Transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs) in response to extrinsic and intrinsic signals is tightly regulated at multiple stages. It is known that untranslated regions of the RNA can play a role in these processes. Here we show that THOC5, a member of the TREX (transcription/export) complex, plays a role in expression of only a subset of constitutively active genes, however transcriptome analysis reveals that more than 90% of IEG were not induced by serum in THOC5 depleted cells. Furthermore, THOC5 depletion does not influence the expression of the most rapidly induced IEGs, e.g. Fos and Jun. One group of THOC5 target genes, including Id1, Id3 and Wnt11 transcripts, were not released from chromatin in THOC5 depleted cells. Genes in another group, including Myc and Smad7 transcripts, were released with shortening of 3'UTR by alternative cleavage, and were spliced but export was impaired in THOC5 depleted cells. By interactome analysis using THOC5 as bait, we show that upon stimulation with serum THOC5 forms a complex with polyadenylation-specific factor 100 (CPSF100). THOC5 is required for recruitment of CPSF100 to 3'UTR of THOC5 target genes. These data suggest the presence of a novel mechanism for the control of IEG response by THOC5 via 3'end-processing.
The population genomics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analysed by genome sequencing of representative strains of the 15 most frequent clonal complexes in the P.?aeruginosa population and of the five most common clones from the environment of which so far no isolate from a human infection has been detected. Gene annotation identified 5892-7187 open reading frame (ORFs; median 6381 ORFs) in the 20 6.4-7.4?Mbp large genomes. The P.?aeruginosa pangenome consists of a conserved core of at least 4000 genes, a combinatorial accessory genome of a further 10?000 genes and 30?000 or more rare genes that are present in only a few strains or clonal complexes. Whole genome comparisons of single nucleotide polymorphism synteny indicated unrestricted gene flow between clonal complexes by recombination. Using standardized acute lettuce, Galleria mellonella and murine airway infection models the full spectrum of possible host responses to P.?aeruginosa was observed with the 20 strains ranging from unimpaired health following infection to 100% lethality. Genome comparisons indicate that the differential genetic repertoire of clones maintains a habitat-independent gradient of virulence in the P.?aeruginosa population.
Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging allows the analysis of infectious diseases in small animal models. In this study, an acute airway infection of C3H/HeN mice with luxCDABE transformed Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBCF10839 and an isogenic transposon mutant was followed by optical imaging in vivo. Using the disease-causing dose of 2.0 × 10(6) CFU of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839, subtle luminescence of the lungs was inconsistently visible for the first hour after infection. Conversely, using a 100-fold higher dose of the strongly virulence-attenuated transposon mutant, the robust signal of bioluminescent bacteria increased over 24 h. To monitor murine airway infections with P. aeruginosa in vivo by bioluminescence, one should select an attenuated mutant of a virulent strain or a wild type strain that naturally lacks virulence determinants and/or that has acquired a low virulence persister phenotype by patho-adaptive mutations.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the type species of pseudomonads, is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes a wide range of niches. Current genome sequencing projects are producing previously inconceivable detail about the population biology and evolution of P. aeruginosa. Its pan-genome has a larger genetic repertoire than the human genome, which explains the broad metabolic capabilities of P. aeruginosa and its ubiquitous distribution in aquatic habitats. P. aeruginosa may persist in the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis for decades. The ongoing whole-genome analyses of serial isolates from cystic fibrosis patients provide the so far singular opportunity to monitor the microevolution of a bacterial pathogen during chronic infection over thousands of generations. Although the evolution in cystic fibrosis lungs is neutral overall, some pathoadaptive mutations are selected during the within-host evolutionary process. Even a single mutation may be sufficient to generate novel complex traits provided that predisposing mutational events have previously occurred in the clonal lineage.
Mutations in the cohesin complex are novel genetic lesions in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that are not well characterised. In this study, we analyzed the frequency, clinical and prognostic implications of mutations in STAG1, STAG2, SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21, all members of the cohesin complex, in a cohort of 389 uniformly treated AML patients by next generation sequencing. We identified a total of 23 patients (5.9%) with somatic mutations in one of the cohesin genes. All gene mutations were mutually exclusive and STAG1 (1.8%), STAG2 (1.3%) and SMC3 (1.3%) were most frequently mutated. Patients with any cohesin complex mutation had lower BAALC expression levels. We found a strong association between mutations affecting the cohesin complex and NPM1. Mutated allele frequencies were similar between NPM1 and cohesin gene mutations. Overall survival (OS), relapse free survival (RFS) and complete remission rates (CR) were not influenced by the presence of cohesin mutations (OS: HR 0.98; 95%CI 0.56-1.72; P=.94; RFS: HR 0.7; 95%CI 0.36-1.38; P=.3; CR: mutated 83% vs wildtype 76%, P=.45). The cohesin complex presents a novel pathway affected by recurrent mutations in AML. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00209833.
