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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Plasma cytokine levels and risk of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition: a nested case-control study among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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?A heightened pro-inflammatory state has been hypothesized to enhance HIV-1 transmission - both susceptibility of HIV-1-exposed persons and infectiousness of HIV-1-infected persons.
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Phase I/II Randomized Trial of Safety and Immunogenicity of LIPO-5 Alone, ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) Alone, and ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) Prime/LIPO-5 Boost in Healthy, HIV-1-Uninfected Adult Participants.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Finding an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine remains a major global health priority. In a phase I/II, placebo-controlled trial, healthy, HIV-1-negative adults were randomized to receive one of 5 vaccine regimens: LIPO-5 (combination of 5 lipopeptides) alone (250 ?g), ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, or 3 groups of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) followed by ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) plus LIPO-5 (250, 750, and 2,500 ?g). Only 73/174 participants (42%) received all four vaccinations due to a study halt related to myelitis. There were no significant differences in systemic reactions between groups or in local reactogenicity between groups receiving ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452). Significant differences in local reactogenicity occurred between groups receiving LIPO-5 (P ? 0.05). Gag and Env antibodies were undetectable by ELISA 2 weeks after the fourth vaccination for all but one recipient. Antibodies to Gag and Env were present in 32% and 24% of recipients of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone and in 47% and 35% of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO recipients, respectively. Coadministration of LIPO-5 did not significantly increase the response rate compared to ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, nor was there a significant relationship between dose and antibody responses among ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO groups. Over 90% of study participants had no positive gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) responses to any peptide pool at any time point. The study was halted due to a case of myelitis possibly related to the LIPO-5 vaccine; this case of myelitis remains an isolated event. In general, there was no appreciable cell-mediated immunity detected in response to the vaccines used in this study, and antibody responses were limited. The clinical trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with registry number NCT00076063.
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FCGR2C polymorphisms associate with HIV-1 vaccine protection in RV144 trial.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The phase III RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) to be 31.2%. This trial demonstrated that the presence of HIV-1-specific IgG-binding Abs to envelope (Env) V1V2 inversely correlated with infection risk, while the presence of Env-specific plasma IgA Abs directly correlated with risk of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses inversely correlated with risk of infection in vaccine recipients with low IgA; therefore, we hypothesized that vaccine-induced Fc receptor-mediated (FcR-mediated) Ab function is indicative of vaccine protection. We sequenced exons and surrounding areas of FcR-encoding genes and found one FCGR2C tag SNP (rs114945036) that associated with VE against HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE, with lysine at position 169 (169K) in the V2 loop (CRF01_AE 169K). Individuals carrying CC in this SNP had an estimated VE of 15%, while individuals carrying CT or TT exhibited a VE of 91%. Furthermore, the rs114945036 SNP was highly associated with 3 other FCGR2C SNPs (rs138747765, rs78603008, and rs373013207). Env-specific IgG and IgG3 Abs, IgG avidity, and neutralizing Abs inversely correlated with CRF01_AE 169K HIV-1 infection risk in the CT- or TT-carrying vaccine recipients only. These data suggest a potent role of Fc-? receptors and Fc-mediated Ab function in conferring protection from transmission risk in the RV144 VE trial.
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Analysis of HLA A*02 association with vaccine efficacy in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial demonstrated partial efficacy of 31% against HIV-1 infection. Studies into possible correlates of protection found that antibodies specific to the V1 and V2 (V1/V2) region of envelope correlated inversely with infection risk and that viruses isolated from trial participants contained genetic signatures of vaccine-induced pressure in the V1/V2 region. We explored the hypothesis that the genetic signatures in V1 and V2 could be partly attributed to selection by vaccine-primed T cells. We performed a T-cell-based sieve analysis of breakthrough viruses in the RV144 trial and found evidence of predicted HLA binding escape that was greater in vaccine versus placebo recipients. The predicted escape depended on class I HLA A*02- and A*11-restricted epitopes in the MN strain rgp120 vaccine immunogen. Though we hypothesized that this was indicative of postacquisition selection pressure, we also found that vaccine efficacy (VE) was greater in A*02-positive (A*02(+)) participants than in A*02(-) participants (VE = 54% versus 3%, P = 0.05). Vaccine efficacy against viruses with a lysine residue at site 169, important to antibody binding and implicated in vaccine-induced immune pressure, was also greater in A*02(+) participants (VE = 74% versus 15%, P = 0.02). Additionally, a reanalysis of vaccine-induced immune responses that focused on those that were shown to correlate with infection risk suggested that the humoral responses may have differed in A*02(+) participants. These exploratory and hypothesis-generating analyses indicate there may be an association between a class I HLA allele and vaccine efficacy, highlighting the importance of considering HLA alleles and host immune genetics in HIV vaccine trials.
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Optimization of a whole blood phenotyping assay for enumeration of peripheral blood leukocyte populations in multicenter clinical trials.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Vaccination with viral vectors or adjuvants can induce early changes in circulating peripheral blood leukocytes that are predictive of a protective immune response. In this study, we define an 11-color whole blood antibody staining Trucount Panel (TP1) to enumerate and phenotype the major leukocyte populations in a human vaccine experimental medicine trial setting. TP1 can be prepared up to 8weeks prior to use, enabling bulk preparation at a central laboratory and distribution to clinical sites. Cells in whole blood must be stained within 4h of draw to accurately detect the major cell populations. Staining of cells with TP1 followed by storage and shipping at -80°C to a central laboratory has little to no effect on the cell concentrations observed. We also present data from an HIV vaccine multicenter clinical trial obtained using the optimized TP1 assay protocol and show that the data produced accurately correlates with complete blood count (CBC) data. Taken together, these data indicate the optimized TP1 panel assay can be used in a multicenter clinical trial setting to increase our understanding of systemic responses to vaccination or disease.
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HIV-specific humoral responses benefit from stronger prime in phase Ib clinical trial.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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BACKGROUND. Vector prime-boost immunization strategies induce strong cellular and humoral immune responses. We examined the priming dose and administration order of heterologous vectors in HIV Vaccine Trials Network 078 (HVTN 078), a randomized, double-blind phase Ib clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost regimens, with a New York vaccinia HIV clade B (NYVAC-B) vaccine and a recombinant adenovirus 5-vectored (rAd5-vectored) vaccine. METHODS. NYVAC-B included HIV-1 clade B Gag-Pol-Nef and gp120, while rAd5 included HIV-1 clade B Gag-Pol and clades A, B, and C gp140. Eighty Ad5-seronegative subjects were randomized to receive 2 × NYVAC-B followed by 1 × 1010 PFU rAd5 (NYVAC/Ad5hi); 1 × 108 PFU rAd5 followed by 2 × NYVAC-B (Ad5lo/NYVAC); 1 × 109 PFU rAd5 followed by 2 × NYVAC-B (Ad5med/NYVAC); 1 × 1010 PFU rAd5 followed by 2 × NYVAC-B (Ad5hi/NYVAC); or placebo. Immune responses were assessed 2 weeks after the final vaccination. Intracellular cytokine staining measured T cells producing IFN-? and/or IL-2; cross-clade and epitope-specific binding antibodies were determined; and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were assessed with 6 tier 1 viruses. RESULTS. CD4+ T cell response rates ranged from 42.9% to 93.3%. NYVAC/Ad5hi response rates (P ? 0.01) and magnitudes (P ? 0.03) were significantly lower than those of other groups. CD8+ T cell response rates ranged from 65.5% to 85.7%. NYVAC/Ad5hi magnitudes were significantly lower than those of other groups (P ? 0.04). IgG response rates to the group M consensus gp140 were 89.7% for NYVAC/Ad5hi and 21.4%, 84.6%, and 100% for Ad5lo/NYVAC, Ad5med/NYVAC, and Ad5hi/NYVAC, respectively, and were similar for other vaccine proteins. Overall nAb responses were low, but aggregate responses appeared stronger for Ad5med/NYVAC and Ad5hi/NYVAC than for NYVAC/Ad5hi. CONCLUSIONS. rAd5 prime followed by NYVAC boost is superior to the reverse regimen for both vaccine-induced cellular and humoral immune responses. Higher Ad5 priming doses significantly increased binding and nAbs. These data provide a basis for optimizing the design of future clinical trials testing vector-based heterologous prime-boost strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00961883. FUNDING. NIAID, NIH UM1AI068618, AI068635, AI068614, and AI069443.
