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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In vitro toxicological assessment of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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ABSTRACT Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have a variety of applications in different industries including pharmaceutical industry where these NPs are used mainly for image analysis and drug delivery. The increasing interest in nanotechnology is largely associated with undefined risks to the human health and to the environment. Therefore, in the present study cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles were evaluated using most commonly used assays i.e. Ames assay, in vitro cytotoxicity assay, micronucleus assay and comet assay. Cytotoxicity to bacterial cells was assessed in terms of colony forming units by using Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive). Ames assay was carried out using two bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Genotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated following exposure to monkey kidney cell line, CHS-20. No cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were observed for iron oxide, and aluminium oxide NPs. Copper NPs were found mutagenic in TA98 and in TA100 and also found cytotoxic in dose dependent manner. Copper NPs induced significant (p?
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Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates.
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Can single incision laproscopic cholecystectomy replace the traditional four port laproscopic approach: a review.
Glob J Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The major aim of surgeons has always been a minimalist approach towards surgery, thereby reducing the complications associated with the surgery. The gold standard treatment for cholelithiasis with cholecystitis is currently the four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4 PLC). Recently, a newer technique has been introduced which uses a single port, rather than the four ports, for the removal of the gall bladder laparoscopically; it is known as Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC). This is a comparatively minimal approach towards surgery. Therefore the purpose of this review is to compare the advantages and the disadvantages of SILC versus 4PLC, and hence, to give an idea of whether SILC is ready to replace the traditional approach as the new treatment of choice.
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Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system.
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Crystallographic and glycan microarray analysis of human polyomavirus 9 VP1 identifies N-glycolyl neuraminic acid as a receptor candidate.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) is a closely related homologue of simian B-lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPyV). In order to define the architecture and receptor binding properties of HPyV9, we solved high-resolution crystal structures of its major capsid protein, VP1, in complex with three putative oligosaccharide receptors identified by glycan microarray screening. Comparison of the properties of HPyV9 VP1 with the known structure and glycan-binding properties of LPyV VP1 revealed that both viruses engage short sialylated oligosaccharides, but small yet important differences in specificity were detected. Surprisingly, HPyV9 VP1 preferentially binds sialyllactosamine compounds terminating in 5-N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) over those terminating in 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), whereas LPyV does not exhibit such a preference. The structural analysis demonstrated that HPyV9 makes specific contacts, via hydrogen bonds, with the extra hydroxyl group present in Neu5Gc. An equivalent hydrogen bond cannot be formed by LPyV VP1.
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Genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Labeo rohita using Alkaline Single-cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Chlorpyrifos is a widely used insecticide of organophosphate group, which causes severe toxicological effects in non target aquatic organisms especially in fish. In the present study the genotoxic effects of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos were observed in the erythrocytes and gill cells of Labeo rohita (commonly known as rohu) using the Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the behavior of the fish were also investigated. The 96?h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos, estimated by Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) in static bioassay, was found to be 442.8?µg/L. On the basis of LC50 value, the fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (SL-I ?221.4?µg/L, SL- II ?110.7?µg/L and SL-III ?73.8?µg/L) for 96?h. Blood and gill samples were collected at every 24?h and were subjected to the Comet assay. The observed DNA damage was concentration dependent and time dependent and those levels of DNA damage in between the tested concentrations and times were significantly different (p?
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Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC).
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with ?-2 microglobulin (?-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and ?-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to ?-2MG level in saliva.
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Recombinant expression and characterization of a novel endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The goal of this work was to produce high levels of endoglucanase in Escherichia coli for its potential usage in different industrial applications. Endoglucanase gene was amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus subtilis JS2004 by PCR. The isolated putative endoglucanase gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1,701 nucleotides and encoded a protein of 567 amino acids with a molecular mass of 63-kDa. The gene was cloned into pET-28a(+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant endoglucanase were 50 °C and 9, respectively which makes it very attractive for using in bio-bleaching and pulp industry. It had a K M of 1.76 ?mol and V max 0.20 ?mol/min with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The activity of recombinant endoglucanse was enhanced by Mg2+, Ca2+, isopropanol and Tween 20 and inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and SDS. The activity of this recombinant endoglucanase was significantly higher than wild type. Therefore, this recombinant enzyme has potential for many industrial applications involving biomass conversions, due to characteristic of broad pH and higher temperature stability.
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Giant cell tumour of proximal radius in a 48 years old lady.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Giant cell tumour is a locally aggressive tumour of long-bones of epiphyseal region commonly occurring in adults aged 20-40 years. Most common location is distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. Different treatment options being used are curettage with bone graft or bone cement, resection with arthrodesis, reconstruction, radiation and chemotherapy. We are reporting a case of giant cell tumour of proximal radius in a 48 years old lady. It is very rare and only 4 cases have been reported in literature. It was treated by wide margin resection without reconstruction.
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Dysregulation of PTEN in cardiopulmonary vascular remodeling induced by pulmonary hypertension.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disorder of lung vasculature characterized by arterial narrowing. Phosphatase-and-tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN), associated in the progression of multiple cancers, is implicated in arterial remodeling. However, the involvement of PTEN in PH remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of PTEN in pulmonary vascular remodeling using established models of PH. The study used rat models of PH, induced by monocrotaline (MCT) administration (60 mg/kg) or continuous hypoxic exposure (10% oxygen) for 3 weeks. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were used for in vitro confirmation. Development of PH was verified by hemodynamic, morphological and histopathology analyses. PTEN and key downstream proteins in pulmonary and cardiac tissues were analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR. PTEN was significantly decreased (MCT, 53%; Hypoxia, 40%), pAkt was significantly increased (MCT, 42%; Hypoxia, 55%) in tissues of rats with PH. Similar results were observed in SMCs exposed to hypoxia (1% oxygen) for 48 h. Ubiquitination assay showed that PTEN degradation occurs via proteasomal degradation pathway. Western blotting demonstrated a significant downregulation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p27, and upregulation of cyclin-D1 in the lungs of both models. The results showed that PTEN-mediated modulation of PI3K pathway was independent of the focal adhesion kinase and fatty acid synthase. The study, for the first time, established that PTEN plays a key role in the progression of pulmonary hypertension. The findings may have potential for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension using PTEN as a target.
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Intermittent Hypoxia Exacerbates Pancreatic ?-Cell Dysfunction in A Mouse Model of Diabetes Mellitus.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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The effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on pancreatic function in the presence of diabetes and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that IH would exacerbate pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and alter the fatty acids in the male Tallyho/JngJ (TH) mouse, a rodent model of type 2 diabetes.
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Structures of B-lymphotropic polyomavirus VP1 in complex with oligosaccharide ligands.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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B-Lymphotropic Polyomavirus (LPyV) serves as a paradigm of virus receptor binding and tropism, and is the closest relative of the recently discovered Human Polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9). LPyV infection depends on sialic acid on host cells, but the molecular interactions underlying LPyV-receptor binding were unknown. We find by glycan array screening that LPyV specifically recognizes a linear carbohydrate motif that contains ?2,3-linked sialic acid. High-resolution crystal structures of the LPyV capsid protein VP1 alone and in complex with the trisaccharide ligands 3-sialyllactose and 3-sialyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine (3SL and 3SLN, respectively) show essentially identical interactions. Most contacts are contributed by the sialic acid moiety, which is almost entirely buried in a narrow, preformed cleft at the outer surface of the capsid. The recessed nature of the binding site on VP1 and the nature of the observed glycan interactions differ from those of related polyomaviruses and most other sialic acid-binding viruses, which bind sialic acid in shallow, more exposed grooves. Despite their different modes for recognition, the sialic acid binding sites of LPyV and SV40 are half-conserved, hinting at an evolutionary strategy for diversification of binding sites. Our analysis provides a structural basis for the observed specificity of LPyV for linear glycan motifs terminating in ?2,3-linked sialic acid, and links the different tropisms of known LPyV strains to the receptor binding site. It also serves as a useful template for understanding the ligand-binding properties and serological crossreactivity of HPyV9.