THO (Suppressors of the transcriptional defects of hpr1 delta by overexpression) complex 5 (THOC5), an mRNA export protein, is involved in the expression of only 1% of all genes. Using an interferon inducible knockout mouse system, we have previously shown that THOC5 is an essential element in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and cytokine-mediated hematopoiesis in adult mice. Here we interrogate THOC5 function in cell differentiation beyond the hematopoietic system and study pathological changes caused by THOC5 deficiency.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organisms diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen in chronic lung infections of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Unrelated CF patients may acquire P. aeruginosa from the environment or by cross-infection in the CF setting. We tested the efficacy of measures to prevent nosocomial acquisition of P. aeruginosa at a Paediatric CF centre in a prospective 10-year study. P. aeruginosa-positive and P. aeruginosa-negative patients were seen in alternating weeks at the outpatient clinic. Faucets were equipped with filters to prevent bacterial contamination of tap water. Serial isolates were collected since the first documentation of a P. aeruginosa-positive culture and genotyped with a multimarker microarray. During the 10-year study, the annual prevalence of patients with at least one P. aeruginosa-positive culture was 39±6% in a population of 149±12 patients. P. aeruginosa was detected for the first time in 54 patients of whom 11 patients became chronically colonised with P. aeruginosa. Transient colonisations were recorded 97 times. A nosocomial acquisition of P. aeruginosa at the CF centre probably happened in one case. The worldwide dominant clones in the global P. aeruginosa population were also the most abundant clones in the panel of 324 early CF isolates. No rare clone had expanded by nosocomial transmission. It can be concluded that cross-infection with P. aeruginosa was prevented with simple hygienic measures at a CF centre that had experienced local outbreaks of nosocomial spread among unrelated patients in the past.
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome (G?+?C content 65-67%, size 5.5-7?Mbp) is made up of a single circular chromosome and a variable number of plasmids. Sequencing of complete genomes or blocks of the accessory genome has revealed that the genome encodes a large repertoire of transporters, transcriptional regulators, and two-component regulatory systems which reflects its metabolic diversity to utilize a broad range of nutrients. The conserved core component of the genome is largely collinear among P. aeruginosa strains and exhibits an interclonal sequence diversity of 0.5-0.7%. Only a few loci of the core genome are subject to diversifying selection. Genome diversity is mainly caused by accessory DNA elements located in 79 regions of genome plasticity that are scattered around the genome and show an anomalous usage of mono- to tetradecanucleotides. Genomic islands of the pKLC102/PAGI-2 family that integrate into tRNA(Lys) or tRNA(Gly) genes represent hotspots of inter- and intraclonal genomic diversity. The individual islands differ in their repertoire of metabolic genes that make a large contribution to the pangenome. In order to unravel intraclonal diversity of P. aeruginosa, the genomes of two members of the PA14 clonal complex from diverse habitats and geographic origin were compared. The genome sequences differed by less than 0.01% from each other. One hundred ninety-eight of the 231 single nucleotide substitutions (SNPs) were non-randomly distributed in the genome. Non-synonymous SNPs were mainly found in an integrated Pf1-like phage and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation, membrane and extracellular constituents, transport, and secretion. In summary, P. aeruginosa is endowed with a highly conserved core genome of low sequence diversity and a highly variable accessory genome that communicates with other pseudomonads and genera via horizontal gene transfer.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of infections in humans. Populations of P. aeruginosa are dominated by common clones that can be isolated from diverse clinical and environmental sources. To determine whether specific clones are associated with corneal infection, we used a portable genotyping microarray system to analyze a set of 63 P. aeruginosa isolates from patients with corneal ulcers (keratitis). We then used population analysis to compare the keratitis isolates to a wider collection of P. aeruginosa from various nonocular sources. We identified various markers in a subpopulation of P. aeruginosa associated with keratitis that were in strong disequilibrium with the wider P. aeruginosa population, including oriC, exoU, katN, unmodified flagellin, and the carriage of common genomic islands. The genome sequencing of a keratitis isolate (39016; representing the dominant serotype O11), which was associated with a prolonged clinical healing time, revealed several genomic islands and prophages within the accessory genome. The PCR amplification screening of all 63 keratitis isolates, however, provided little evidence for the shared carriage of specific prophages or genomic islands between serotypes. P. aeruginosa twitching motility, due to type IV pili, is implicated in corneal virulence. We demonstrated that 46% of the O11 keratitis isolates, including 39016, carry a distinctive pilA, encoding the pilin of type IV pili. Thus, the keratitis isolates were associated with specific characteristics, indicating that a subpopulation of P. aeruginosa is adapted to cause corneal infection.
