitivity in animals with a mixed infection (50%) compared to all animals suffering tuberculosis (78.3%). This finding indicates that the presence of paratuberculosis in tuberculosis-infected herds could imply a serious impairment in the sensitivity of IFN-gamma detection test.
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High spoligotype diversity within a Mycobacterium bovis population: clues to understanding the demography of the pathogen in Europe.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Mycobacterium bovis is the main causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. This zoonotic disease produces important economic losses and must be considered a threat to endangered animal species and public health. This study was performed (1) to assess the degree of diversity of the Spanish M. bovis isolates and its effect on the epidemiology of the infection, and (2) to understand the connection of M. bovis populations within a European context. In this report we resume the DVR-spoligotyping results of 6215 M. bovis isolates collected between 1992 and 2007 from different hosts. The isolates clustered into 252 spoligotypes which varied largely in frequency, geographical distribution and appearance in different animal species. In general, the most frequent spoligotypes were found all over the country and in different animal species, though some were restricted to a geographical area. Among our most often isolated spoligotypes, SB0121 and SB0120 (BCG-like) are a common feature between mainland European countries, however, the spoligotypes differ with those found in the UK, the Republic of Ireland and abroad. A comparison of spoligotypes reported from other countries reveals hints for the M. bovis demography in Europe and suggests a common ancestor strain. This study gives insight into the usefulness of the standardized DVR-spoligotyping technique for epidemiological studies in a country with a high degree of strain diversity.
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Duodenal expression of Toll-like receptors and interleukins are increased in both children and adult celiac patients.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have achieved an extraordinary amount of interest in inflammatory diseases due to their role in the inflammatory activation. By activating the production of several biological factors, TLRs induce type I interferons and other cytokines, which drive the inflammatory response and activate the adaptive immune system.
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[Current management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Spain].
Gastroenterol Hepatol
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Mortality related to nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) has not changed. More information is needed to improve the management of this entity. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the characteristics of bleeding episodes, b) to describe the clinical approaches routinely used in NVUGIB, and c) to identify adverse outcomes related to endoscopic or medical treatments in Spain.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.