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Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 ?g/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high.
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p53s choice of myocardial death or survival: Oxygen protects infarct myocardium by recruiting p53 on NOS3 promoter through regulation of p53-Lys(118) acetylation.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Myocardial infarction, an irreversible cardiac tissue damage, involves progressive loss of cardiomyocytes due to p53-mediated apoptosis. Oxygenation is known to promote cardiac survival through activation of NOS3 gene. We hypothesized a dual role for p53, which, depending on oxygenation, can elicit apoptotic death signals or NOS3-mediated survival signals in the infarct heart. p53 exhibited a differential DNA-binding, namely, BAX-p53RE in the infarct heart or NOS3-p53RE in the oxygenated heart, which was regulated by oxygen-induced, post-translational modification of p53. In the infarct heart, p53 was heavily acetylated at Lys(118) residue, which was exclusively reversed in the oxygenated heart, apparently regulated by oxygen-dependent expression of TIP60. The inhibition of Lys(118) acetylation promoted the generation of NOS3-promoting prosurvival form of p53. Thus, oxygenation switches p53-DNA interaction by regulating p53 core-domain acetylation, promoting a prosurvival transcription activity of p53. Understanding this novel oxygen-p53 survival pathway will open new avenues in cardioprotection molecular therapy.
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Total hip arthroplasty in a 6-month-old acetabulum fracture-dislocation of the hip: an 8-year follow-up.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Old unreduced acetabulum fracture-dislocation is common in developing countries due to various factors. Different options including arthrodesis, Girdlestone arthroplasty and total hip replacement (THR) are used for its treatment. THR with reconstruction of the acetabulum is recommended, but not much work has been reported so far in our country. Till date, arthrodesis in youngsters and resection arthroplasty in the elders has been the treatment of choice.THR, however, is being done by a few, but the experience has not been published. We are reporting a case of a middle-aged woman, who had a 6-month-old acetabulum dislocation of the hip with fracture of the posterior wall of the acetabulum. It was treated by THR and acetabulum reconstruction and had good functional result 8 years after the surgery.
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Effect of pulmonary-generated reactive oxygen species on left-ventricular dysfunction associated with cardio-pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the contribution of pulmonary-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cardiac dysfunction using a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Three groups of rats were subjected to regional IR injury in (i) lung, (ii) heart, (iii) lung + heart. A fourth (control) group of rats were instrumented using the same methods but without induction IR. Hemodynamic data were recorded in real time. Blood from the proximal aorta was sampled during baseline, ischemia, and reperfusion, mixed with ?-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) for measuring ROS by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance. The results showed that the lung IR generated an increased burst of ROS that resulted in significant cardiac dysfunction, including hypotension and ECG changes. The results indicated that generation of ROS as a result of acute IR lung injury may be sufficiently large enough to cause direct cardiac dysfunction that is independent of injury caused to the myocardium as a result of regional myocardial IR injury alone.
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Emerging role of oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases: important role of Rac/NADPH oxidase.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Oxidative stress is a term defining states of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Normally, ROS control several physiological processes, such as host defence, biosynthesis of hormones, fertilization and cellular signalling. However, oxidative stress has been involved in different pathologies, including metabolic syndrome and numerous cardiovascular diseases. A major source of ROS involved in both metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular pathophysiology is the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes. NOX is a multi-component enzyme complex that consists of membrane-bound cytochrome b-558, which is a heterodimer of gp91phox and p22phox, cytosolic regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox, and the small GTP-binding protein Rac1. Rac1 plays many important biological functions in cells, but perhaps the most unique function of Rac1 is its ability to bind and activate the NOX complex. Furthermore, Rac1 has been reported to be a key regulator of oxidative stress through its co-regulatory effects on both nitric oxide (NO) synthase and NOX. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to give a brief outline about the important role of the Rac1-NOX axis in the pathophysiology of both metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
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Identification of etiological agents by LPA and PCR in childhood meningitis.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Objectives: To determine the etiological agents by Latex Particle Agglutination (LPA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in patients admitted with Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) culture negative bacterial meningitis Methods: This descriptive case series was conducted at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi from January 2010 to December 2012. Patients meeting the WHO case definition of suspected meningitis from one month to 59 months of age were included in the study. CSF examination and culture was carried out on every patient and CSF culture negative patients were enrolled. Demographic data, clinical signs & symptoms and laboratory findings were entered into the proforma. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17. P-value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: A total of 166 patients were included. Male were 96 and female were 76 with the male to female ratio of 1.26. The mean age of patient was ± SD 14.6 ± 14.5 months. The etiological agents identified by LPA were in 26/166 (15.66%) cases and the organisms were H. influenzae type b 10 cases, streptococcus pneumoniae 15 cases and meningococcus only one case respectively. The organisms identified by PCR were in 65/166 (39.15%) cases and the isolates were H. influenzae type b 16 cases, streptococcus pneumoniae 48 cases and meningococcus 01 case respectively. Conclusion: LPA and PCR are superior and useful diagnostic tools in microbiology. They can be used for rapid etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis for the early administration of proper antibiotic. Abbreviation: LPA = Latex Particle Agglutination, PCR = Polymerase Chain Reaction, CSF = Cerebrospinal Fluid, CNS = Central Nervous System.
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Noninvasive monitoring of small intestinal oxygen in a rat model of chronic mesenteric ischemia.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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We noninvasively monitored the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in rats small intestine using a model of chronic mesenteric ischemia by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry over a 7-day period. The particulate probe lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) was embedded into the oxygen permeable material polydimethyl siloxane by cast-molding and polymerization (Oxy-Chip). A one-time surgical procedure was performed to place the Oxy-Chip on the outer wall of the small intestine (SI). The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was banded to ~30% of blood flow for experimental rats. Noninvasive measurement of pO2 was performed at the baseline for control rats or immediate post-banding and on days 1, 3, and 7. The SI pO2 for control rats remained stable over the 7-day period. The pO2 on day-7 was 54.5 ± 0.9 mmHg (mean ± SE). SMA-banded rats were significantly different from controls with a noted reduction in pO2 post banding with a progressive decline to a final pO2 of 20.9 ± 4.5 mmHg (mean ± SE; p = 0.02). All SMA-banded rats developed adhesions around the Oxy-Chip, yet remained asymptomatic. The hypoxia marker Hypoxyprobe™ was used to validate the low tissue pO2. Brown cytoplasmic staining was consistent with hypoxia. Mild brown staining was noted predominantly on the villus tips in control animals. SMA-banded rats had an extended region of hypoxic involvement in the villus with a higher intensity of cytoplasmic staining. Deep brown stainings of the enteric nervous system neurons and connective tissue both within layers and in the mesentery were noted. SMA-banded rats with lower pO2 values had a higher intensity of staining. Thus, monitoring SI pO2 using the probe Oxy-Chip provides a valid measure of tissue oxygenation. Tracking pO2 in conditions that produce chronic mesenteric ischemia will contribute to our understanding of intestinal tissue oxygenation and how changes impact symptom evolution and the trajectory of chronic disease.
