Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and synaptic dysfunction in particular brain regions. Here we show that aged C57BL/6J wild-type mice have hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairments. To identify the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to these memory deficits, we investigated the temporal profile of mouse hippocampal synaptic proteome changes at 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 weeks of age. Extracellular matrix proteins were the only group of proteins that showed robust and progressive up-regulation over time. This was confirmed by immunoblotting and histochemical analysis, which indicated that the increased levels of hippocampal extracellular matrix might limit synaptic plasticity as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. In addition, we observed that stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increased with age, in particular for proteins that were previously linked with various neurodegenerative diseases, whereas low variance in expression was observed for proteins that play a basal role in neuronal function and synaptic neurotransmission. Together, our findings show that both specific changes and increased variance in synaptic protein expression are associated with aging and may underlie reduced synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive performance in old age.
Tomosyn-1 (STXBP5) is a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex-binding protein that inhibits vesicle fusion, but the role of tomosyn-2 (STXBP5L) in the mammalian nervous system is still unclear. Here we generated tomosyn-2 null (Tom2(KO/KO)) mice, which showed impaired motor performance. This was accompanied by synaptic changes at the neuromuscular junction, including enhanced spontaneous acetylcholine release frequency and faster depression of muscle motor endplate potentials during repetitive stimulation. The postsynaptic geometric arrangement and function of acetylcholine receptors were normal. We conclude that tomosyn-2 supports motor performance by regulation of transmitter release willingness to sustain synaptic strength during high-frequency transmission, which makes this gene a candidate for involvement in neuromuscular disorders.
A deficit in impulse control is a prominent, heritable symptom in several psychiatric disorders, such as addiction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Here, we aimed to identify genes regulating impulsivity, specifically of impulsive action, in mice.
Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ). Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery.
The mammalian circadian system is composed of a light-entrainable central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the brain and peripheral clocks in virtually any other tissue. It allows the organism to optimally adjust metabolic, physiological and behavioral functions to the physiological needs it will have at specific time of the day. According to the resonance theory, such rhythms are only advantageous to an organism when in tune with the environment, which is illustrated by the adverse health effects originating from chronic circadian disruption by jetlag and shift work. Using short-period Cry1 and long-period Cry2 deficient mice as models for morningness and eveningness, respectively, we explored the effect of chronotype on the phase relationship between the central SCN clock and peripheral clocks in other organs. Whereas the behavioral activity patterns and circadian gene expression in the SCN of light-entrained Cry1(-/-) and Cry2(-/-) mice largely overlapped with that of wild type mice, expression of clock and clock controlled genes in liver, kidney, small intestine, and skin was shown to be markedly phase-advanced or phase-delayed, respectively. Likewise, circadian rhythms in urinary corticosterone were shown to display a significantly altered phase relationship similar to that of gene expression in peripheral tissues. We show that the daily dissonance between peripheral clocks and the environment did not affect the lifespan of Cry1(-/-) or Cry2(-/-) mice. Nonetheless, the phase-shifted peripheral clocks in light-entrained mice with morningness and eveningness-like phenotypes may have implications for personalized preventive and therapeutic (i.e. chronomodulation-based) health care for people with early and late chronotypes.
Attentional deficits and executive function impairments are common to many neurodevelopmental disorders of intellectual disability and autism, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the knockout mouse model for FXS, significant changes in synaptic plasticity and connectivity are found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-a prominent region for attentional processing and executive control. Given these alterations in PFC synaptic function, we tested whether adult Fragile X knockout mice exhibited corresponding impairments in inhibitory control, perseveration, and sustained attention. Furthermore, we investigated individual performance during attentional rule acquisition. Using the 5-choice serial reaction time task, our results show no impairments in inhibitory control and sustained attention. Fragile X knockout mice exhibited enhanced levels of correct and incorrect responding, as well as perseveration of responding during initial phases of rule acquisition, that normalized with training. For both knockout and wild type mice, pharmacological attenuation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling did not affect response accuracy but reduced impulsive responses and increased omission errors. Upon rule reversal, Fragile X knockout mice made more correct and incorrect responses, similar to the initial phases of rule acquisition. Analogous to heightened activity upon novel rule acquisition, Fragile X knockout mice were transiently hyperactive in both a novel open field (OF) arena and novel home cage. Hyperactivity ceased with familiarization to the environment. Our findings demonstrate normal inhibitory control and sustained attention but heightened perseveration, responding, and hyperactivity during novel rule acquisition and during exposure to novel environments in Fragile X knockout mice. We therefore provide evidence for subtle but significant differences in the processing of novel stimuli in the mouse model for the FXS.
Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT) and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field (OF), and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR2) schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.
Disturbed proteostasis as a particular phenotype of the aging organism has been advanced in C. elegans experiments and is also conceived to underlie neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Here, we investigated whether particular changes in non-disease related proteostasis can be identified in the aged mammalian brain, and whether a particular signature of aberrant proteostasis is related to behavioral performance of learning and memory. Young (adult, n = 30) and aged (2 years, n = 50) Wistar rats were tested in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) to distinguish superior and inferior performers. For both young and old rats, the best and worst performers in the MWM were selected and the insoluble proteome, termed aggregome, was purified from the hippocampus as evidence for aberrant proteostasis. Quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ) was performed. The aged inferior performers were considered as a model for spontaneous, age-associated cognitive impairment. Whereas variability of the insoluble proteome increased with age, absolute changes in the levels of insoluble proteins were small compared to the findings in the whole C. elegans insoluble proteome. However, we identified proteins with aberrant proteostasis in aging. For the cognitively impaired rats, we identified a changed molecular circuitry of proteins selectively involved in F-actin remodeling, synapse building and long-term depression: actin related protein 3 (ARP3), neurabin II (NEB2) and IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein 1 (BRAG2). We demonstrate that aberrant proteostasis is a specific phenotype of brain aging in mammals. We identify a distinct molecular circuitry where changes in proteostasis are characteristic for poor learning and memory performance in the wild type, aged rat. Our findings 1. establish the search for aberrant proteostasis as a successful strategy to identify neuronal dysfunction in deficient cognitive behavior, 2. reveal a previously unknown functional network of proteins (ARP3, NEB2, BRAG2) involved in age-associated cognitive dysfunction.
The major challenge in the management of patients with an infected open abdomen (OA) is to control septic peritonitis and intra-abdominal fluid secretion, and to facilitate repeated abdominal exploration, while preserving the fascia for delayed primary closure. We here present a novel method for closure of the infected OA, based on continuous dynamic tension, in order to achieve re-approximation of the fascial edges of the abdominal wall.
More than one-third of all people are estimated to experience mild to severe cognitive impairment as they age. Acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain diminish with aging, and nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) stimulation is known to enhance cognitive performance. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in a range of cognitive functions and is thought to mediate attentional focus. We found that mice carrying nAChR ?2-subunit deletions have impaired attention performance. Efficient lentiviral vector-mediated reexpression of functional ?2-subunit-containing nAChRs in PFC neurons of the prelimbic area (PrL) completely restored the attentional deficit but did not affect impulsive and motivational behavior. Our findings show that ?2-subunit expression in the PrL PFC is sufficient for endogenous nAChR-mediated cholinergic regulation of attentional performance.