The basic defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes to chronic bacterial airway infections, particularly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Airway infections with P. aeruginosa in individuals with CF are unique in that they chronically affect a host who is immunocompetent in terms of cellular and humoral responses but is immunocompromised by impaired airway clearance. The initially acquired P. aeruginosa clone typically persists for many years in the patients airways and thereby diversifies by de novo point mutations and the composition of its accessory genome. Co-colonizations with 2 or more clones are preferentially observed during the first 3 years of colonization. Upper and lower airways are commonly colonized by the same clone suggesting that the sinuses are the reservoir and gateway for the colonization of the lower airways. Early antipseudomonal chemotherapy has an 80% chance to eradicate the P. aeruginosa clone. This regimen introduced in the late 1980s has shifted the median age of the onset of chronic airways colonization with P. aeruginosa from school age to early adulthood at the most successful CF centres. The measures to prevent and to treat the Pseudomonas infections in CF have been considerably improved during the last 20 years. Highly transmissible epidemic strains, however, that emerge within a clonal lineage remain a major, still unresolved health threat for the CF community.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent agents of urinary tract infections especially in patients with indwelling urethral catheters. A total of 30 P. aeruginosa isolates from urinary tract infections was investigated for their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism chip typing experiments in combination with bioinformatical cluster analyses allowed genotypic grouping of the isolates. Some similarities to strains from lung infections but also to environmental strains were observed. Finally, several urinary tract-specific groups were identified indicating a strong heterogeneity of the urethral isolates. Pyoverdin, protease, and phospholipase A production in combination with quorum sensing activity and biofilm formation were common phenotypic characteristics of these strains. In contrast, swarming phenotypes, the production of pyocyanin, and the extracellular enzymes phospholipase C and elastase were rarely observed. Interestingly, strains isolated from catheter-associated infections showed significantly enhanced biofilm formation, decreased motility, and a slightly increased expression of virulence factors in relation to isolates from acute urinary tract infections.
In addition to transcriptome and proteome studies, metabolome analysis represents a third complementary approach to identify metabolic pathways and adaptation processes. In order to elucidate basic principles of metabolic versatility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we investigated the metabolome profiles of two genetically and morphologically divergent strains, the reference strain PAO1 and the mucoid clinical isolate TBCF10839 in exponential growth and stationary phase in six different carbon sources (cadaverine, casamino acids, citrate, glucose, succinate and tryptone). Both strains exhibited strong similarities in mode of growth; the metabolite patterns were mainly defined by the growth condition. Besides this adaptive response, a basic core metabolism shapes the P. aeruginosa metabolome, independent of growth phase, carbon source and genetic background. This core metabolism includes pathways related to the central energy and amino acid metabolism. These consistently utilized metabolic pathways are closely related to glutamate which represents a dominant metabolite in all conditions analysed. In nutrient-depleted media of stationary phase cultures, P. aeruginosa maintains a specific repertoire of metabolic pathways that are related to the carbon source formerly available. This specified adaptation strategy combined with the invariant basic core metabolism may represent a fundamental requirement for the metabolic versatility of this organism.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is the most commonly used strain for research on this ubiquitous and metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen. Strain PAO1, a derivative of the original Australian PAO isolate, has been distributed worldwide to laboratories and strain collections. Over decades discordant phenotypes of PAO1 sublines have emerged. Taking the existing PAO1-UW genome sequence (named after the University of Washington, which led the sequencing project) as a blueprint, the genome sequences of reference strains MPAO1 and PAO1-DSM (stored at the German Collection for Microorganisms and Cell Cultures [DSMZ]) were resolved by physical mapping and deep short read sequencing-by-synthesis. MPAO1 has been the source of near-saturation libraries of transposon insertion mutants, and PAO1-DSM is identical in its SpeI-DpnI restriction map with the original isolate. The major genomic differences of MPAO1 and PAO1-DSM in comparison to PAO1-UW are the lack of a large inversion, a duplication of a mobile 12-kb prophage region carrying a distinct integrase and protein phosphatases or kinases, deletions of 3 to 1,006 bp in size, and at least 39 single-nucleotide substitutions, 17 of which affect protein sequences. The PAO1 sublines differed in their ability to cope with nutrient limitation and their virulence in an acute murine airway infection model. Subline PAO1-DSM outnumbered the two other sublines in late stationary growth phase. In conclusion, P. aeruginosa PAO1 shows an ongoing microevolution of genotype and phenotype that jeopardizes the reproducibility of research. High-throughput genome resequencing will resolve more cases and could become a proper quality control for strain collections.