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Sivelestat attenuates myocardial reperfusion injury during brief low flow postischemic infusion.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The neutrophil elastase inhibitor sivelestat (ONO-5046) possesses unknown mechanisms of cardioprotection when infused following global ischemia, even in the absence of neutrophils. Since myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is strongly associated with endothelial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during reperfusion, we have tested the hypothesis that infusion of sivelestat during postischemic low flow would preserve endothelial and contractile function and reduce infarct size through an ROS-mediated mechanism. Isolated male rat hearts, subjected to global ischemia of 25 minutes, were reperfused with low flow with or without sivelestat followed by a full flow reperfusion. Hearts treated with sivelestat showed a significant improvement of LV contractile function and a reduction in infarct size. Infusion of L-NAME (nonspecific blocker of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)) along with sivelestat during reperfusion reversed the preservation of contractile function and infarct size. In vitro EPR spin trapping experiments showed that sivelestat treatment decreased superoxide adduct formation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Similarly, dihydroethidine (DHE) staining showed decreased superoxide production in LV sections from sivelestat-treated hearts. Taken together, these results indicate that sivelestat infusion during postischemic low flow reduces infarct size and preserves vasoreactivity in association with decreased ROS formation and the preservation of nitric oxide.
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Myocardial Rac1 exhibits partial involvement in thyroxin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and its inhibition is not sufficient to improve cardiac dysfunction or contractile abnormalities in mouse papillary muscles.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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: Development of cardiac hypertrophy after thyroxin (T4) treatment is well recognized. Recently, we observed that T4-induced cardiac hypertrophy is associated with increased cardiac Rac1 expression and activity. Whether this Rac1 increase has a role in inducing this cardiac phenotype is, however, still unknown. Here, we showed that T4 treatment (500 µg/kg/d) for 2 weeks resulted in increased myocardial Rac1 activity with subsequent hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in vivo. Isolated right ventricular papillary muscles of T4-treated mice maintained their peak isometric active developed tension but exhibited significant decreases in their corresponding time to peak and in relaxation times. Positive inotropic responses to increasing pacing rate and ?-adrenergic stimulation were also depressed in these muscles. Pravastatin (10 mg/kg/d), a Rac1 inhibitor, significantly decreased myocardial Rac1 activity, hypertension, and cardiomyocyte size in T4-treated mice but could not attenuate gross heart weight or functional cardiac changes in these mice. Our data showed that T4 could activate different signaling pathways with distinct cardiovascular outcomes. We also provide the first mechanistic evidence for the partial involvement of Rac1 activation in T4-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and reveal a putative role for Rac1 in the development of T4-induced hypertension.
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Germinal center B cells govern their own fate via antibody feedback.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Affinity maturation of B cells in germinal centers (GCs) is a process of evolution, involving random mutation of immunoglobulin genes followed by natural selection by T cells. Only B cells that have acquired antigen are able to interact with T cells. Antigen acquisition is dependent on the interaction of B cells with immune complexes inside GCs. It is not clear how efficient selection of B cells is maintained while their affinity matures. Here we show that the B cells own secreted products, antibodies, regulate GC selection by limiting antigen access. By manipulating the GC response with monoclonal antibodies of defined affinities, we show that antibodies in GCs are in affinity-dependent equilibrium with antibodies produced outside and that restriction of antigen access influences B cell selection, seen as variations in apoptosis, plasma cell output, T cell interaction, and antibody affinity. Feedback through antibodies produced by GC-derived plasma cells can explain how GCs maintain an adequate directional selection pressure over a large range of affinities throughout the course of an immune response, accelerating the emergence of B cells of highest affinities. Furthermore, this mechanism may explain how spatially separated GCs communicate and how the GC reaction terminates.
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Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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To determine the success rate of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for treating obstructive hydrocephalus.
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Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left-heart failure involves peroxynitrite-induced downregulation of PTEN in the lung.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) that occurs after left-heart failure (LHF), classified as Group 2 PH, involves progressive pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. However, mechanisms involved in the activation of SMCs remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of peroxynitrite and phosphatase-and-tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in vascular SMC proliferation and remodeling in the LHF-induced PH (LHF-PH). LHF was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in rats for 4 weeks. MRI, ultrasound, and hemodynamic measurements were performed to confirm LHF and PH. Histopathology, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to identify key molecular signatures. Therapeutic intervention was demonstrated using an antiproliferative compound, HO-3867. LHF-PH was confirmed by significant elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (mean pulmonary artery pressure/mm Hg: 35.9±1.8 versus 14.8±2.0, control; P<0.001) and vascular remodeling. HO-3867 treatment decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure to 22.6±0.8 mm Hg (P<0.001). Substantially higher levels of peroxynitrite and significant loss of PTEN expression were observed in the lungs of LHF rats when compared with control. In vitro studies using human pulmonary artery SMCs implicated peroxynitrite-mediated downregulation of PTEN expression as a key mechanism of SMC proliferation. The results further established that HO-3867 attenuated LHF-PH by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing PTEN expression in the lung. In conclusion, peroxynitrite and peroxynitrite-mediated PTEN inactivation seem to be key mediators of lung microvascular remodeling associated with PH secondary to LHF.
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Oxygen cycling in conjunction with stem cell transplantation induces NOS3 expression leading to attenuation of fibrosis and improved cardiac function.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with irreversible loss of viable cardiomyocytes. Cell therapy is a potential option to replace the lost cardiomyocytes and restore cardiac function. However, cell therapy is faced with a number of challenges, including survival of the transplanted cells in the infarct region, which is characterized by abundant levels of oxidants and lack of a pro-survival support mechanism. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental oxygenation on cell engraftment and functional recovery in a rat model.
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Amelioration of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by an anticancer-antioxidant dual-function compound, HO-3867.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Doxorubicin (DOX) is a drug commonly used for the treatment of cancer. The development of resistance to DOX is common, and high cumulative doses cause potentially lethal cardiac side effects. HO-3867 (3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzylidene)-1-[(2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1-hydroxy-pyrrol-3-yl)methyl]piperidin-4-one), a synthetic curcumin analog, has been shown to exhibit both anticancer and cardioprotective effects. However, its cardioprotection in the setting of a conventional cancer therapy has not been established. This work investigated the use of HO-3867 and DOX to achieve a complementary outcome, i.e., increased toxicity toward cancer cells, and reduced cardiac toxicity. Combination treatment was investigated using DOX-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells [MCF-7 multidrug-resistant (MDR)] and BALB/c mice. Lower doses of HO-3867 and DOX (5 and 2.5 ?M, respectively) reduced viability of MCF-7 MDR cells to an extent significantly greater than that when either drug was used alone, an effect equivalent to that induced by exposure to 50 ?M DOX. In normal cardiac cells, the loss of viability from combination treatment was significantly lower than that induced by 50 ?M DOX. Increases in apoptotic markers, e.g., cleaved caspase-3, and decreases in fatty acid synthase and pAkt expressions were observed by Western blotting. Mice treated with both HO-3867 and DOX showed significant improvement in cardiac functional parameters compared with mice treated with DOX alone. Reduced expression of Bcl-2 and pAkt was observed in mice treated with DOX alone, whereas mice given combination treatment showed levels similar to control. The study indicates that combination treatment of HO-3867 and DOX is a viable option for treatment of cancer with reduced cardiotoxic side effects.