The hippocampus is critical for a wide range of emotional and cognitive behaviors. Here, we performed the first genome-wide search for genes influencing hippocampal oscillations. We measured local field potentials (LFPs) using 64-channel multi-electrode arrays in acute hippocampal slices of 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains. Spontaneous activity and carbachol-induced fast network oscillations were analyzed with spectral and cross-correlation methods and the resulting traits were used for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), i.e., regions on the genome that may influence hippocampal function. Using genome-wide hippocampal gene expression data, we narrowed the QTLs to eight candidate genes, including Plcb1, a phospholipase that is known to influence hippocampal oscillations. We also identified two genes coding for calcium channels, Cacna1b and Cacna1e, which mediate presynaptic transmitter release and have not been shown to regulate hippocampal network activity previously. Furthermore, we showed that the amplitude of the hippocampal oscillations is genetically correlated with hippocampal volume and several measures of novel environment exploration.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of hereditary mental retardation, is caused by a loss-of-function mutation of the Fmr1 gene, which encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP affects dendritic protein synthesis, thereby causing synaptic abnormalities. Here, we used a quantitative proteomics approach in an FXS mouse model to reveal changes in levels of hippocampal synapse proteins. Sixteen independent pools of Fmr1 knock-out mice and wild type mice were analyzed using two sets of 8-plex iTRAQ experiments. Of 205 proteins quantified with at least three distinct peptides in both iTRAQ series, the abundance of 23 proteins differed between Fmr1 knock-out and wild type synapses with a false discovery rate (q-value) <5%. Significant differences were confirmed by quantitative immunoblotting. A group of proteins that are known to be involved in cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth was regulated; they included Basp1 and Gap43, known PKC substrates, and Cend1. Basp1 and Gap43 are predominantly expressed in growth cones and presynaptic terminals. In line with this, ultrastructural analysis in developing hippocampal FXS synapses revealed smaller active zones with corresponding postsynaptic densities and smaller pools of clustered vesicles, indicative of immature presynaptic maturation. A second group of proteins involved in synaptic vesicle release was up-regulated in the FXS mouse model. In accordance, paired-pulse and short-term facilitation were significantly affected in these hippocampal synapses. Together, the altered regulation of presynaptically expressed proteins, immature synaptic ultrastructure, and compromised short-term plasticity points to presynaptic changes underlying glutamatergic transmission in FXS at this stage of development.
During brain development, the neocortex shows periods of enhanced plasticity, which enables the acquisition of knowledge and skills that we use and build on in adult life. Key to persistent modifications of neuronal connectivity and plasticity of the neocortex are molecular changes occurring at the synapse. Here we used isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification to measure levels of 467 synaptic proteins in a well-established model of plasticity in the mouse visual cortex and the regulation of its critical period. We found that inducing visual cortex plasticity by monocular deprivation during the critical period increased levels of kinases and proteins regulating the actin-cytoskeleton and endocytosis. Upon closure of the critical period with age, proteins associated with transmitter vesicle release and the tubulin- and septin-cytoskeletons increased, whereas actin-regulators decreased in line with augmented synapse stability and efficacy. Maintaining the visual cortex in a plastic state by dark rearing mice into adulthood only partially prevented these changes and increased levels of G-proteins and protein kinase A subunits. This suggests that in contrast to the general belief, dark rearing does not simply delay cortical development but may activate signaling pathways that specifically maintain or increase the plasticity potential of the visual cortex. Altogether, this study identified many novel candidate plasticity proteins and signaling pathways that mediate synaptic plasticity during critical developmental periods or restrict it in adulthood.
Tobacco smoking and nicotine exposure during adolescence interfere with prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and lead to cognitive impairments in later life. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of these consequences remain elusive. We found that adolescent nicotine exposure induced lasting attentional disturbances and reduced mGluR2 protein and function on presynaptic terminals of PFC glutamatergic synapses. Restoring mGluR2 activity in vivo by local infusion of a group II mGluR agonist in adult rats that received nicotine as adolescents rescued attentional disturbances.
Successful treatment of drug addiction is hampered by high relapse rates during periods of abstinence. Neuroadaptation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to have a crucial role in vulnerability to relapse to drug seeking, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain largely unknown. To identify protein changes that contribute to relapse susceptibility, we investigated synaptic membrane fractions from the mPFC of rats that underwent 21 days of forced abstinence following heroin self-administration. Quantitative proteomics revealed that long-term abstinence from heroin self-administration was associated with reduced levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. After extinction of heroin self-administration, downregulation of ECM proteins was also present in the mPFC, as well as nucleus accumbens (NAc), and these adaptations were partially restored following cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. In the mPFC, these ECM proteins are condensed in the perineuronal nets that exclusively surround GABAergic interneurons, indicating that ECM adaptation might alter the activity of GABAergic interneurons. In support of this, we observed an increase in the inhibitory GABAergic synaptic inputs received by the mPFC pyramidal cells after the re-exposure to heroin-conditioned cues. Recovering levels of ECM constituents by metalloproteinase inhibitor treatment (FN-439; i.c.v.) prior to a reinstatement test attenuated subsequent heroin seeking, suggesting that the reduced synaptic ECM levels during heroin abstinence enhanced sensitivity to respond to heroin-conditioned cues. We provide evidence for a novel neuroadaptive mechanism, in which heroin self-administration-induced adaptation of the ECM increased relapse vulnerability, potentially by augmenting the responsivity of mPFC GABAergic interneurons to heroin-associated stimuli.
Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the alpha1A pore-forming subunit of Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channels. Knock-in (KI) transgenic mice expressing Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channels with a human pathogenic FHM1 mutation reveal enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex. In this study, we employed an iTRAQ-based LC-LC MS/MS approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in cortical synapse proteomes of Cacna1a R192Q KI and wild-type mice. All expression differences determined were subtle and in the range of 10-30%. Observed upregulated proteins in the mutant mice are involved in processes, such as neurite outgrowth and actin dynamics, vesicle turnover, and glutamate transporters. Our data support the view that in Cacna1a R192Q KI mice, several compensatory mechanisms counterbalancing a dysregulated glutamatergic signaling have come into effect. We propose that such adaptation mechanisms at the synapse level may play a role in the pathophysiology of FHM and possibly in the common forms of migraine.
An inability to inhibit behaviors once they become maladaptive is a component of several psychiatric illnesses, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was identified as a potential mediator of behavioral inhibition. The current study tested if the mPFC is involved in inhibition of sexual behavior when associated with aversive outcomes.
Among the best-replicated and most heritable endophenotypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are deficits in attention, inhibitory response control and larger intra-individual variability in response latencies. Here, we explored the presence of these heritable ADHD endophenotypes in two commonly used inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, and investigated whether treatment with the stimulant amphetamine affected these phenotypes. Both in an operant Go/No-Go task and 5-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) task, DBA/2J mice showed reduced inhibitory response control compared with C57BL/6J mice. Mean correct response latencies of DBA/2J mice were slower in both tasks. Analysis of the distribution of correct response latencies suggested similar processing speed, but DBA/2J mice displayed larger intra-individual variability. Amphetamine did not affect inhibition in the Go/No-Go task but increased omission errors. In contrast, in the 5-CSRT task, amphetamine did not affect omission errors but impaired inhibitory response control, specifically in C57BL/6J mice. The dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR 12909, mimicked this effect and decreased accurate choice, specifically in C57BL/6J mice, indicating that dopamine modulates inhibitory response control and attention in the murine 5-CSRT task. Amphetamine did not affect response distributions in either task. Furthermore, we extended previous reports on differences in the brain dopamine system of DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, by showing differential gene expression levels of three dopamine receptors (Drd1, Drd4 and Drd5) in the mPFC. In conclusion, genetic differences between DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice translate into multiple ADHD-related phenotypes, indicating that these strains are valuable resources to understand genetic mechanisms underlying ADHD-relevant phenotypes.
A neuropsychological hallmark of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the reduced ability to tolerate delay of reinforcement, leading to impulsive choice. Genetic association studies have implicated several genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD. In this study, we investigated whether differences in the expression level of these dopamine-related genes of rats predict the individual level of impulsive choice. Among all frontostriatal brain regions tested, only in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), we observed significant positive correlations between impulsive choice and transcript levels of the dopamine receptor D(1), the dopamine receptor D(5) and calcyon. Local mPFC infusions of the D(1)/D(5) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 and agonist SKF 38393 resulted in increased impulsive choice, in agreement with the idea that endogenous receptor D(1)/D(5) stimulation in the mPFC promotes the choice of large delayed rewards. Together, these data indicate that this class of dopamine receptors in the mPFC plays a pivotal role in impulsive choice, and aberrancies thereof might contribute to ADHD symptomatology.