The role played by airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the course and pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been resolved. We report on the molecular epidemiology and population biology of P. aeruginosa in COPD.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes infections in a variety of animal and plant hosts. Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model with which one can identify bacterial virulence genes. Previous studies with C. elegans have shown that depending on the growth medium, P. aeruginosa provokes different pathologies: slow or fast killing, lethal paralysis and red death. In this study, we developed a high-throughput semi-automated liquid-based assay such that an entire genome can readily be scanned for virulence genes in a short time period. We screened a 2,200-member STM mutant library generated in a cystic fibrosis airway P. aeruginosa isolate, TBCF10839. Twelve mutants were isolated each showing at least 70% attenuation in C. elegans killing. The selected mutants had insertions in regulatory genes, such as a histidine kinase sensor of two-component systems and a member of the AraC family, or in genes involved in adherence or chemotaxis. One mutant had an insertion in a cheB gene homologue, encoding a methylesterase involved in chemotaxis (CheB2). The cheB2 mutant was tested in a murine lung infection model and found to have a highly attenuated virulence. The cheB2 gene is part of the chemotactic gene cluster II, which was shown to be required for an optimal mobility in vitro. In P. aeruginosa, the main player in chemotaxis and mobility is the chemotactic gene cluster I, including cheB1. We show that, in contrast to the cheB2 mutant, a cheB1 mutant is not attenuated for virulence in C. elegans whereas in vitro motility and chemotaxis are severely impaired. We conclude that the virulence defect of the cheB2 mutant is not linked with a global motility defect but that instead the cheB2 gene is involved in a specific chemotactic response, which takes place during infection and is required for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity.
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the most important mammalian host defence cells against infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Screening of a signature tagged mutagenesis library of the non-piliated P. aeruginosa strain TBCF10839 uncovered that transposon inactivation of its pilY1 gene rendered the bacterium more resistant against killing by neutrophils than the wild type and any other of the more than 3000 tested mutants. Inactivation of pilY1 led to the loss of twitching motility in twitching-proficient wild-type PA14 and PAO1 strains, predisposed to autolysis and impaired the secretion of quinolones and pyocyanin, but on the other hand promoted growth in stationary phase and bacterial survival in murine airway infection models. The PilY1 population consisted of a major full-length and a minor shorter PilY1* isoform. PilY1* was detectable in small extracellular quinolone-positive aggregates, but not in the pilus. P. aeruginosa PilY1 is not an adhesin on the pilus tip, but assists in pilus biogenesis, twitching motility, secretion of secondary metabolites and in the control of cell density in the bacterial population.
Under- and over-represented mono- to hexanucleotides are signatures of bacterial genomes, but the compositional biases of octa- to tetradecanucleotides have not yet been explored. Thirteen completely sequenced genomes of the Pseudomonas genus were searched for highly overrepresented 8-14mers. Between 59-989 overrepresented 8-14mers were found to exceed the applied threshold value. All genomic data sets of the 13 strains showed a consistent pattern, with individual oligomers clustering in either non-coding or coding regions. Non-coding oligonucleotides were typically part of longer repeats. Coding oligonucleotides were evenly distributed in the core genome, preferred one reading frame and matched with the local tetranucleotide usage patterns. Genomic islands were recognized by the depletion of overrepresented oligonucleotides. Several mainly coding 8-14mers occurred in genomes on average every 10 000 bp or less. Such frequently occurring 8-14mers could become useful markers for species identification. In the future of next-generation ultra-high throughput DNA sequencing, the composition of bacterial metagenomes may be quantified by scanning the primary sequence reads for these 8-14mer markers.