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Abrogation of CD30 and OX40 signals prevents autoimmune disease in FoxP3-deficient mice.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Our previous studies have implicated signaling through the tumor necrosis family receptors OX40 and CD30 as critical for maintaining CD4 memory responses. We show that signals through both molecules are also required for CD4 effector-mediated autoimmune tissue damage. Under normal circumstances, male mice deficient in the forkhead transcription factor FoxP3, which lack regulatory CD4 T cells, develop lethal autoimmune disease in the first few weeks of life. However, in the combined absence of OX40 and CD30, FoxP3-deficient mice develop normally and breed successfully. The extensive tissue infiltration and organ destruction characteristic of FoxP3 disease does not appear in these mice, and their mortality is not associated with autoimmunity. Although the absence of OX40 plays the dominant role, FoxP3-deficient mice sufficient in CD30 but deficient in OX40 signals still eventually develop lethal disease. This result was supported by the observation that blocking antibodies to OX40 and CD30 ligands also abrogated disease mediated by FoxP3-deficient T cells. These observations identify OX40 and CD30 signals as essential for the development of clinically relevant CD4-dependent autoimmunity and suggest that combination therapies that abrogate these signals might be used to treat established human autoimmune diseases.
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CD31 is required on CD4+ T cells to promote T cell survival during Salmonella infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Hematopoietic cells constitutively express CD31/PECAM1, a signaling adhesion receptor associated with controlling responses to inflammatory stimuli. Although expressed on CD4(+) T cells, its function on these cells is unclear. To address this, we have used a model of systemic Salmonella infection that induces high levels of T cell activation and depends on CD4(+) T cells for resolution. Infection of CD31-deficient (CD31KO) mice demonstrates that these mice fail to control infection effectively. During infection, CD31KO mice have diminished numbers of total CD4(+) T cells and IFN-?-secreting Th1 cells. This is despite a higher proportion of CD31KO CD4(+) T cells exhibiting an activated phenotype and an undiminished capacity to prime normally and polarize to Th1. Reduced numbers of T cells reflected the increased propensity of naive and activated CD31KO T cells to undergo apoptosis postinfection compared with wild-type T cells. Using adoptive transfer experiments, we show that loss of CD31 on CD4(+) T cells alone is sufficient to account for the defective CD31KO T cell accumulation. These data are consistent with CD31 helping to control T cell activation, because in its absence, T cells have a greater propensity to become activated, resulting in increased susceptibility to become apoptotic. The impact of CD31 loss on T cell homeostasis becomes most pronounced during severe, inflammatory, and immunological stresses such as those caused by systemic Salmonella infection. This identifies a novel role for CD31 in regulating CD4 T cell homeostasis.
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Myeloid-derived suppressor cell inhibition of the IFN response in tumor-bearing mice.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Our group and others have determined that immune effector cells from patients with advanced cancers exhibit reduced activation of IFN signaling pathways. We hypothesized that increases in immune regulatory cells termed myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) could interfere with the host immune response to tumors by inhibiting immune cell responsiveness to IFNs. The C26 murine adenocarcinoma model was employed to study immune function in advanced malignancy. C26-bearing mice had significantly elevated levels of GR1(+)CD11b(+) MDSC as compared with control mice, and splenocytes from tumor-bearing mice exhibited reduced phosphorylation of STAT1 (P-STAT1) on Tyr(701) in response to IFN-? or IFN-?. This inhibition was seen in splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as natural killer cells. In vitro coculture experiments revealed that MDSC inhibited the IFN responsiveness of splenocytes from normal mice. Treatment of C26-bearing mice with gemcitabine or an anti-GR1 antibody led to depletion of MDSC and restored splenocyte IFN responsiveness. Spleens from C26-bearing animals displayed elevated levels of iNOS protein and nitric oxide. In vitro treatment of splenocytes with a nitric oxide donor led to a decreased STAT1 IFN response. The elevation in nitric oxide in C26-bearing mice was associated with increased levels of nitration on STAT1. Finally, splenocytes from iNOS knockout mice bearing C26 tumors exhibited a significantly elevated IFN response as compared with control C26 tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that nitric oxide produced by MDSC can lead to reduced IFN responsiveness in immune cells.
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Cardiac remodeling caused by transgenic overexpression of a corn Rac gene.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Rac1-GTPase activation plays a key role in the development and progression of cardiac remodeling. Therefore, we engineered a transgenic mouse model by overexpressing cDNA of a constitutively active form of Zea maize Rac gene (ZmRacD) specifically in the hearts of FVB/N mice. Echocardiography and MRI analyses showed cardiac hypertrophy in old transgenic mice, as evidenced by increased left ventricular (LV) mass and LV mass-to-body weight ratio, which are associated with relative ventricular chamber dilation and systolic dysfunction. LV hypertrophy in the hearts of old transgenic mice was further confirmed by an increased heart weight-to-body weight ratio and histopathology analysis. The cardiac remodeling in old transgenic mice was coupled with increased myocardial Rac-GTPase activity (372%) and ROS production (462%). There were also increases in ?(1)-integrin (224%) and ?(1)-integrin (240%) expression. This led to the activation of hypertrophic signaling pathways, e.g., ERK1/2 (295%) and JNK (223%). Pravastatin treatment led to inhibition of Rac-GTPase activity and integrin signaling. Interestingly, activation of ZmRacD expression with thyroxin led to cardiac dilation and systolic dysfunction in adult transgenic mice within 2 wk. In conclusion, this is the first study to show the conservation of Rho/Rac proteins between plant and animal kingdoms in vivo. Additionally, ZmRacD is a novel transgenic model that gradually develops a cardiac phenotype with aging. Furthermore, the shift from cardiac hypertrophy to dilated hearts via thyroxin treatment will provide us with an excellent system to study the temporal changes in cardiac signaling from adaptive to maladaptive hypertrophy and heart failure.
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Early B blasts acquire a capacity for Ig class switch recombination that is lost as they become plasmablasts.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Rapid production of neutralizing antibody can be critical for limiting the spread of infection. Such early antibody results when B-cell blasts mature directly to plasmablasts without forming germinal centers. These extrafollicular responses can involve Ig class switch recombination (CSR), producing antibody that can readily disseminate through infected tissues. The present study identifies the differentiation stage where CSR occurs in an extrafollicular response induced by 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (NP) conjugated to Ficoll (NP-Ficoll). To do this, we took advantage of the antigen dose dependency of CSR in this response. Thus, while both 30 and 1 ?g NP-Ficoll induce plasmablasts, only the higher antigen dose induces CSR. Activation-induce cytidine deaminase (AID) is critical for CSR and in keeping with this a proportion of NP-specific B-cell blasts induced by 30 ?g NP-Ficoll express AID. None of the B blasts responding to the non-CSR-inducing 1 ?g dose of NP-Ficoll express AID. We confirmed that CSR occurs in B blasts by demonstrating the presence of rearranged heavy-chain transcripts in B blasts in the 30 ?g response. CSR in this extrafollicular response is confined to B blasts, because NP-specific plasmablasts, identified by expressing CD138 and Blimp-1, no longer express AID and cannot undergo CSR.
