JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Optimisation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children under 3 years of age.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), over 50% of HIV-infected infants progress to AIDS and death by 2 years of age. However, there are challenges to initiation of ART in early life, including the possibility of drug resistance in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs, a paucity of drug choices , uncertain dosing for some medications and long-term toxicities. Key management decisions include when to start ART, what regimen to start, and whether and when to substitute drugs or interrupt therapy. This review, an update of a previous review, aims to summarize the currently available evidence on this topic and inform the ART management in HIV-infected children less than 3 years of age.
Related JoVE Video
Optimization of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children under 3 years of age: a systematic review.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treatment of young HIV-infected children is challenging because of rapid disease progression, high viral loads and few drug options. This review was undertaken to update evidence on the management of young HIV-infected children and to inform the development of the 2013 WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle-income countries.
Related JoVE Video
Childhood diarrhoeal deaths in seven low- and middle-income countries.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical characteristics of children who died from diarrhoea in low- and middle-income countries, such as the duration of diarrhoea, comorbid conditions, care-seeking behaviour and oral rehydration therapy use.
Related JoVE Video
Delivering pediatric HIV care in resource-limited settings: cost considerations in an expanded response.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
If children are to be protected from HIV, the expansion of PMTCT programs must be complemented by increased provision of paediatric treatment. This is expensive, yet there are humanitarian, equity and childrens rights arguments to justify the prioritization of treating HIV-infected children. In the context of limited budgets, inefficiencies cost lives, either through lower coverage or less effective services. With the goal of informing the design and expansion of efficient paediatric treatment programs able to utilize to greatest effect the available resources allocated to the treatment of HIV-infected children, this article reviews what is known about cost drivers in paediatric HIV interventions, and makes suggestions for improving efficiency in paediatric HIV programming. High-impact interventions known to deliver disproportional returns on investment are highlighted and targeted for immediate scale-up. Progress will carry a cost - increased funding, as well as additional data on intervention costs and outcomes, will be required if universal access of HIV-infected children to treatment is to be achieved and sustained.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding the contribution of common childhood illnesses and opportunistic infections to morbidity and mortality in children living with HIV in resource-limited settings.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) has reduced the incidence of HIV-related opportunistic infections among children living with HIV, access to ART remains limited for children, especially in resource-limited settings. This paper reviews current knowledge on the contribution of opportunistic infections and common childhood illnesses to morbidity and mortality in children living with HIV, highlights interventions known to improve the health of children, and identifies research gaps for further exploration.
Related JoVE Video
When to start antiretroviral therapy in children aged 2-5 years: a collaborative causal modelling analysis of cohort studies from southern Africa.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is limited evidence on the optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in children 2-5 y of age. We conducted a causal modelling analysis using the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaborative dataset to determine the difference in mortality when starting ART in children aged 2-5 y immediately (irrespective of CD4 criteria), as recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 guidelines, compared to deferring to lower CD4 thresholds, for example, the WHO 2010 recommended threshold of CD4 count <750 cells/mm(3) or CD4 percentage (CD4%) <25%.
Related JoVE Video
Optimal time for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected, treatment-naive children aged 2 to 5 years old.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) comprising three antiretroviral medications from at least two classes of drugs is the current standard treatment for HIV infection in adults and children. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antiretroviral therapy recommend early treatment regardless of immunologic thresholds or the clinical condition for all infants (less than one years of age) and children under the age of two years. For children aged two to five years current WHO guidelines recommend (based on low quality evidence) that clinical and immunological thresholds be used to identify those who need to start cART (advanced clinical stage or CD4 counts ? 750 cells/mm(3) or per cent CD4 ? 25%). This Cochrane review will inform the current available evidence regarding the optimal time for treatment initiation in children aged two to five years with the goal of informing the revision of WHO 2013 recommendations on when to initiate cART in children.
Related JoVE Video
Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Verbal autopsy (VA) is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD) in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems.
Related JoVE Video
Scaling up paediatric HIV care with an integrated, family-centred approach: an observational case study from Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Family-centred HIV care models have emerged as an approach to better target children and their caregivers for HIV testing and care, and further provide integrated health services for the family units range of care needs. While there is significant international interest in family-centred approaches, there is a dearth of research on operational experiences in implementation and scale-up. Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors during scale-up of family-centred care in ten health facilities and ten community clinics supported by a non-governmental organization, Mildmay, in Central Uganda. Methods included key informant interviews with programme management and families, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data. In the 84 months following the scale-up of the family-centred approach in HIV care, Mildmay experienced a 50-fold increase of family units registered in HIV care, a 40-fold increase of children enrolled in HIV care, and nearly universal coverage of paediatric cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The Mildmay experience emphasizes the importance of streamlining care to maximize paediatric capture. This includes integrated service provision, incentivizing care-seeking as a family, creating child-friendly service environments, and minimizing missed paediatric testing opportunities by institutionalizing early infant diagnosis and provider-initiated testing and counselling. Task-shifting towards nurse-led clinics with community outreach support enabled rapid scale-up, as did an active management structure that allowed for real-time review and corrective action. The Mildmay experience suggests that family-centred approaches are operationally feasible, produce strong coverage outcomes, and can be well-managed during rapid scale-up.
Related JoVE Video
Systematic review on the etiology and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children.
Related JoVE Video
Does shortening the training on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines reduce its effectiveness? A systematic review.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy with an 11-day training course for health workers improves care for ill children in outpatient settings in developing countries. The 11-day course duration is recommended by the World Health Organization, which developed IMCI. Our aim was to determine if shortening the training (to reduce cost) reduces its effectiveness.
Related JoVE Video
Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI), developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4) in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT) is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers.
Related JoVE Video
Results of a multi-country exploratory survey of approaches and methods for IMCI case management training.
Health Res Policy Syst
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI) is effective in improving management of sick children, and thus child survival. It is currently recommended that in-service IMCI case management training (ICMT) occur over 11-days; that the participant: facilitator ratio should be
Related JoVE Video
Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambias Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people.
Related JoVE Video
Antibiotic and systemic therapies for pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children.
J Infect Dev Ctries
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children. Administration of appropriate empirical antimicrobial and/or adjunctive systemic therapies may improve clinical outcomes.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.