RT-PCR evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype O from 2006 to 2007 in Punjab, Pakistan.
FMD clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by RT-PCR for the diagnosis of FMD with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in Punjab, Pakistan. Universal primer pair P1/P2 from VP1 gene detected FMD in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1F/1R from 5UTR region detected FMD in 218 out of 250 (87.2%) tissues and 142 out of 175 (81.1%) secretion samples. 1F/1R proved better than the P1/P2 primer pair for primary diagnosis of FMD, direct from the clinical positive samples. Direct sequencing of the universal primer pair P1/P2 revealed that O serotype of FMD was circulating in this region. O serotype of FMD was detected with O-1C(ARS4)/PNK 61, AU(O)/AU(rev), AU(O)/PNK61 primer pairs, these primer pairs also compared with each other. AU(O)/AU(rev) and AU(O)/PNK61 detected O serotype of FMD in 88.9% tissue and swab (mouth and hoof vesicle swabs) samples and 71.9% different secretion (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) samples, while O-1C(ARS4)/PNK 61 detected 48.1% tissue and swab (mouth and hoof vesicle swabs) samples and 37.5% different secretion (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) samples. AU(O)/AU(rev), AU(O)/PNK61 primer pairs detected 40.8% more tissue and swab samples, while these pairs detected 34.4% more secretion samples. Cloning of PCR product of AU(O)/AU(rev) VP1 gene and sequencing for phylogenetic studies revealed that O serotype of FMD circulating in Punjab, Pakistan was genetically very diverse from the O serotype in Middle East and Europe. The dendrogram showed that Pakistan O serotype was very much similar genetically to its neighbor countries (Sri Lanka, India, Iran, Iraq, and China) and PanAsia 1 lineage which caused 2001-outbreak in UK and 1994-outbreak in Saudi Arabia, etc.