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MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease.
F1000 Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Rapid and accurate diagnosis of heart attacks-and the assessment of damage-are critical for improving coronary care. Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant, easily measured, and relatively stable in blood plasma. If they prove indicative of disease states, miRNAs measured from peripheral blood may be a particularly attractive source for routine clinical assessments.
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Tetrahydrobiopterin depletion and NOS2 uncoupling contribute to heart failure-induced alterations in atrial electrophysiology.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Heart failure is a common antecedent to atrial fibrillation; both heart failure and atrial fibrillation are associated with increased myocardial oxidative stress. Chronic canine heart failure reduces atrial action potential duration and atrial refractoriness. We hypothesized that inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) contributes to atrial oxidative stress and electrophysiologic alterations.
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Effect of oxygenation on stem-cell therapy for myocardial infarction.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Stem-cell transplantation to treat acute myocardial infarction (MI) is gaining importance as a minimally invasive and potent therapy to replace akinetic scar tissue by viable myocardium. Our recent studies have shown that stem-cell transplantation marginally improves myocardial oxygenation in the infarct tissue leading to improvement in cardiac function. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on myocardial oxygenation and recovery of function in MI hearts. Fisher-344 rats were subjected to MI by permanently ligating the left-anterior-descending (LAD) coronary artery. The rats were then exposed to 100% O(2) at a pressure of 2 atmospheres for 90 minutes, and the exposure was repeated for 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Adult bone-marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, 5x10? cells) were mixed with OxySpin (LiNc- BuO, oxygen sensor) and implanted in the infarct and peri-infarct regions of the heart. M-mode ultrasound echocardiography was performed at baseline and at 2 weeks post-transplantation. The myocardial pO(2) in the MSC+HBO group (16.2±2.2 mmHg) was significantly higher when compared to untreated MI (3.8±1.9 mmHg) or MSC (9.8±2.3 mmHg) groups. In addition, there was a significant improvement in cardiac function, increased vessel density, and VEGF expression in MSC+HBO group compared to MSC group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results suggested a beneficial effect of HBO administration on stem-cell therapy for MI.
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Challenges to intestinal pO? measurement using EPR.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Acute and chronic intestinal ischemia has been linked to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bowel dysfunction and more seriously, the complications of sepsis, shock and death. Advances in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry have resulted in accurate and reliable in vivo measurement of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) in solid organs (e.g., muscle, heart) [1], but has yet to be tested in thin walled organs such as intestine. Our ultimate goal is to noninvasively monitor intestinal pO(2) during acute and chronic intestinal ischemia in a rat model. A series of experiments to deliver oxygen-sensitive indicator probes to the small/large intestine by intravenous, luminal and wall injection, as well as direct placement of a solid probe against the outer intestinal wall were attempted. Only the LiNc:BuO:PDMS chip sutured to the peritoneal wall and in direct contact with the intestine allowed for noninvasive pO(2) measurement by EPR. However, the validity of site-specific intestinal pO(2) measurement could not be confirmed and the obtained pO(2) value likely reflected peritoneal cavity oxygenation. Developing methods for probe placement on or inside the intestinal wall are needed for noninvasive, site-specific intestinal pO(2) measurement by EPR to track changes during acute and chronic intestinal ischemia.
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6-(1-Adamant-yl)-3-(2-chloro-phen-yl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia-diazole.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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In the title compound, C(19)H(19)ClN(4)S, the 2-chloro-phenyl and [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b] [1,3,4]thia-diazole fragments (r.m.s. deviations of 0.015 and 0.017?Å, respectively) are oriented at a dihedral angle of 55.76?(6)°. The adamantane group exhibits extensive rotational disorder about the single C-C bond to the thia-diazole ring, which was modelled as occupying four orientations each with 0.25 occupancy. In the crystal, the chloro-phenyl rings exhibit ?-? stacking inter-actions with centroid-centroid distances of 3.9526?(18)?Å.
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Selective effects of NF-?B1 deficiency in CD4? T cells on Th2 and TFh induction by alum-precipitated protein vaccines.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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NF-?B1-dependent signaling directs the development of CD4(+) Th2 cells during allergic airway inflammation and protective responses to helminth infection. Here, we show that IL-4 and IL-13 production is NF-?B1-dependent in mouse OVA-specific CD4(+) (OTII) T cells responding to alum-precipitated OVA (alumOVA) immunization. More surprisingly, we found that NF-?B1 deficiency in OTII cells also selectively impairs their CXCR5 induction by alumOVA without affecting upregulation of BCL6, IL-21, OX40 and CXCR4 mRNA and PD-1 protein. This results in functional impairment of follicular helper T cells. Thus, fewer germinal center B cells develop in LN responses to alumOVA in T-cell-deficient mice reconstituted with NF-?B1(-/-) OTII cells as opposed to NF-?B1(+/+) OTII cells, while plasma cell numbers are comparable. Unlike CXCR5 induction in CD4(+) T cells, NF-?B1-deficient recirculating follicular B cells are shown to express normal levels of CXCR5. The selective effects of NF-?B1-deficiency on Th2 and follicular helper T cell induction do not appear to be due to altered expression of the Th2-associated transcription factors - GATA-3, c-Maf and Ikaros. Altogether, these results suggest that NF-?B1 regulates the expression of CXCR5 on CD4(+) T cells primed in vivo, and thus selectively controls the T-cell-dependent germinal center component of B-cell response to alumOVA.
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T-zone localized monocyte-derived dendritic cells promote Th1 priming to Salmonella.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Control of intracellular Salmonella infection requires Th1 priming and IFN-? production. Here, we show that efficient Th1 priming after Salmonella infection requires CD11c(+) CD11b(hi) F4/80(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). In non-infected spleens, moDCs are absent from T-cell zones (T zones) of secondary lymphoid tissues, but by 24?h post-infection moDCs are readily discernible in these sites. The accumulation of moDCs is more dependent upon bacterial viability than bacterial virulence. Kinetic studies showed that moDCs were necessary to prime but not sustain Th1 responses, while ex vivo studies showed that antigen-experienced moDCs were sufficient to induce T-cell proliferation and IFN-? production via a TNF-?-dependent mechanism. Importantly, moDCs and cDCs when co-cultured induced superior Th1 differentiation than either subset alone, and this activity was independent of TNF-?. Thus, optimal Th1 development to Salmonella requires the rapid accumulation of moDCs within T zones and their collaboration with cDCs.