Malignant gliomas (glioblastoma multiforme) have a poor prognosis with an average patient survival under current treatment regimens ranging between 12 and 14 months. The tumors are characterized by rapid cell growth, extensive neovascularization, and diffuse cellular infiltration of normal brain structures. We have developed a human glioblastoma xenograft model in nude rats that is characterized by a highly infiltrative non-angiogenic phenotype. Upon serial transplantation this phenotype will develop into a highly angiogenic tumor. Thus, we have developed an animal model where we are able to establish two characteristic tumor phenotypes that define human glioblastoma (i.e. diffuse infiltration and high neovascularization). Here we aimed at identifying potential biomarkers expressed by the non-angiogenic and the angiogenic phenotypes and elucidating the molecular pathways involved in the switch from invasive to angiogenic growth. Focusing on membrane-associated proteins, we profiled protein expression during the progression from an invasive to an angiogenic phenotype by analyzing serially transplanted glioma xenografts in rats. Applying isobaric peptide tagging chemistry (iTRAQ) combined with two-dimensional LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, we were able to identify several thousand proteins in membrane-enriched fractions of which 1460 were extracted as quantifiable proteins (isoform- and species-specific and present in more than one sample). Known and novel candidate proteins were identified that characterize the switch from a non-angiogenic to a highly angiogenic phenotype. The robustness of the data was corroborated by extensive bioinformatics analysis and by validation of selected proteins on tissue microarrays from xenograft and clinical gliomas. The data point to enhanced intercellular cross-talk and metabolic activity adopted by tumor cells in the angiogenic compared with the non-angiogenic phenotype. In conclusion, we describe molecular profiles that reflect the change from an invasive to an angiogenic brain tumor phenotype. The identified proteins could be further exploited as biomarkers or therapeutic targets for malignant gliomas.
Groin hernia repair occasionally leads to severe chronic pain associated with entrapped or damaged nerves. Conservative treatment is often unsuccessful. Selective neurectomy may be effective, but long-term results are scarce. The authors assessed the long-term efficacy of surgical neurectomy for chronic, postherniorrhaphy groin neuralgia.
Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a protein that participates in the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis through the formation of the soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex and modulates voltage-gated calcium channels activity. The Snap25 gene has been associated with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and bipolar disorder, and lower levels of SNAP-25 have been described in patients with schizophrenia. We used SNAP-25 heterozygous (SNAP-25(+/-)) mice to investigate at which extent the reduction of the protein levels affects neuronal network function and mouse behavior. As interactions of genotype with the specific laboratory conditions may impact behavioral results, the study was performed through a multilaboratory study in which behavioral tests were replicated in at least 2 of 3 distinct European laboratories. Reductions of SNAP-25 levels were associated with a moderate hyperactivity, which disappeared in the adult animals, and with impaired associative learning and memory. Electroencephalographic recordings revealed the occurrence of frequent spikes, suggesting a diffuse network hyperexcitability. Consistently, SNAP-25(+/-) mice displayed higher susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures, paralleled by degeneration of hilar neurons. Notably, both EEG profile and cognitive defects were improved by antiepileptic drugs. These results indicate that reduction of SNAP-25 expression is associated to generation of epileptiform discharges and cognitive dysfunctions, which can be effectively treated by antiepileptic drugs.
The mammalian CNS is considered to be autonomous in lipid metabolism. Glial cells, in particular astrocytes, have been shown to be highly active in lipid synthesis and secretion. To determine the importance of astrocytes as lipid providers in the brain, we generated mice in which the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) was deleted from astrocytes using cre/lox technology. SCAP mutant mice showed microcephaly, without effects on astrocyte survival. SCAP deletion in astrocytes led to a loss of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis pathways. SCAP mutants showed progressive motor deficits, dyskinesia, and reduced anxiety. Interestingly, SCAP mutants showed changes in brain sterol and fatty acid profiles that were concordant with reduced lipid synthesis as well as with increased uptake of dietary lipids. Accordingly, a high-fat diet rich in cholesterol and monounsaturated fatty acids, but not a fish oil diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, improved motor deficits and survival of the mutant mice. These observations establish a critical role for astrocytes in brain lipid metabolism and demonstrate that dietary lipids can rescue astrocyte-mediated lipid deficiency. The ability to correct these neurological deficits suggests that lipid supplementation may serve as a treatment for brain disorders associated with defective astrocyte lipid synthesis.
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