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Benefits of a comprehensive quality program for cryopreserved PBMC covering 28 clinical trials sites utilizing an integrated, analytical web-based portal.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a global network of 28 clinical trial sites dedicated to identifying an effective HIV vaccine. Cryopreservation of high-quality peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is critical for the assessment of vaccine-induced cellular immune functions. The HVTN PBMC Quality Management Program is designed to ensure that viable PBMC are processed, stored and shipped for clinical trial assays from all HVTN clinical trial sites. The program has evolved by developing and incorporating best practices for laboratory and specimen quality and implementing automated, web-based tools. These tools allow the site-affiliated processing laboratories and the central Laboratory Operations Unit to rapidly collect, analyze and report PBMC quality data. The HVTN PBMC Quality Management Program includes five key components: 1) Laboratory Assessment, 2) PBMC Training and Certification, 3) Internal Quality Control, 4) External Quality Control (EQC), and 5) Assay Specimen Quality Control. Fresh PBMC processing data is uploaded from each clinical site processing laboratory to a central HVTN Statistical and Data Management Center database for access and analysis on a web portal. Samples are thawed at a central laboratory for assay or specimen quality control and sample quality data is uploaded directly to the database by the central laboratory. Four year cumulative data covering 23,477 blood draws reveals an average fresh PBMC yield of 1.45×10(6)±0.48 cells per milliliter of useable whole blood. 95% of samples were within the acceptable range for fresh cell yield of 0.8-3.2×10(6) cells/ml of usable blood. Prior to full implementation of the HVTN PBMC Quality Management Program, the 2007 EQC evaluations from 10 international sites showed a mean day 2 thawed viability of 83.1% and a recovery of 67.5%. Since then, four year cumulative data covering 3338 specimens used in immunologic assays shows that 99.88% had acceptable viabilities (>66%) for use in cellular assays (mean, 91.46% ±4.5%), and 96.2% had acceptable recoveries (50%-130%) with a mean of recovery of 85.8% ±19.12% of the originally cryopreserved cells. EQC testing revealed that since August 2009, failed recoveries dropped from 4.1% to 1.6% and failed viabilities dropped from 1.0% to 0.3%. The HVTN PBMC quality program provides for laboratory assessment, training and tools for identifying problems, implementing corrective action and monitoring for improvements. These data support the benefits of implementing a comprehensive, web-based PBMC quality program for large clinical trials networks.
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Challenges and responses in human vaccine development.
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Human vaccine development remains challenging because of the highly sophisticated evasion mechanisms of pathogens for which vaccines are not yet available. Recent years have witnessed both successes and failures of novel vaccine design and the strength of iterative approaches is increasingly appreciated. These combine discovery of novel antigens, adjuvants and vectors in the preclinical stage with computational analyses of clinical data to accelerate vaccine design. Reverse and structural vaccinology have revealed novel antigen candidates and molecular immunology has led to the formulation of promising adjuvants. Gene expression profiles and immune parameters in patients, vaccinees and healthy controls have formed the basis for biosignatures that will provide guidelines for future vaccine design.
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Specificity and 6-month durability of immune responses induced by DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Clade B DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines producing virus-like particles displaying trimeric membrane-bound envelope glycoprotein (Env) were tested in a phase 2a trial in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected adults for safety, immunogenicity, and 6-month durability of immune responses.
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Immune-Correlates Analysis of an HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trial Reveals an Association of Nonspecific Interferon-? Secretion with Increased HIV-1 Infection Risk: A Cohort-Based Modeling Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Elevated risk of HIV-1 infection among recipients of an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-vectored HIV-1 vaccine was previously reported in the Step HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial. We assessed pre-infection cellular immune responses measured at 4 weeks after the second vaccination to determine their roles in HIV-1 infection susceptibility among Step study male participants.
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The inner foreskin of healthy males at risk of HIV infection harbors epithelial CD4+ CCR5+ cells and has features of an inflamed epidermal barrier.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Male circumcision provides partial protection against multiple sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. To examine potential vulnerabilities in foreskin epithelial structure, we used Wilcoxon paired tests adjusted using the false discovery rate method to compare inner and outer foreskin samples from 20 healthy, sexually active Peruvian males who have sex with males or transgender females, ages 21-29, at elevated risk of HIV infection. No evidence of epithelial microtrauma was identified, as assessed by keratinocyte activation, fibronectin deposition, or parakeratosis. However, multiple suprabasal tight junction differences were identified: 1) inner foreskin stratum corneum was thinner than outer (p?=?0.035); 2) claudin 1 had extended membrane-bound localization throughout inner epidermis stratum spinosum (p?=?0.035); 3) membrane-bound claudin 4 was absent from inner foreskin stratum granulosum (p?=?0.035); and 4) occludin had increased membrane deposition in inner foreskin stratum granulosum (p?=?0.042) versus outer. Together, this suggests subclinical inflammation and paracellular transport modifications to the inner foreskin. A setting of inflammation was further supported by inner foreskin epithelial explant cultures secreting higher levels of GM-CSF (p?=?0.029), IP-10 (p?=?0.035) and RANTES (p?=?0.022) than outer foreskin, and also containing an increased density of CCR5+ and CD4+ CCR5+ cells (p?=?0.022). Inner foreskin dermis also secreted more RANTES than outer (p?=?0.036), and had increased density of CCR5+ cells (p?=?0.022). In conclusion, subclinical changes to the inner foreskin of sexually active males may support an inflammatory state, with availability of target cells for HIV infection and modifications to epidermal barriers, potentially explaining the benefits of circumcision for STI prevention.
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HIV-1 specific IgA detected in vaginal secretions of HIV uninfected women participating in a microbicide trial in Southern Africa are primarily directed toward gp120 and gp140 specificities.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many participants in microbicide trials remain uninfected despite ongoing exposure to HIV-1. Determining the emergence and nature of mucosal HIV-specific immune responses in such women is important, since these responses may contribute to protection and could provide insight for the rational design of HIV-1 vaccines.
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Optimizing viable leukocyte sampling from the female genital tract for clinical trials: an international multi-site study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear.
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Toll-like receptor polymorphism associations with HIV-1 outcomes among sub-Saharan Africans.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Objective.?We evaluated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for associations with HIV-1 acquisition, set-point and disease progression in African couples.Methods.?Seven candidate and 116 haplotype-tagging SNPs (tagSNPs) were genotyped in 504 HIV-1 infected cases, and 343 seronegative controls.Results.?TLR9 1635A/G was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition among HIV-seronegative controls with high but not low HIV-1 exposure (odds ratio [OR]=0.7; p=0.03 and OR=0.9, p=0.5, respectively). TLR7 rs179012 and TLR2 597C/T reduced set-point; the latter modified by time since HIV-1 acquisition. TLR8 1A/G reduced disease progression.Conclusion.?TLR SNPs impact HIV-1 outcomes with epidemiologic factors modifying these relationships.
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Measuring inhibition of HIV replication by ex vivo CD8(+) T cells.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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HIV replication is unrestrained in vivo in the vast majority of infected subjects, and the ability of some rare individuals to control this virus is poorly understood. Standard immunogenicity assays for detecting HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses, such as IFN-? ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining, generally fail to correlate with in vivo inhibition of HIV replication. Several viral inhibition assays, which measure the effectiveness of CD8(+) T-cell responses in suppressing HIV replication in vitro, have been described; but most depend on in vitro expansion of CD8(+) T cells, and some show inhibitory activity in HIV-negative individuals. We have optimized an assay to assess the suppressive capability of CD8(+) T cells directly ex vivo, eliminating the potential for altering their function through activation or expansion prior to assay setup, and thereby enhancing the assays sensitivity by avoiding non-specific inhibition. With this method, the ability of ex vivo CD8(+) T cells to control HIV-1 replication in vitro can be quantified over several orders of magnitude. Specifically, our assay can be used to better define the antiviral function of CD8(+) T cells induced by vaccination, and can provide insight into their ability to control viral replication if HIV infection occurs post-vaccination.
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Increased Sequence Coverage through Combined Targeting of Variant and Conserved Epitopes Correlates with Control of HIV Replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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A major challenge in the development of an HIV vaccine is that of contending with the extensive sequence variability found in circulating viruses. Induction of HIV-specific T-cell responses targeting conserved regions and induction of HIV-specific T-cell responses recognizing a high number of epitope variants have both been proposed as strategies to overcome this challenge. We addressed the ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from 30 untreated HIV-infected subjects with and without control of virus replication to recognize all clade B Gag sequence variants encoded by at least 5% of the sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV database (1,300 peptides) using gamma interferon and interleukin-2 (IFN-?/IL-2) FluoroSpot analysis. While targeting of conserved regions was similar in the two groups (P = 0.47), we found that subjects with control of virus replication demonstrated marginally lower recognition of Gag epitope variants than subjects with normal progression (P = 0.05). In viremic controllers and progressors, we found variant recognition to be associated with viral load (r = 0.62, P = 0.001). Interestingly, we show that increased overall sequence coverage, defined as the overall proportion of HIV database sequences targeted through the Gag-specific repertoire, is inversely associated with viral load (r = -0.38, P = 0.03). Furthermore, we found that sequence coverage, but not variant recognition, correlated with increased recognition of a panel of clade B HIV founder viruses (r = 0.50, P = 0.004). We propose sequence coverage by HIV Gag-specific immune responses as a possible correlate of protection that may contribute to control of virus replication. Additionally, sequence coverage serves as a valuable measure by which to evaluate the protective potential of future vaccination strategies.