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Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces a massive extrafollicular and follicular splenic B-cell response which is a high source of non-parasite-specific antibodies.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, results in parasitaemia and polyclonal lymphocyte activation. It has been reported that polyclonal B-cell activation is associated with hypergammaglobulinaemia and delayed parasite-specific antibody response. In the present study we analysed the development of a B-cell response within the different microenvironments of the spleen during acute T. cruzi infection. We observed massive germinal centre (GC) and extrafollicular (EF) responses at the peak of infection. However, the EF foci were evident since day 3 post-infection (p.i.), and, early in the infection, they mainly provided IgM. The EF foci response reached its peak at 11 days p.i. and extended from the red pulp into the periarteriolar lymphatic sheath. The GCs were detected from day 8 p.i. At the peak of parasitaemia, CD138(+) B220(+) plasma cells in EF foci, red pulp and T-cell zone expressed IgM and all the IgG isotypes. Instead of the substantial B-cell response, most of the antibodies produced by splenic cells did not target the parasite, and parasite-specific IgG isotypes could be detected in sera only after 18 days p.i. We also observed that the bone marrow of infected mice presented a strong reduction in CD138(+) B220(+) cells compared with that of normal mice. Hence, in acute infection with T. cruzi, the spleen appears to be the most important lymphoid organ that lodges plasma cells and the main producer of antibodies. The development of a B-cell response during T. cruzi infection shows features that are particular to T. cruzi and other protozoan infection but different to other infections or immunization with model antigens.
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Hypoxic preconditioning induces the expression of prosurvival and proangiogenic markers in mesenchymal stem cells.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Stem cells transplanted to the ischemic myocardium usually encounter massive cell death within a few days of therapy. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) is currently employed as a strategy to prepare stem cells for increased survival and engraftment in the heart. However, HPC of stem cells has provided varying results, supposedly due to the differences in the oxygen concentration, duration of exposure, and passage conditions. In the present study, we determined the effect of HPC on rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to 0.5% oxygen concentration for 24, 48, or 72 h. We evaluated the expression of prosurvival, proangiogenic, and functional markers such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, VEGF, phosphorylated Akt, survivin, p21, cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-7, CXCR4, and c-Met. MSCs exposed to 24-h hypoxia showed reduced apoptosis on being subjected to severe hypoxic conditions. They also had significantly higher levels of prosurvival, proangiogenic, and prodifferentiation proteins when compared with longer exposure (72 h). Cells taken directly from the cryopreserved state did not respond effectively to the 24-h HPC as those that were cultured under normoxia before HPC. Cells cultured under normoxia before HPC showed decreased apoptosis, enhanced expression of connexin-43, cardiac myosin heavy chain, and CD31. The preconditioned cells were able to differentiate into the cardiovascular lineage. The results suggest that MSCs cultured under normoxia before 24-h HPC are in a state of optimal expression of prosurvival, proangiogenic, and functional proteins that may increase the survival and engraftment in the infarct heart. These results could provide further insights into optimal preparation of MSCs which would greatly influence the effectiveness of cell therapy in vivo.
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Crataegus oxycantha extract attenuates apoptotic incidence in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating Akt and HIF-1 signaling pathways.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of Crataegus oxycantha (COC) extract in preventing ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in an in vivo rat model of acute myocardial infarction induced by a 30-minute regional ischemia followed by 72 hours of reperfusion. The COC extract [100 mg/(kg body weight)] was administered 12 hours after the surgical procedure and then at 24-hour intervals for 3 days. Animals treated with COC extract showed a significant decrease in creatine kinase activity and infarct size. At the molecular level, COC administration resulted in a significant attenuation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and upregulation of phospho-Akt and c-Raf levels in the heart. As a consequence, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-7 levels were significantly downregulated, indicating negative regulation of apoptosis by COC extract. In part with the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway, COC extract administration significantly upregulated the prolyl hydroxylase-2 level. In contrast, other proapoptotic proteins such as nuclear factor-?B, cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase levels were significantly downregulated in the COC-treated group when compared with the untreated control group. The results suggested that COC extract attenuated apoptotic incidence in the experimental myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model by regulating Akt and HIF-1 signaling pathways.
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Oxygenation inhibits ovarian tumor growth by downregulating STAT3 and cyclin-D1 expressions.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2010
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Hypoxia, which is commonly observed in many solid tumors, is a major impediment to chemo- or radiation therapy. Hypoxia is also known to overexpress/activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) leading to tumor progression as well as drug resistance. We hypothesized that increased oxygenation of the hypoxic tumor may have an inhibitory effect on STAT3 activation and hence tumor-growth inhibition. Mice containing human ovarian cancer xenograft tumor were exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO; 100% oxygen; 2 atm; 90-min duration) daily, for up to 21 days. Mice exposed to HBO showed a significant reduction in tumor volume, with no effect on body weight. STAT3 (Tyr 705) activation and cyclin-D1 protein/mRNA levels were significantly decreased up on HBO exposure. Interestingly, HBO exposure, in combination with weekly administration of cisplatin, also significantly reduced the tumor volume; however, this group of mice had drastically reduced body weight when compared to other groups. While conventional wisdom might suggest that increased oxygenation of tumors would promote tumor growth, the results of the present study indicated otherwise. Hyperoxia appears to inhibit STAT3 activation, which is a key step in the ovarian tumor progression. The study may have important implications for the treatment of ovarian cancer in the clinic.
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Ligation of CD11c during vaccination promotes germinal centre induction and robust humoral responses without adjuvant.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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In this study, we investigated the mouse dendritic cell (DC) receptor, complement receptor 4 (CR4; CD11c/CD18), as an immunotarget for triggering humoral immunity. Comparison of antibody titres generated against a panel of 13 anti-antigen-presenting cell receptor monoclonal antibodies, with or without conjugated ovalbumin (OVA), revealed uniquely rapid and robust responses following CR4 targeting, with antibody titres approaching 1 : 100 000 7 days after a single dose of antigen. Furthermore, using just 100 ng OVA conjugated to anti-CD11c Fab, we generated anti-OVA titres greater than those produced by a 100-fold higher dose of OVA in complete Freunds adjuvant at day 28. These anti-OVA antibody titres were sustained and could be boosted further with targeted OVA on day 21. Investigations to explain this vaccine potency showed that, in addition to targeting splenic DC, anti-CDl1c antibodies delivered a powerful adjuvant effect and could boost humoral immunity against OVA even when the OVA was targeted to other molecules on DC, such as major histocompatibility complex class II, CD11a and CD11b. However, interestingly, this adjuvant effect was lost if OVA was targeted to other cells such as B cells via CD21 or CD19. The adjuvant effect was mediated through a marked enhancement of both germinal centre and extrafollicular plasma cell formation in responding spleens. These results demonstrate that anti-CD11c monoclonal antibody can both target antigen and act as a powerful adjuvant for rapid and sustained antibody responses. They also point to an interesting role for CR4 on DC in triggering B cells during humoral immunity.
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Oxygen and oxygenation in stem-cell therapy for myocardial infarction.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to the cardiac tissue due to blockade of coronary artery. It is a major contributor to chronic heart disease, a leading cause of mortality in the modern world. Oxygen is required to meet the constant energy demands for heart contractility, and also plays an important role in the regulation of heart function. However, reoxygenation of the ischemic myocardium upon restoration of blood flow may lead to further injury. Controlled oxygen delivery during reperfusion has been advocated to prevent this consequence. Monitoring the myocardial oxygen concentration would play a vital role in understanding the pathological changes in the ischemic heart following myocardial infarction. During the last two decades, several new techniques have become available to monitor myocardial oxygen concentration in vivo. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry would appear to be the most promising and reliable of these techniques. EPR utilizes crystalline probes which yield a single sharp line, the width of which is highly sensitive to oxygen tension. Decreased oxygen tension results in a sharpening of the EPR spectrum, while an increase results in widening. In our recent studies, we have used EPR oximetry as a valuable tool to monitor myocardial oxygenation for several applications like ischemia-reperfusion injury, stem-cell therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The results obtained from these studies have demonstrated the importance of tissue oxygen in the application of stem-cell therapy to treat ischemic heart tissues. These results have been summarized in this review article.