The molecular epidemiology of the chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) was investigated by cross-sectional analysis of bacterial isolates from 51 CF centers and by longitudinal analysis of serial isolates which had been collected at the CF centers Hanover and Copenhagen since the onset of airway colonization over 30 years.
Microevolution of closely related Pseudomonas aeruginosa was compared in the clone TB strains TBCF10839 and TBCF121838 which had been isolated from two unrelated individuals with cystic fibrosis who had acquired clone TB during a local outbreak. Compared with the strain PAO1 reference sequence the two clone TB genomes shared 23 155 nucleotide exchanges, 32 out-of-frame indels in the coding region and another repertoire of replacement and genomic islands such as PAGI-1, PAGI-2, PAGI-5, LESGI-1 and LES-prophage 4. Only TBCF121838 carried a genomic island known from Ralstonia pickettii. Six of the seven strain-specific sequence variations in the core genome were detected in genes affecting motility, biofilm formation or virulence, i.e. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions in mexS, PA3729, PA5017, mifR, a frameshift mutation in pilF (TBCF121838) and an intragenic deletion in pilQ (TBCF10839). Despite their almost identical genome sequence the two strains differed strongly from each other in transcriptome and metabolome profiles, mucin adherence and phagocytosis assays. TBCF121838 was susceptible to killing by neutrophils, but TBCF10839 could grow in leucocytes. Microevolution in P. aeruginosa apparently can generate novel complex traits by few or even single mutations provided that predisposing mutational events had occurred before in the clonal lineage.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which has the potential to become extremely harmful in the nosocomial environment, especially for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, who are easily affected by chronic lung infections. For epidemiological purposes, discriminating P.aeruginosa isolates is a critical step, to define distribution of clones among hospital departments, to predict occurring microevolution events and to correlate clones to their source. A collection of 182 P. aeruginosa clinical strains isolated within Italian hospitals from patients with chronic infections, i.e. cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and with acute infections were genotyped. Molecular typing was performed with the ArrayTube (AT) multimarker microarray (Alere Technologies GmbH, Jena, Germany), a cost-effective, time-saving and standardized method, which addresses genes from both the core and accessory P.aeruginosa genome. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were employed as reference genotyping techniques to estimate the ArrayTube resolution power.
To examine temporal dynamics of corneal infection (keratitis)-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we compared the genetic characteristics of isolates collected during two different time periods (2003-2004 and 2009-2010) using an ArrayTube genotyping system. The distribution of keratitis-associated isolates from the two studies (n = 123) among a database of P. aeruginosa strains of non-ocular origin (n = 322) indicated that 71% of UK keratitis-associated P. aeruginosa isolates clustered together, and there was no evidence for major variations in the distribution of clone types between the two collections. Our analysis indicates the presence of a core keratitis cluster, associated with corneal infections, that is related to the P. aeruginosa eccB clonal complex, which is associated with adaptation to survival in environmental water. This suggests that adaptation to environmental water is a key factor in the ability of P. aeruginosa to cause eye infections.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa attracts research attention as a common opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing severe health problems in humans. Nevertheless, its primary habitat is the natural environment. Here, we relate the genetic diversity of 381 environmental isolates from rivers in northern Germany to ecological factors such as river system, season of sampling and different levels of water quality. From representatives of 99 environmental clones, also in comparison with 91 clinical isolates, we determined motility phenotypes, virulence factors, biofilm formation, serotype and the resistance to seven environmental P.aeruginosa phages. The integration of genetic, ecological and phenotypic data showed (i) the presence of several extended clonal complexes (ecc) which are non-uniformly distributed across different water qualities, and (ii) a correlation of the hosts serotype composition with susceptibility towards distinct groups of environmental phages. For at least one ecc (eccB), we assumed the ecophysiological differences on environmental water adaptation and phage resistance to be so distinct as to reinforce an environmentally driven cladogenic split from the remainder of P.aeruginosa. In summary, we conclude that the majority of the microevolutionary population dynamics of P.aeruginosa were shaped by the natural environment and not by the clinical habitat.
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