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Efficacy trial of a DNA/rAd5 HIV-1 preventive vaccine.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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A safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global priority. We tested the efficacy of a DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus type 5 boost (DNA/rAd5) vaccine regimen in persons at increased risk for HIV-1 infection in the United States.
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Differential regulatory T cell activity in HIV type 1-exposed seronegative individuals.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The potential role of conventional and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in protection from HIV-1 infection remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed samples from 129 HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) from an HIV-1-serodiscordant couples cohort. To assess the presence of HIV-specific T cell responses and Treg function, we measured the proliferation of T cells in response to HIV-1 peptide pools in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMCs depleted of Tregs. We identified HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses and, surprisingly, the overall CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response rate was not increased when Tregs were removed from cell preparations. Of the 20 individuals that had HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, only eight had Tregs that could suppress this proliferation. When compared with individuals whose Tregs could suppress HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation, individuals with Tregs unable to suppress showed a trend toward increased T cell activation and Treg frequency and a significant increase in HIV-1-specific production of microphage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) by CD4(+) T cells, autocrine production of which has been shown to be protective in terms of HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells.
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Vaccine-induced gag-specific T cells are associated with reduced viremia after HIV-1 infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2013
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The contribution of host T-cell immunity and HLA class I alleles to the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication in natural infection is widely recognized. We assessed whether vaccine-induced T-cell immunity, or expression of certain HLA alleles, impacted HIV-1 control after infection in the Step MRKAd5/HIV-1 gag/pol/nef study. Vaccine-induced T cells were associated with reduced plasma viremia, with subjects targeting ?3 gag peptides presenting with half-log lower mean viral loads than subjects without Gag responses. This effect was stronger in participants infected proximal to vaccination and was independent of our observed association of HLA-B*27, -B*57 and -B*58:01 alleles with lower HIV-1 viremia. These findings support the ability of vaccine-induced T-cell responses to influence postinfection outcome and provide a rationale for the generation of T-cell responses by vaccination to reduce viremia if protection from acquisition is not achieved. Clinical trials identifier: NCT00095576.
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Human CD1a deficiency is common and genetically regulated.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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CD1 proteins evolved to present diverse lipid Ags to T cells. In comparison with MHC proteins, CD1 proteins exhibit minimal allelic diversity as a result of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unknown if common SNPs in gene regulatory regions affect CD1 expression and function. We report surprising diversity in patterns of inducible CD1a expression on human dendritic cells (DCs), spanning the full range from undetectable to high density, a finding not seen with other CD1 isoforms. CD1a-deficient DCs failed to present mycobacterial lipopeptide to T cells but had no defects in endocytosis, cytokine secretion, or expression of costimulatory molecules after LPS treatment. We identified an SNP in the 5 untranslated region (rs366316) that was common and strongly associated with low CD1a surface expression and mRNA levels (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). Using a CD1a promoter-luciferase system in combination with mutagenesis studies, we found that the polymorphic allele reduced luciferase expression by 44% compared with the wild-type variant (p < 0.001). Genetic regulation of lipid Ag presentation by varying expression on human DCs provides a mechanism for achieving population level differences in immune responses despite limited structural variation in CD1a proteins.
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Progress in HIV-1 vaccine development.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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In this review, examples of recent progress in HIV-1 vaccine research are discussed.
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HIV-1 vaccine-induced T-cell responses cluster in epitope hotspots that differ from those induced in natural infection with HIV-1.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Several recent large clinical trials evaluated HIV vaccine candidates that were based on recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd-5) vectors expressing HIV-derived antigens. These vaccines primarily elicited T-cell responses, which are known to be critical for controlling HIV infection. In the current study, we present a meta-analysis of epitope mapping data from 177 participants in three clinical trials that tested two different HIV vaccines: MRKAd-5 HIV and VRC-HIVAD014-00VP. We characterized the population-level epitope responses in these trials by generating population-based epitope maps, and also designed such maps using a large cohort of 372 naturally infected individuals. We used these maps to address several questions: (1) Are vaccine-induced responses randomly distributed across vaccine inserts, or do they cluster into immunodominant epitope hotspots? (2) Are the immunodominance patterns observed for these two vaccines in three vaccine trials different from one another? (3) Do vaccine-induced hotspots overlap with epitope hotspots induced by chronic natural infection with HIV-1? (4) Do immunodominant hotspots target evolutionarily conserved regions of the HIV genome? (5) Can epitope prediction methods be used to identify these hotspots? We found that vaccine responses clustered into epitope hotspots in all three vaccine trials and some of these hotspots were not observed in chronic natural infection. We also found significant differences between the immunodominance patterns generated in each trial, even comparing two trials that tested the same vaccine in different populations. Some of the vaccine-induced immunodominant hotspots were located in highly variable regions of the HIV genome, and this was more evident for the MRKAd-5 HIV vaccine. Finally, we found that epitope prediction methods can partially predict the location of vaccine-induced epitope hotspots. Our findings have implications for vaccine design and suggest a framework by which different vaccine candidates can be compared in early phases of evaluation.
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Optimization and qualification of a memory B-cell ELISpot for the detection of vaccine-induced memory responses in HIV vaccine trials.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Various aspects of the human immune system can be analyzed to determine the efficacy of a vaccine. We have developed a B-cell ELISpot to measure HIV-specific antibody-secreting B cells in the peripheral blood as a result of vaccination or natural infection. Our method includes stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with interleukin-2 and a polyclonal activator, R848, to induce memory B cells to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. Total immunoglobulin-secreting as well as antigen-specific B cells are then quantified. We have tested several HIV Env gp120 and gp140 proteins from different HIV subtypes, as well as a sensitive consensus group M Env gp140. Our findings indicate that the B-cell ELISpot provides a sensitive and specific tool to detect antigen-specific memory B-cell responses, and it is equally suited to detect antibody-secreting plasmablasts present in the circulation shortly after infection or vaccination.
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Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid is the most effective TLR adjuvant for SIV Gag protein-induced T cell responses in nonhuman primates.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Prime-boost immunization with heterologous vaccines elicits potent cellular immunity. In this study, we assessed the influence of various TLR ligands on SIV Gag-specific T cell immunity and protection following prime-boost immunization. Rhesus macaques (RMs) were primed with SIV Gag protein emulsified in Montanide ISA51 with or without TLR3 (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly-IC]), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A), TLR7/8 (3M-012), TLR9 (CpG), or TLR3 (poly-IC) combined with TLR7/8 ligands, then boosted with replication defective adenovirus 5 expressing SIV Gag (rAd5-Gag). After priming, RMs that received SIV Gag protein plus poly-IC developed significantly higher frequencies of SIV Gag-specific CD4(+) Th1 responses in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid lymphocytes compared with all other adjuvants, and low-level SIV Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. After the rAd5-Gag boost, the magnitude and breadth of SIV Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly increased in RM primed with SIV Gag protein plus poly-IC, with or without the TLR7/8 ligand, or CpG. However, the anamnestic, SIV Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell response to SIVmac251 challenge was not significantly enhanced by SIV Gag protein priming with any of the adjuvants. In contrast, the anamnestic SIV Gag-specific CD4(+) T cell response in BAL was enhanced by SIV Gag protein priming with poly-IC or CpG, which correlated with partial control of early viral replication after SIVmac251 challenge. These results demonstrate that prime-boost vaccination with SIV Gag protein/poly-IC improves magnitude, breadth, and durability of CD4(+) T cell immune responses, which could have a role in the control of SIV viral replication.
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Vaginal langerhans cells nonproductively transporting HIV-1 mediate infection of T cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Although implied by other models, proof that Langerhans cells (LCs) in the human vagina participate in dissemination of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been lacking. Here, we show that LCs migrate from HIV-1-exposed vaginal epithelia and pass infectious virus to CD4+ T cells without being productively infected themselves, and we point to a pathway that might enable HIV-1 to avoid degradation in vaginal LCs. Transport by migratory LCs to local lymphatics in a nonproductive but infectious form may aid HIV-1 in evasion of topical microbicides that target its intracellular productive life cycle.
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Timing of plasmid cytokine (IL-2/Ig) administration affects HIV-1 vaccine immunogenicity in HIV-seronegative subjects.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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To investigate the potential immunostimulatory effect of interleukin (IL) 2 as a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine adjuvant, we conducted a study of a plasmid coding for a fusion protein of IL-2 and immunoglobulin (IL-2/Ig).