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Depression and coronary heart disease.
Curr Atheroscler Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Depression and coronary heart disease (CHD) are significant contributors to the burden of disease in both developed and developing countries. Although depression seems to be a marker of increased risk after the diagnosis of CHD, it is currently unclear whether depression can be considered as an independent risk factor and whether its treatment lowers the risk. We review the data from prominent trials and recent analyses in regard to the association of depression with CHD. We also review some of the mechanisms that might contribute to this association.
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Role of heat shock factor-1 activation in the doxorubicin-induced heart failure in mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Treating cancer patients with chemotherapeutics, such as doxorubicin (Dox), cause dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure because of oxidative stress. On the other hand, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a transcription factor for heat shock proteins (Hsps), is also known to be activated in response to oxidative stress. However, the possible role of HSF-1 activation and the resultant Hsp25 in chemotherapeutic-induced heart failure has not been investigated. Using HSF-1 wild-type (HSF-1(+/+)) and knock-out (HSF-1(-/-)) mice, we tested the hypothesis that activation of HSF-1 plays a role in the development of Dox-induced heart failure. Higher levels of Hsp25 and its phosphorylated forms were found in the failing hearts of Dox-treated HSF-1(+/+) mice. More than twofold increase in Hsp25 mRNA level was found in Dox-treated hearts. Proteomic analysis showed that there is accumulation and aggregation of Hsp25 in Dox-treated failing hearts. Additionally, Hsp25 was found to coimmunoprecipitate with p53 and vice versa. Further studies indicated that the Dox-induced higher levels of Hsp25 transactivated p53 leading to higher levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, but other p53-related proteins remained unaltered. Moreover, HSF-1(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced Dox-induced heart failure and higher survival rate, and there was no change in Bax upon treating with Dox in HSF-1(-/-) mice. From these results we propose a novel mechanism for Dox-induced heart failure: increased expression of Hsp25 because of oxidant-induced activation of HSF-1 transactivates p53 to increase Bax levels, which leads to heart failure.
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Influence of transposition and insertion of additional binding domain on expression and characteristics of xylanase C of Clostridium thermocellum.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Clostridium thermocellum encodes a xylanase gene (xynC) which is the major component of its cellulosome. XynC is a multidomain enzyme comprising of a substrate binding domain at the N-terminal followed by the catalytic domain and a dockerin domain. To study the influence of binding domain on activity, stability and expression of the enzyme the protein with the binding domain at C-terminal (XynC-CB), and the one with the binding domain at both N- and C-terminal (XynC-BCB) were expressed in E. coli. Recombinant plasmids, pXynC-CB and pXynC-BCB were constructed by inserting the corresponding gene in pET22b(+). XynC-CB and XynC-BCB were expressed at levels around 30% and 33% of the total E. coli cell proteins, respectively, while losing 40% and 20% of their activities at 70°C for 120 min, respectively. The specific activities of XynC-CB, XynC-BCB were 76 and 98 U mg(-1), while the activities on equimolar basis were 4410 and 7450 U ?M(-1) against birchwood xylan, respectively. Their overall activities produced in the culture were 3660 and 5430 U L(-1) OD(600)(-1). Substrate binding studies showed that in case of XynC-C 51% of the activity remained unbound to birchwood xylan, whereas in the cases of XynC-BC, XynC-CB and XynC-BCB the activities left unbound were 33%, 32% and 12%, respectively, under the assay conditions used. Similar binding values were obtained in the case of oat spelt xylan. K(m) values for XynC-CB and XynC-BCB against birchwood xylan were found to be 3.1 and 1.47 mg ml(-1), respectively. Thus addition of a second carbohydrate binding domain at the C-terminal of the catalytic domain enhances activity, substrate affinity as well as thermostability.
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Trimetazidine, administered at the onset of reperfusion, ameliorates myocardial dysfunction and injury by activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt signaling.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Trimetazidine [1-(2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine; TMZ] is an anti-ischemic cardiac drug; however, its efficacy and mechanism of cardioprotection upon reperfusion are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether TMZ, given before reperfusion, could attenuate myocardial reperfusion injury. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) was induced in rat hearts by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery for 30 min followed by 48 h of reperfusion. TMZ (5 mg/kg b.wt.) was administered 5 min before reperfusion. The study used three experimental groups: control (-I/R; -TMZ), I/R (+I/R; -TMZ), and TMZ (+I/R; +TMZ). Echocardiography and EPR oximetry were used to assess cardiac function and oxygenation, respectively. The ejection fraction, which was significantly depressed in the I/R group (62 +/- 5 versus 84 +/- 3% in control), was restored to 72 +/- 3% in the TMZ group. Myocardial pO2 in the TMZ group returned to baseline levels (approximately 20 mm Hg) within 1 h of reperfusion, whereas the I/R group showed a significant hyperoxygenation even after 48 h of reperfusion. The infarct size was significantly reduced in the TMZ group (26 +/- 3 versus 47 +/- 5% in I/R). TMZ treatment significantly attenuated superoxide levels in the tissue. Tissue homogenates showed a significant increase in p38 and p-Akt and decrease in caspase-3 levels in the TMZ group. In summary, the results demonstrated that TMZ is cardioprotective when administered before reperfusion and that this protection appears to be mediated by activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt signaling. The study emphasizes the importance of administering TMZ before reflow to prevent reperfusion-mediated cardiac injury and dysfunction.
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Synthesis and study of new paramagnetic and diamagnetic verapamil derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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New derivatives of verapamil (1) modified with nitroxides and their precursors were synthesized and screened for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activities. The basic structure was modified by changing the nitrile group to an amide or the methyl substituent on tertiary nitrogen with nitroxides and their reduced forms (hydroxylamine and secondary amines). Among the new verapamil derivatives compound 16B [Mohan, I. K.; Kahn, M.; Wisel, S.; Selvendiran, K.; Sridhar, A.; Carnes, C.A.; Bognár, B.; Kálai, T.; Hideg, K.; Kuppusamy, P. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.2009, 296, 140], modified with hydroxylamine salt of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-1-yloxyl proved to be the best ROS scavenger in vitro and protected HSMC and CHO cells against H(2)O(2) induced damage.