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HIV-DNA priming alters T cell responses to HIV-adenovirus vaccine even when responses to DNA are undetectable.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Many candidate HIV vaccines are designed to primarily elicit T cell responses. Although repeated immunization with the same vaccine boosts Ab responses, the benefit for T cell responses is ill defined. We compared two immunization regimens that include the same recombinant adenoviral serotype 5 (rAd5) boost. Repeated homologous rAd5 immunization fails to increase T cell responses, but increases gp140 Ab responses 10-fold. DNA prime, as compared with rAd5 prime, directs long-term memory CD8(+) T cells toward a terminally differentiated effector memory phenotype with cytotoxic potential. Based on the kinetics of activated cells measured directly ex vivo, the DNA vaccination primes for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, despite the lack of detection of the latter until after the boost. These results suggest that heterologous prime-boost combinations have distinct immunological advantages over homologous prime-boosts and suggest that the effect of DNA on subsequent boosting may not be easily detectable directly after the DNA vaccination.
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Human adenovirus-specific T cells modulate HIV-specific T cell responses to an Ad5-vectored HIV-1 vaccine.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Recombinant viruses hold promise as vectors for vaccines to prevent infectious diseases with significant global health impacts. One of their major limitations is that preexisting anti-vector neutralizing antibodies can reduce T cell responses to the insert antigens; however, the impact of vector-specific cellular immunity on subsequent insert-specific T cell responses has not been assessed in humans. Here, we have identified and compared adenovirus-specific and HIV-specific T cell responses in subjects participating in two HIV-1 vaccine trials using a vaccine vectored by adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). Higher frequencies of pre-immunization adenovirus-specific CD4? T cells were associated with substantially decreased magnitude of HIV-specific CD4? T cell responses and decreased breadth of HIV-specific CD8? T cell responses in vaccine recipients, independent of type-specific preexisting Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. Further, epitopes recognized by adenovirus-specific T cells were commonly conserved across many adenovirus serotypes, suggesting that cross-reactivity of preexisting adenovirus-specific T cells can extend to adenovirus vectors derived from rare serotypes. These findings provide what we believe to be a new understanding of how preexisting viral immunity may impact the efficacy of vaccines under current evaluation for prevention of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria.
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Host genetic polymorphisms associated with innate immune factors and HIV-1.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Our understanding of the early events in HIV-1 infection continues to grow, along with the heightened recognition of the important contribution that innate immunity plays in response to HIV-1. Here, we review the epidemiological and functional studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with innate immune factors that are believed to modulate host responses, focusing specifically on recent findings related to Toll-like receptor, cytokine, host restriction and KIR genes and their activities.
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Vaccine-induced HIV-specific CD8+ T cells utilize preferential HLA alleles and target-specific regions of HIV-1.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Most T cell-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates induce responses of limited breadth for reasons that are unclear. We evaluated vaccine-induced T-cell responses in individuals receiving an HIV-1 recombinant adenoviral vaccine. Certain HLA alleles (B27, B57, B35, and B14) are preferentially utilized to mount HIV-specific responses, whereas other alleles (A02 and B07) are rarely utilized (P < 0.001). This preference seems due to 4 following factors individually or in combination: higher affinity of specific peptides to specific HLA alleles; higher avidity of T-cell receptor; HLA and peptide interaction; and/or higher surface expression of certain HLA. Thus, HLA immunodominance plays a substantial role in vaccine-induced T-cell responses.
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Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.
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Demographic processes affect HIV-1 evolution in primary infection before the onset of selective processes.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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HIV-1 transmission and viral evolution in the first year of infection were studied in 11 individuals representing four transmitter-recipient pairs and three independent seroconverters. Nine of these individuals were enrolled during acute infection; all were men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV-1 subtype B. A total of 475 nearly full-length HIV-1 genome sequences were generated, representing on average 10 genomes per specimen at 2 to 12 visits over the first year of infection. Single founding variants with nearly homogeneous viral populations were detected in eight of the nine individuals who were enrolled during acute HIV-1 infection. Restriction to a single founder variant was not due to a lack of diversity in the transmitter as homogeneous populations were found in recipients from transmitters with chronic infection. Mutational patterns indicative of rapid viral population growth dominated during the first 5 weeks of infection and included a slight contraction of viral genetic diversity over the first 20 to 40 days. Subsequently, selection dominated, most markedly in env and nef. Mutants were detected in the first week and became consensus as early as day 21 after the onset of symptoms of primary HIV infection. We found multiple indications of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations while reversions appeared limited. Putative escape mutations were often rapidly replaced with mutually exclusive mutations nearby, indicating the existence of a maturational escape process, possibly in adaptation to viral fitness constraints or to immune responses against new variants. We showed that establishment of HIV-1 infection is likely due to a biological mechanism that restricts transmission rather than to early adaptive evolution during acute infection. Furthermore, the diversity of HIV strains coupled with complex and individual-specific patterns of CTL escape did not reveal shared sequence characteristics of acute infection that could be harnessed for vaccine design.
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Serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 is not associated with risk of HIV infection: a case-control study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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adenoviruses are among the most promising vectors for the development of an HIV vaccine. The results of the phase IIB study of the adenovirus serotype 5-based Merck Trivalent HIV vaccine have raised the concern that serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) could be linked to HIV acquisition risk in high-risk individuals. We examined the association between adenovirus serostatus and the rate of incident HIV infection in populations at elevated risk of HIV acquisition.
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Priming CD8+ T cells with dendritic cells matured using TLR4 and TLR7/8 ligands together enhances generation of CD8+ T cells retaining CD28.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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TLRs expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) differentially activate DCs when activated alone or in combination, inducing distinct cytokines and costimulatory molecules that influence T-cell responses. Defining the requirements of DCs to program T cells during priming to become memory rather than effector cells could enhance vaccine development. We used an in vitro system to assess the influence of DC maturation signals on priming naive human CD8+ T cells. Maturation of DCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4) concurrently with R848 (TLR7/8) induced a heterogeneous population of DCs that produced high levels of IL12 p70. Compared with DCs matured with LPS or R848 alone, the DC population matured with both adjuvants primed CD8+ T-cell responses containing an increased proportion of antigen-specific T cells retaining CD28 expression. Priming with a homogenous subpopulation of LPS/R848-matured DCs that were CD83(Hi)/CD80+/CD86+ reduced this CD28+ subpopulation and induced T cells with an effector cytokine signature, whereas priming with the less mature subpopulations of DCs resulted in minimal T-cell expansion. These results suggest that TLR4 and TLR7/8 signals together induce DCs with fully mature and less mature phenotypes that are both required to more efficiently prime CD8+ T cells with qualities associated with memory T cells.
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A trimeric, V2-deleted HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein vaccine elicits potent neutralizing antibodies but limited breadth of neutralization in human volunteers.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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A key missing element in the development of a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is an immunogen that can generate broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of the virus.
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Association between peripheral ?? T-cell profile and disease progression in individuals infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 in West Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Human gammadelta (??) T cells play an important role in protective immunity in HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus infection; their role in HIV-2 infection is unknown.
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Protective HIV-specific CD8+ T cells evade Treg cell suppression.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Specific human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), notably HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*57 allele groups, have long been associated with control of HIV-1. Although the majority of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells lose proliferative capacity during chronic infection, T cells restricted by HLA-B*27 or HLA-B*57 allele groups do not. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells restricted by protective HLA allele groups are not suppressed by T(reg) cells, whereas, within the same individual, T cells restricted by nonprotective alleles are highly suppressed ex vivo. This differential sensitivity of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells to T(reg) cell-mediated suppression correlates with their expression of the inhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) after stimulation with their cognate epitopes. Furthermore, we show that HLA-B*27- and HLA-B*57-restricted effectors also evade T(reg) cell-mediated suppression by directly killing T(reg) cells they encounter in a granzyme B (GzmB)-dependent manner. This study uncovers a previously unknown explanation for why HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*57 allele groups are associated with delayed HIV-1 disease progression.
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Mapping HIV-1 vaccine induced T-cell responses: bias towards less-conserved regions and potential impact on vaccine efficacy in the Step study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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T cell directed HIV vaccines are based upon the induction of CD8+ T cell memory responses that would be effective in inhibiting infection and subsequent replication of an infecting HIV-1 strain, a process that requires a match or near-match between the epitope induced by vaccination and the infecting viral strain. We compared the frequency and specificity of the CTL epitope responses elicited by the replication-defective Ad5 gag/pol/nef vaccine used in the Step trial with the likelihood of encountering those epitopes among recently sequenced Clade B isolates of HIV-1. Among vaccinees with detectable 15-mer peptide pool ELISpot responses, there was a median of four (one Gag, one Nef and two Pol) CD8 epitopes per vaccinee detected by 9-mer peptide ELISpot assay. Importantly, frequency analysis of the mapped epitopes indicated that there was a significant skewing of the T cell response; variable epitopes were detected more frequently than would be expected from an unbiased sampling of the vaccine sequences. Correspondingly, the most highly conserved epitopes in Gag, Pol, and Nef (defined by presence in >80% of sequences currently in the Los Alamos database www.hiv.lanl.gov) were detected at a lower frequency than unbiased sampling, similar to the frequency reported for responses to natural infection, suggesting potential epitope masking of these responses. This may be a generic mechanism used by the virus in both contexts to escape effective T cell immune surveillance. The disappointing results of the Step trial raise the bar for future HIV vaccine candidates. This report highlights the bias towards less-conserved epitopes present in the same vaccine used in the Step trial. Development of vaccine strategies that can elicit a greater breadth of responses, and towards conserved regions of the genome in particular, are critical requirements for effective T-cell based vaccines against HIV-1. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00849680, A Study of Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of the MRKAd5 Gag/Pol/Nef Vaccine in Healthy Adults.
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Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732). Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ?18; n?=?36) or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n?=?34). Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes). At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p?=?0.008), and significantly more IP-10 (p?=?0.0009), IL-2 (p?=?0.006) and IL-10 (p?=?0.05) in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-?, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these results suggest that vector-specific humoral responses may reduce vaccine-induced T-cell responses by previously undetected mechanisms.
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A phase IIA randomized clinical trial of a multiclade HIV-1 DNA prime followed by a multiclade rAd5 HIV-1 vaccine boost in healthy adults (HVTN204).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine regimen consisting of a 6-plasmid HIV-1 DNA prime (envA, envB, envC, gagB, polB, nefB) boosted by a recombinant adenovirus serotype-5 (rAd5) HIV-1 with matching inserts was evaluated in HIV-seronegative participants from South Africa, United States, Latin America and the Caribbean.
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Standing guard at the mucosa.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2011
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Most successful vaccines elicit antibodies that protect against infection. In this issue of Immunity, Bomsel et al. (2011) show in the rhesus macaque model that vaccine-induced mucosal antibodies, rather than circulating neutralizing antibodies, may be critical components for protective immunity against HIV-1.
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Trivalent adenovirus type 5 HIV recombinant vaccine primes for modest cytotoxic capacity that is greatest in humans with protective HLA class I alleles.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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If future HIV vaccine design strategies are to succeed, improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying protection from infection or immune control over HIV replication remains essential. Increased cytotoxic capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells associated with efficient elimination of HIV-infected CD4+ T-cell targets has been shown to distinguish long-term nonprogressors (LTNP), patients with durable control over HIV replication, from those experiencing progressive disease. Here, measurements of granzyme B target cell activity and HIV-1-infected CD4+ T-cell elimination were applied for the first time to identify antiviral activities in recipients of a replication incompetent adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) HIV-1 recombinant vaccine and were compared with HIV-negative individuals and chronically infected patients, including a group of LTNP. We observed readily detectable HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell recall cytotoxic responses in vaccinees at a median of 331 days following the last immunization. The magnitude of these responses was not related to the number of vaccinations, nor did it correlate with the percentages of cytokine-secreting T-cells determined by ICS assays. Although the recall cytotoxic capacity of the CD8+ T-cells of the vaccinee group was significantly less than that of LTNP and overlapped with that of progressors, we observed significantly higher cytotoxic responses in vaccine recipients carrying the HLA class I alleles B*27, B*57 or B*58, which have been associated with immune control over HIV replication in chronic infection. These findings suggest protective HLA class I alleles might lead to better outcomes in both chronic infection and following immunization due to more efficient priming of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell cytotoxic responses.
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Genetic impact of vaccination on breakthrough HIV-1 sequences from the STEP trial.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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We analyzed HIV-1 genome sequences from 68 newly infected volunteers in the STEP HIV-1 vaccine trial. To determine whether the vaccine exerted selective T cell pressure on breakthrough viruses, we identified potential T cell epitopes in the founder sequences and compared them to epitopes in the vaccine. We found greater distances to the vaccine sequence for sequences from vaccine recipients than from placebo recipients. The most significant signature site distinguishing vaccine from placebo recipients was Gag amino acid 84, a site encompassed by several epitopes contained in the vaccine and restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles common in the study cohort. Moreover, the extended divergence was confined to the vaccine components of the virus (HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Nef) and not found in other HIV-1 proteins. These results represent what is to our knowledge the first evidence of selective pressure from vaccine-induced T cell responses on HIV-1 infection in humans.
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Host genetic determinants of T cell responses to the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine in the step trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Understanding how human genetic variation impacts individual response to immunogens is fundamental for rational vaccine development. To explore host mechanisms involved in cellular immune responses to the MRKAd5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag/pol/nef vaccine tested in the Step trial, we performed a genome-wide association study of determinants of HIV-specific T cell responses, measured by interferon ? enzyme-linked immunospot assays. No human genetic variant reached genome-wide significance, but polymorphisms located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region showed the strongest association with response to the HIV-1 Gag protein: HLA-B alleles known to be associated with differences in HIV-1 control were responsible for these associations. The implication of the same HLA alleles in vaccine-induced cellular immunity and in natural immune control is of relevance for vaccine design. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the importance of considering the host immunogenetic background in the analysis of immune responses to T cell vaccines.
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Dynamics of viral evolution and CTL responses in HIV-1 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Improved understanding of the dynamics of host immune responses and viral evolution is critical for effective HIV-1 vaccine design. We comprehensively analyzed Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-viral epitope dynamics in an antiretroviral therapy-naïve subject over the first four years of HIV-1 infection. We found that CTL responses developed sequentially and required constant antigenic stimulation for maintenance. CTL responses exerting strong selective pressure emerged early and led to rapid escape, proliferated rapidly and were predominant during acute/early infection. Although CTL responses to a few persistent epitopes developed over the first two months of infection, they proliferated slowly. As CTL epitopes were replaced by mutational variants, the corresponding responses immediately declined, most rapidly in the cases of strongly selected epitopes. CTL recognition of epitope variants, via cross-reactivity and de novo responses, was common throughout the period of study. Our data demonstrate that HIV-specific CTL responses, especially in the critical acute/early stage, were focused on regions that are prone to escape. Failure of CTL responses to strongly target functional or structurally critical regions of the virus, as well as the sequential cascade of CTL responses, followed closely by viral escape and decline of the corresponding responses, likely contribute to a lack of sustainable viral suppression. Focusing early and rapidly proliferating CTL on persistent epitopes may be essential for durable viral control in HIV-1 infection.
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A phase I trial of preventive HIV vaccination with heterologous poxviral-vectors containing matching HIV-1 inserts in healthy HIV-uninfected subjects.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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We evaluated replication-defective poxvirus vectors (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and fowlpox [FPV]) in a homologous and heterologous vector prime-boost vaccination regimen containing matching HIV inserts (MVA-HIV and FPV-HIV) given at months 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 in 150 healthy HIV-negative vaccinia-naïve participants. FPV-HIV alone was poorly immunogenic, while the high dose (10(9)pfu/2 ml) of MVA-HIV alone elicited maximal responses after two injections: CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in 26/55 (47.3%) and 5/60 (8.3%) of participants, respectively, and IFN-? ELISpot responses in 28/62 (45.2%). The infrequent CD8+ T-cell responses following MVA-HIV priming were boosted only by the heterologous (FPV-HIV) construct in 14/27 (51.9%) of participants post 4th vaccination. Alternatively, HIV envelope-specific binding antibodies were demonstrated in approximately two-thirds of recipients of the homologous boosting regimen, but in less than 20% of subjects after the heterologous vector boost. Thus, a heterologous poxvirus vector prime-boost regimen can induce HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell and CD4+ T-cell responses, which may be an important feature of an optimal regimen for preventive HIV vaccination.
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The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation.
, Florencia Pereyra, Xiaoming Jia, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Paul I W de Bakker, Bruce D Walker, Stephan Ripke, Chanson J Brumme, Sara L Pulit, Mary Carrington, Carl M Kadie, Jonathan M Carlson, David Heckerman, Robert R Graham, Robert M Plenge, Steven G Deeks, Lauren Gianniny, Gabriel Crawford, Jordan Sullivan, Elena González, Leela Davies, Amy Camargo, Jamie M Moore, Nicole Beattie, Supriya Gupta, Andrew Crenshaw, Noel P Burtt, Candace Guiducci, Namrata Gupta, Xiaojiang Gao, Ying Qi, Yuko Yuki, Alicja Piechocka-Trocha, Emily Cutrell, Rachel Rosenberg, Kristin L Moss, Paul Lemay, Jessica O'Leary, Todd Schaefer, Pranshu Verma, Ildikó Tóth, Brian Block, Brett Baker, Alissa Rothchild, Jeffrey Lian, Jacqueline Proudfoot, Donna Marie L Alvino, Seanna Vine, Marylyn M Addo, Todd M Allen, Marcus Altfeld, Matthew R Henn, Sylvie Le Gall, Hendrik Streeck, David W Haas, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Gregory K Robbins, Robert W Shafer, Roy M Gulick, Cecilia M Shikuma, Richard Haubrich, Sharon Riddler, Paul E Sax, Eric S Daar, Heather J Ribaudo, Brian Agan, Shanu Agarwal, Richard L Ahern, Brady L Allen, Sherly Altidor, Eric L Altschuler, Sujata Ambardar, Kathryn Anastos, Ben Anderson, Val Anderson, Ushan Andrady, Diana Antoniskis, David Bangsberg, Daniel Barbaro, William Barrie, J Bartczak, Simon Barton, Patricia Basden, Nesli Basgoz, Suzane Bazner, Nicholaos C Bellos, Anne M Benson, Judith Berger, Nicole F Bernard, Annette M Bernard, Christopher Birch, Stanley J Bodner, Robert K Bolan, Emilie T Boudreaux, Meg Bradley, James F Braun, Jon E Brndjar, Stephen J Brown, Katherine Brown, Sheldon T Brown, Jedidiah Burack, Larry M Bush, Virginia Cafaro, Omobolaji Campbell, John Campbell, Robert H Carlson, J Kevin Carmichael, Kathleen K Casey, Chris Cavacuiti, Gregory Celestin, Steven T Chambers, Nancy Chez, Lisa M Chirch, Paul J Cimoch, Daniel Cohen, Lillian E Cohn, Brian Conway, David A Cooper, Brian Cornelson, David T Cox, Michael V Cristofano, George Cuchural, Julie L Czartoski, Joseph M Dahman, Jennifer S Daly, Benjamin T Davis, Kristine Davis, Sheila M Davod, Edwin DeJesus, Craig A Dietz, Eleanor Dunham, Michael E Dunn, Todd B Ellerin, Joseph J Eron, John J W Fangman, Claire E Farel, Helen Ferlazzo, Sarah Fidler, Anita Fleenor-Ford, Renee Frankel, Kenneth A Freedberg, Neel K French, Jonathan D Fuchs, Jon D Fuller, Jonna Gaberman, Joel E Gallant, Rajesh T Gandhi, Efrain Garcia, Donald Garmon, Joseph C Gathe, Cyril R Gaultier, Wondwoosen Gebre, Frank D Gilman, Ian Gilson, Paul A Goepfert, Michael S Gottlieb, Claudia Goulston, Richard K Groger, T Douglas Gurley, Stuart Haber, Robin Hardwicke, W David Hardy, P Richard Harrigan, Trevor N Hawkins, Sonya Heath, Frederick M Hecht, W Keith Henry, Melissa Hladek, Robert P Hoffman, James M Horton, Ricky K Hsu, Gregory D Huhn, Peter Hunt, Mark J Hupert, Mark L Illeman, Hans Jaeger, Robert M Jellinger, Mina John, Jennifer A Johnson, Kristin L Johnson, Heather Johnson, Kay Johnson, Jennifer Joly, Wilbert C Jordan, Carol A Kauffman, Homayoon Khanlou, Robert K Killian, Arthur Y Kim, David D Kim, Clifford A Kinder, Jeffrey T Kirchner, Laura Kogelman, Erna Milunka Kojic, P Todd Korthuis, Wayne Kurisu, Douglas S Kwon, Melissa Lamar, Harry Lampiris, Massimiliano Lanzafame, Michael M Lederman, David M Lee, Jean M L Lee, Marah J Lee, Edward T Y Lee, Janice Lemoine, Jay A Levy, Josep M Llibre, Michael A Liguori, Susan J Little, Anne Y Liu, Alvaro J Lopez, Mono R Loutfy, Dawn Loy, Debbie Y Mohammed, Alan Man, Michael K Mansour, Vincent C Marconi, Martin Markowitz, Rui Marques, Jeffrey N Martin, Harold L Martin, Kenneth Hugh Mayer, M Juliana McElrath, Theresa A McGhee, Barbara H McGovern, Katherine McGowan, Dawn McIntyre, Gavin X Mcleod, Prema Menezes, Greg Mesa, Craig E Metroka, Dirk Meyer-Olson, Andy O Miller, Kate Montgomery, Karam C Mounzer, Ellen H Nagami, Iris Nagin, Ronald G Nahass, Margret O Nelson, Craig Nielsen, David L Norene, David H O'Connor, Bisola O Ojikutu, Jason Okulicz, Olakunle O Oladehin, Edward C Oldfield, Susan A Olender, Mario Ostrowski, William F Owen, Eunice Pae, Jeffrey Parsonnet, Andrew M Pavlatos, Aaron M Perlmutter, Michael N Pierce, Jonathan M Pincus, Leandro Pisani, Lawrence Jay Price, Laurie Proia, Richard C Prokesch, Heather Calderon Pujet, Moti Ramgopal, Almas Rathod, Michael Rausch, J Ravishankar, Frank S Rhame, Constance Shamuyarira Richards, Douglas D Richman, Berta Rodés, Milagros Rodriguez, Richard C Rose, Eric S Rosenberg, Daniel Rosenthal, Polly E Ross, David S Rubin, Elease Rumbaugh, Luis Saenz, Michelle R Salvaggio, William C Sanchez, Veeraf M Sanjana, Steven Santiago, Wolfgang Schmidt, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Philip M Sestak, Peter Shalit, William Shay, Vivian N Shirvani, Vanessa I Silebi, James M Sizemore, Paul R Skolnik, Marcia Sokol-Anderson, James M Sosman, Paul Stabile, Jack T Stapleton, Sheree Starrett, Francine Stein, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, F Lisa Sterman, Valerie E Stone, David R Stone, Giuseppe Tambussi, Randy A Taplitz, Ellen M Tedaldi, William Theisen, Richard Torres, Lorraine Tosiello, Cécile Tremblay, Marc A Tribble, Phuong D Trinh, Alice Tsao, Peggy Ueda, Anthony Vaccaro, Emília Valadas, Thanes J Vanig, Isabel Vecino, Vilma M Vega, Wenoah Veikley, Barbara H Wade, Charles Walworth, Chingchai Wanidworanun, Douglas J Ward, Daniel A Warner, Robert D Weber, Duncan Webster, Steve Weis, David A Wheeler, David J White, Ed Wilkins, Alan Winston, Clifford G Wlodaver, Angelique van't Wout, David P Wright, Otto O Yang, David L Yurdin, Brandon W Zabukovic, Kimon C Zachary, Beth Zeeman, Meng Zhao.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.
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Immune responses to HIV vaccines and potential impact on control of acute HIV-1 infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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Unanticipated results from 2 recent candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine regimens in large-scale international trials highlight the importance of understanding the optimal earliest immune defense against HIV-1 infection. Presented here are key findings in these vaccine studies with relevance to the development of future vaccines to control acute HIV-1 infection.
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Induction of immunity to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by vaccination.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Recent findings have brought optimism that development of a successful human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine lies within reach. Studies of early events in HIV-1 infection have revealed when and where HIV-1 is potentially vulnerable to vaccine-targeted immune responses. With technical advances in human antibody production, clues about how antibodies recognize HIV-1 envelope proteins have uncovered new targets for immunogen design. A recent vaccine regimen has shown modest efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition. However, inducing long-term T and B cell memory and coping with HIV-1 diversity remain high priorities. Mediators of innate immunity may play pivotal roles in blocking infection and shaping immunity; vaccine strategies to capture these activities are under investigation. Challenges remain in integrating basic, preclinical and clinical research to improve predictions of types of immunity associated with vaccine efficacy, to apply these insights to immunogen design, and to accelerate evaluation of vaccine efficacy in persons at-risk for infection.
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Profiles of human serum antibody responses elicited by three leading HIV vaccines focusing on the induction of Env-specific antibodies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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In the current report, we compared the specificities of antibody responses in sera from volunteers enrolled in three US NIH-supported HIV vaccine trials using different immunization regimens. HIV-1 Env-specific binding antibody, neutralizing antibody, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and profiles of antibody specificity were analyzed for human immune sera collected from vaccinees enrolled in the NIH HIV Vaccine Trial Network (HVTN) Study #041 (recombinant protein alone), HVTN Study #203 (poxviral vector prime-protein boost), and the DP6-001 study (DNA prime-protein boost). Vaccinees from HVTN Study #041 had the highest neutralizing antibody activities against the sensitive virus along with the highest binding antibody responses, particularly those directed toward the V3 loop. DP6-001 sera showed a higher frequency of positive neutralizing antibody activities against more resistant viral isolate with a significantly higher CD4 binding site (CD4bs) antibody response compared to both HVTN studies #041 and #203. No differences were found in CD4-induced (CD4i) antibody responses, ADCC activity, or complement activation by Env-specific antibody among these sera. Given recent renewed interest in realizing the importance of antibody responses for next generation HIV vaccine development, different antibody profiles shown in the current report, based on the analysis of a wide range of antibody parameters, provide critical biomarker information for the selection of HIV vaccines for more advanced human studies and, in particular, those that can elicit antibodies targeting conformational-sensitive and functionally conserved epitopes.
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Innate immune signaling induces high levels of TC-specific deaminase activity in primary monocyte-derived cells through expression of APOBEC3A isoforms.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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In HIV-1-infected individuals, G-to-A hypermutation is found in HIV-1 DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These mutations are thought to result from editing by one or more host enzymes in the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases, which act on CC (APOBEC3G) and TC (other A3 proteins) dinucleotide motifs in DNA (edited cytidine underlined). Although many A3 proteins display high levels of deaminase activity in model systems, only low levels of A3 deaminase activity have been found in primary cells examined to date. In contrast, here we report high levels of deaminase activity at TC motifs when whole PBMCs or isolated primary monocyte-derived cells were treated with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) or IFNalpha-inducing toll-like receptor ligands. Induction of TC-specific deaminase activity required new transcription and translation and correlated with the appearance of two APOBEC3A (A3A) isoforms. Knockdown of A3A in monocytes with siRNA abolished TC-specific deaminase activity, confirming that A3A isoforms are responsible for all TC-specific deaminase activity observed. Both A3A isoforms appear to be enzymatically active; moreover, our mutational studies raise the possibility that the smaller isoform results from internal translational initiation. In contrast to the high levels of TC-specific activity observed in IFNalpha-treated monocytes, CC-specific activity remained low in PBMCs, suggesting that A3G deaminase activity is relatively inhibited, unlike that of A3A. Together, these findings suggest that deaminase activity of A3A isoforms in monocytes and macrophages may play an important role in host defense against viruses.
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Equivalence of ELISpot assays demonstrated between major HIV network laboratories.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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The Comprehensive T Cell Vaccine Immune Monitoring Consortium (CTC-VIMC) was created to provide standardized immunogenicity monitoring services for HIV vaccine trials. The ex vivo interferon-gamma (IFN-?) ELISpot is used extensively as a primary immunogenicity assay to assess T cell-based vaccine candidates in trials for infectious diseases and cancer. Two independent, GCLP-accredited central laboratories of CTC-VIMC routinely use their own standard operating procedures (SOPs) for ELISpot within two major networks of HIV vaccine trials. Studies are imperatively needed to assess the comparability of ELISpot measurements across laboratories to benefit optimal advancement of vaccine candidates.
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Safety and immunogenicity of a replication-defective adenovirus type 5 HIV vaccine in Ad5-seronegative persons: a randomized clinical trial (HVTN 054).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Individuals without prior immunity to a vaccine vector may be more sensitive to reactions following injection, but may also show optimal immune responses to vaccine antigens. To assess safety and maximal tolerated dose of an adenoviral vaccine vector in volunteers without prior immunity, we evaluated a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and multiclade Env proteins, VRC-HIVADV014-00-VP, in a randomized, double-blind, dose-escalation, multicenter trial (HVTN study 054) in HIV-1-seronegative participants without detectable neutralizing antibodies (nAb) to the vector. As secondary outcomes, we also assessed T-cell and antibody responses.
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Immunization with cocktail of HIV-derived peptides in montanide ISA-51 is immunogenic, but causes sterile abscesses and unacceptable reactogenicity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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A peptide vaccine was produced containing B and T cell epitopes from the V3 and C4 Envelope domains of 4 subtype B HIV-1 isolates (MN, RF, CanO, & Ev91). The peptide mixture was formulated as an emulsion in incomplete Freunds adjuvant (IFA).
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In situ detection of Gag-specific CD8+ cells in the GI tract of SIV infected Rhesus macaques.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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SIV and HIV predominantly replicate in lymphoid tissue, but the study of virus specific CD8+ T cells in intact lymphoid tissue is difficult, as traditional in situ tetramer staining requires fresh tissue.
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Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses better define HIV disease progression than HLA genotype.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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HLA alleles B57/58, B27, and B35 have the strongest genetic associations with HIV-1 disease progression. The mechanisms of these relationships may be host control of HIV-1 infection via CD8(+) T-cell responses. We examined these immune responses in subjects from the Seattle Primary Infection Cohort with these alleles. CD8(+) T-cell responses to conserved HIV epitopes within B57/58 alleles (TW10 and KF11) and B27 alleles (KK10 and FY10) delayed declines in CD4(+) T-cell counts (4 to 8 times longer), while responses to variable epitopes presented by B35 alleles (DL9 and IL9) resulted in more rapid progression. The plasma viral load was higher in B57/58(+) and B27(+) subjects lacking the conserved B57/58- and B27-restricted responses. The presence of certain B57/58-, B27-, and B35-restricted HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses after primary HIV-1 infection better defined disease progression than the HLA genotype alone, suggesting that it is the HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells and not the presence of a particular HLA allele that determine disease progression. Further, the most effective host CD8(+) T-cell responses to HIV-1 were prevalent within an HLA allele, represented a high total allele fraction of the host CD8(+) T-cell response, and targeted conserved regions of HIV-1. These data suggest that vaccine immunogens should contain only conserved regions of HIV-1.
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Ex vivo comparison of microbicide efficacies for preventing HIV-1 genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal cells.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Vaginally applied microbicides hold promise as a strategy to prevent sexual HIV transmission. Several nonspecific microbicides, including the polyanion cellulose sulfate, have been evaluated in large-scale clinical trials but have failed to show significant efficacy. These findings have prompted a renewed search for preclinical testing systems that can predict negative outcomes of microbicide trials. Moreover, the pipeline of potential topical microbicides has been expanded to include antiretroviral agents, such as reverse transcriptase, fusion, and integrase inhibitors. Using a novel ex vivo model of vaginal HIV-1 infection, we compared the prophylactic potentials of two forms of the fusion inhibitor T-20, the CCR5 antagonist TAK-778, the integrase inhibitor 118-D-24, and cellulose sulfate (Ushercell). The T-20 peptide with free N- and C-terminal amino acids was the most efficacious compound, causing significantly greater inhibition of viral genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal leukocytes, measured by an optimized real-time PCR assay, than the more water-soluble N-acetylated T-20 peptide (Fuzeon) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.153 microM versus 51.2 microM [0.687 ng/ml versus 230 ng/ml]; P<0.0001). In contrast, no significant difference in IC50s was noted in peripheral blood cells (IC50, 13.58 microM versus 7.57 microM [61 ng/ml versus 34 ng/ml]; P=0.0614). Cellulose sulfate was the least effective of all the compounds tested (IC50, 1.8 microg/ml). These results highlight the merit of our model for screening the mucosal efficacies of novel microbicides and their formulations and potentially rank ordering candidates for clinical evaluation.
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Conserved HIV-1 epitopes continuously elicit subdominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2009
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The epitope specificities and antiviral activities of class I HLA-restricted CD8(+) T cells, especially those induced during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary infection, are important considerations in designing HIV-1 vaccines. Conserved epitopes may be more commonly and persistently recognized than variable epitopes, as they may be more likely to be present in infecting viruses. However, some studies have shown preferential or similar targeting of variable versus conserved epitopes during primary infection.
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Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 and toll-like receptor 9 influence viral load in a seroincident cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune sensors that are integral to resisting chronic and opportunistic infections. Mounting evidence implicates TLR polymorphisms in susceptibilities to various infectious diseases, including HIV-1. We investigated the impact of TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on clinical outcome in a seroincident cohort of HIV-1-infected volunteers.
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Preinfection human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes failed to prevent HIV type 1 infection from strains genetically unrelated to viruses in long-term exposed partners.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Understanding the mechanisms underlying potential altered susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in highly exposed seronegative (ES) individuals and the later clinical consequences of breakthrough infection can provide insight into strategies to control HIV-1 with an effective vaccine. From our Seattle ES cohort, we identified one individual (LSC63) who seroconverted after over 2 years of repeated unprotected sexual contact with his HIV-1-infected partner (P63) and other sexual partners of unknown HIV-1 serostatus. The HIV-1 variants infecting LSC63 were genetically unrelated to those sequenced from P63. This may not be surprising, since viral load measurements in P63 were repeatedly below 50 copies/ml, making him an unlikely transmitter. However, broad HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses were detected in LSC63 before seroconversion. Compared to those detected after seroconversion, these responses were of lower magnitude and half of them targeted different regions of the viral proteome. Strong HLA-B27-restricted CTLs, which have been associated with disease control, were detected in LSC63 after but not before seroconversion. Furthermore, for the majority of the protein-coding regions of the HIV-1 variants in LSC63 (except gp41, nef, and the 3 half of pol), the genetic distances between the infecting viruses and the viruses to which he was exposed through P63 (termed the exposed virus) were comparable to the distances between random subtype B HIV-1 sequences and the exposed viruses. These results suggest that broad preinfection immune responses were not able to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection in LSC63, even though the infecting viruses were not particularly distant from the viruses that may have elicited these responses.
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mediates global disruption of innate antiviral signaling and immune defenses within infected cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) is essential for innate intracellular immune defenses that limit virus replication, but these defenses fail to suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which can ultimately associate with opportunistic coinfections and the progression to AIDS. Here, we examined antiviral defenses in CD4+ cells during virus infection and coinfection, revealing that HIV type 1 (HIV-1) directs a global disruption of innate immune signaling and supports a coinfection model through suppression of IRF-3. T cells responded to paramyxovirus infection to activate IRF-3 and interferon-stimulated gene expression, but they failed to mount a response against HIV-1. The lack of response associated with a marked depletion of IRF-3 but not IRF-7 in HIV-1-infected cells, which supported robust viral replication, whereas ectopic expression of active IRF-3 suppressed HIV-1 infection. IRF-3 depletion was dependent on a productive HIV-1 replication cycle and caused the specific disruption of Toll-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor innate immune signaling that rendered cells permissive to secondary virus infection. IRF-3 levels were reduced in vivo within CD4+ T cells from patients with acute HIV-1 infection but not from long-term nonprogressors. Our results indicate that viral suppression of IRF-3 promotes HIV-1 infection by disrupting IRF-3-dependent signaling pathways and innate antiviral defenses of the host cell. IRF-3 may direct an innate antiviral response that regulates HIV-1 replication and viral set point while governing susceptibility to opportunistic virus coinfections.
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Safety and immunogenicity of a CTL multiepitope peptide vaccine for HIV with or without GM-CSF in a phase I trial.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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There is an urgent need for a vaccine capable of preventing HIV infection or the development of HIV-related disease. A number of approaches designed to stimulate HIV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses together with helper responses are presently under evaluation. In this phase 1, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the ability of a novel multiepitope peptide vaccine to elicit HIV-specific immunity. To enhance the immunogenicity of the peptide vaccine, half of the vaccine recipients received recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protein as a coadjuvant. The vaccine was safe; tolerability was moderate, with a number of adverse events related to local injection site reactogenicity. Anti-GM-CSF antibody responses developed in the majority of GM-CSF recipients but were not associated with adverse hematologic events. The vaccine was only minimally immunogenic. Six of 80 volunteers who received vaccine developed HIV-specific responses as measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay, and measurable responses were transient. This study failed to demonstrate that GM-CSF can substantially improve the overall weak immunogenicity of a multiepitope peptide-based HIV vaccine.
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Variable fitness impact of HIV-1 escape mutations to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target and kill HIV-infected cells expressing cognate viral epitopes. This response selects for escape mutations within CTL epitopes that can diminish viral replication fitness. Here, we assess the fitness impact of escape mutations emerging in seven CTL epitopes in the gp120 Env and p24 Gag coding regions of an individual followed longitudinally from the time of acute HIV-1 infection, as well as some of these same epitopes recognized in other HIV-1-infected individuals. Nine dominant mutations appeared in five gp120 epitopes within the first year of infection, whereas all four mutations found in two p24 epitopes emerged after nearly two years of infection. These mutations were introduced individually into the autologous gene found in acute infection and then placed into a full-length, infectious viral genome. When competed against virus expressing the parental protein, fitness loss was observed with only one of the nine gp120 mutations, whereas four had no effect and three conferred a slight increase in fitness. In contrast, mutations conferring CTL escape in the p24 epitopes significantly decreased viral fitness. One particular escape mutation within a p24 epitope was associated with reduced peptide recognition and high viral fitness costs but was replaced by a fitness-neutral mutation. This mutation appeared to alter epitope processing concomitant with a reduced CTL response. In conclusion, CTL escape mutations in HIV-1 Gag p24 were associated with significant fitness costs, whereas most escape mutations in the Env gene were fitness neutral, suggesting a balance between immunologic escape and replicative fitness costs.
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HIV Vaccine Trials Network: activities and achievements of the first decade and beyond.
Clin Investig (Lond)
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The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is an international collaboration of scientists and educators facilitating the development of HIV/AIDS preventive vaccines. The HVTN conducts all phases of clinical trials, from evaluating experimental vaccines for safety and immunogenicity, to testing vaccine efficacy. Over the past decade, the HVTN has aimed to improve the process of designing, implementing and analyzing vaccine trials. Several major achievements include streamlining protocol development while maintaining input from diverse stakeholders, establishing a laboratory program with standardized assays and systems allowing for reliable immunogenicity assessments across trials, setting statistical standards for the field and actively engaging with site communities. These achievements have allowed the HVTN to conduct over 50 clinical trials and make numerous scientific contributions to the field.
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Comparative analysis of simian immunodeficiency virus gag-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cells induced by different adenovirus vectors.
J. Virol.
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Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are widely used as experimental vaccines against several infectious diseases, but the magnitude, phenotype, and functionality of CD8(+) T cell responses induced by different adenovirus serotypes have not been compared. To address this question, we have analyzed simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in mice following vaccination with Ad5, Ad26, and Ad35. Our results show that although Ad5 is more immunogenic than Ad26 and Ad35, the phenotype, function, and recall potential of memory CD8(+) T cells elicited by these vectors are substantially different. Ad26 and Ad35 vectors generated CD8(+) T cells that display the phenotype and function of long-lived memory T cells, whereas Ad5 vector-elicited CD8(+) T cells are of a more terminally differentiated phenotype. In addition, hepatic memory CD8(+) T cells elicited by Ad26 and Ad35 mounted more robust recall proliferation following secondary challenge than those induced by Ad5. Furthermore, the boosting potential was higher following priming with alternative-serotype Ad vectors than with Ad5 vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens. Anamnestic CD8(+) T cell responses were further enhanced when the duration between priming and boosting was extended from 30 to 60 days. Our results demonstrate that heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens with alternative-serotype Ad vectors elicited more functional memory CD8(+) T cells than any of the regimens containing Ad5. In summary, these results suggest that alternative-serotype Ad vectors will prove useful as candidates for vaccine development against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens and also emphasize the importance of a longer rest period between prime and boost for generating optimal CD8(+) T cell immunity.
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Merck Ad5/HIV induces broad innate immune activation that predicts CD8? T-cell responses but is attenuated by preexisting Ad5 immunity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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To better understand how innate immune responses to vaccination can lead to lasting protective immunity, we used a systems approach to define immune signatures in humans over 1 wk following MRKAd5/HIV vaccination that predicted subsequent HIV-specific T-cell responses. Within 24 h, striking increases in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression associated with inflammation, IFN response, and myeloid cell trafficking occurred, and lymphocyte-specific transcripts decreased. These alterations were corroborated by marked serum inflammatory cytokine elevations and egress of circulating lymphocytes. Responses of vaccinees with preexisting adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) neutralizing antibodies were strongly attenuated, suggesting that enhanced HIV acquisition in Ad5-seropositive subgroups in the Step Study may relate to the lack of appropriate innate activation rather than to increased systemic immune activation. Importantly, patterns of chemoattractant cytokine responses at 24 h and alterations in 209 peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcripts at 72 h were predictive of subsequent induction and magnitude of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. This systems approach provides a framework to compare innate responses induced by vectors, as shown here by contrasting the more rapid, robust response to MRKAd5/HIV with that to yellow fever vaccine. When applied iteratively, the findings may permit selection of HIV vaccine candidates eliciting innate immune response profiles more likely to drive HIV protective immunity.
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Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by a recombinant adenovirus serotype 26 HIV-1 Env vaccine in healthy adults (IPCAVD 001).
J. Infect. Dis.
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Adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) has been developed as a novel candidate vaccine vector for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other pathogens. The primary safety and immunogenicity data from the Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program (IPCAVD) 001 trial, the first-in-human evaluation of a prototype Ad26 vector-based vaccine expressing clade A HIV-1 Env (Ad26.ENVA.01), are reported concurrently with this article. Here, we characterize in greater detail the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by Ad26.ENVA.01 in humans.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.