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Oxygen-sensitive outcomes and gene expression in acute ischemic stroke.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) results in focal deprivation of blood-borne factors, one of them being oxygen. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to identify therapeutic conditions for supplemental oxygen in AIS and (2) to use transcriptome-wide screening toward uncovering oxygen-sensitive mechanisms. Transient MCAO in rodents was used to delineate the therapeutic potential of normobaric (NBO, 100% O(2), 1ATA) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO, 100% O(2), 2ATA) during ischemia (iNBO, iHBO) and after reperfusion (rNBO, rHBO). Stroke lesion was quantified using 4.7 T MRI at 48 h. Supplemental oxygen during AIS significantly attenuated percent stroke hemisphere lesion volume as compared with that in room air (RA) controls, whereas identical treatment immediately after reperfusion exacerbated lesion volume (RA=22.4+/-1.8, iNBO=9.9+/-3.6, iHBO=6.6+/-4.8, rNBO=29.8+/-3.6, rHBO=35.4+/-7.6). iNBO and iHBO corrected penumbra tissue pO(2) during AIS as measured by EPR oxymetry. Unbiased query of oxygen-sensitive transcriptome in stroke-affected tissue identified 5,769 differentially expressed genes. Candidate genes were verified by real-time PCR using neurons laser-captured from the stroke-affected somatosensory cortex. Directed microarray analysis showed that supplemental oxygen limited leukocyte accumulation to the infarct site by attenuation of stroke-inducible proinflammatory chemokine response. The findings provide key information relevant to understanding oxygen-dependent molecular mechanisms in the AIS-affected brain.
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Low temperature conversion of plastic waste into light hydrocarbons.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Advance recycling through pyrolytic technology has the potential of being applied to the management of plastic waste (PW). For this purpose 1 l volume, energy efficient batch reactor was manufactured locally and tested for pyrolysis of waste plastic. The feedstock for reactor was 50 g waste polyethylene. The average yield of the pyrolytic oil, wax, pyrogas and char from pyrolysis of PW were 48.6, 40.7, 10.1 and 0.6%, respectively, at 275 degrees C with non-catalytic process. Using catalyst the average yields of pyrolytic oil, pyrogas, wax and residue (char) of 50 g of PW was 47.98, 35.43, 16.09 and 0.50%, respectively, at operating temperature of 250 degrees C. The designed reactor could work at low temperature in the absence of a catalyst to obtain similar products as for a catalytic process.
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HVCN1 modulates BCR signal strength via regulation of BCR-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated with the BCR complex and was internalized together with the BCR after activation. BCR-induced generation of ROS was lower in HVCN1-deficient B cells, which resulted in attenuated BCR signaling via impaired BCR-dependent oxidation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This resulted in less activation of the kinases Syk and Akt, impaired mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis and diminished antibody responses in vivo. Our findings identify unanticipated functions for proton channels in B cells and demonstrate the importance of ROS in BCR signaling and downstream metabolism.
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Sulfaphenazole protects heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardiac dysfunction by overexpression of iNOS, leading to enhancement of nitric oxide bioavailability and tissue oxygenation.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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The objective of this study was to establish the cardioprotective effect of sulfaphenazole (SPZ), a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme, in an in vivo rat model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced by 30 min ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 24 h reperfusion (I/R). The study used 6 groups: I/R (control); SPZ; L-NAME; L-NAME + SPZ; 1400W (an inhibitor of iNOS); 1400W + SPZ. The agents were administered orally through drinking water for 3 days prior to induction of I/R. Myocardial oxygenation (pO(2)) at the I/R site was measured using EPR oximetry. The preischemic pO(2) value was 18 +/- 2 mm Hg in all groups. At 1 h of reperfusion, the SPZ group showed a significantly higher hyperoxygenation when compared to control (45 +/- 1 vs. 34 +/- 2 mm Hg). The SPZ group showed a significant improvement in the contractile functions and reduction in infarct size. Histochemical staining of SPZ-treated hearts exhibited significantly lower levels of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and markedly increased levels of iNOS activity and nitric oxide. Western blot analysis indicated upregulation of Akt and attenuation of p38MAPK activities in the reperfused myocardium. The study established that SPZ attenuated myocardial I/R injury through overexpression of iNOS, leading to enhancement of nitric oxide bioavailability and tissue oxygenation.
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RT-PCR evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype O from 2006 to 2007 in Punjab, Pakistan.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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FMD clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by RT-PCR for the diagnosis of FMD with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in Punjab, Pakistan. Universal primer pair P1/P2 from VP1 gene detected FMD in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1F/1R from 5UTR region detected FMD in 218 out of 250 (87.2%) tissues and 142 out of 175 (81.1%) secretion samples. 1F/1R proved better than the P1/P2 primer pair for primary diagnosis of FMD, direct from the clinical positive samples. Direct sequencing of the universal primer pair P1/P2 revealed that O serotype of FMD was circulating in this region. O serotype of FMD was detected with O-1C(ARS4)/PNK 61, AU(O)/AU(rev), AU(O)/PNK61 primer pairs, these primer pairs also compared with each other. AU(O)/AU(rev) and AU(O)/PNK61 detected O serotype of FMD in 88.9% tissue and swab (mouth and hoof vesicle swabs) samples and 71.9% different secretion (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) samples, while O-1C(ARS4)/PNK 61 detected 48.1% tissue and swab (mouth and hoof vesicle swabs) samples and 37.5% different secretion (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) samples. AU(O)/AU(rev), AU(O)/PNK61 primer pairs detected 40.8% more tissue and swab samples, while these pairs detected 34.4% more secretion samples. Cloning of PCR product of AU(O)/AU(rev) VP1 gene and sequencing for phylogenetic studies revealed that O serotype of FMD circulating in Punjab, Pakistan was genetically very diverse from the O serotype in Middle East and Europe. The dendrogram showed that Pakistan O serotype was very much similar genetically to its neighbor countries (Sri Lanka, India, Iran, Iraq, and China) and PanAsia 1 lineage which caused 2001-outbreak in UK and 1994-outbreak in Saudi Arabia, etc.
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Injectable, rapid gelling and highly flexible hydrogel composites as growth factor and cell carriers.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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A family of injectable, rapid gelling and highly flexible hydrogel composites capable of releasing insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and delivering mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) were developed. Hydrogel composites were fabricated from Type I collagen, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and a thermosensitive and degradable hydrogel copolymer based on N-isopropylacrylamide, acrylic acid, N-acryloxysuccinimide and a macromer poly(trimethylene carbonate)-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The hydrogel copolymer was gellable at body temperature before degradation and soluble at body temperature after degradation. Hydrogel composites exhibited LCSTs around room temperature. They could easily be injected through a 26-gauge needle at 4 degrees C, and were capable of gelling within 6s at 37 degrees C to form highly flexible gels with moduli matching those of the rat and human myocardium. The hydrogel composites showed good oxygen permeability; the oxygen pressure within the hydrogel composites was similar to that in the air. The effects of collagen and CS contents on LCST, gelation time, injectability, mechanical properties and degradation properties were investigated. IGF-1 was loaded into the hydrogel composites for enhanced cell survival/growth. The released IGF-1 remained bioactive during a 2-week release period. Small fraction of CS in the hydrogel composites significantly decreased IGF-1 release rate. The release kinetics appeared to be controlled mainly by hydrogel composite water content, degradation and interaction with IGF-1. Human MSC adhesion on the hydrogel composites was comparable to that on the tissue culture plate. MSCs were encapsulated in the hydrogel composites and were found to grow inside during a 7-day culture period. IGF-1 loading significantly accelerated MSC growth. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MSCs maintained their multipotent differentiation potential in hydrogel composites with and without IGF-1. These injectable and rapid gelling hydrogel composites demonstrated attractive properties for serving as growth factor and cell carriers for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications.
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Chronic heart failure and the substrate for atrial fibrillation.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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We sought to define the underlying mechanisms for atrial fibrillation (AF) during chronic heart failure (HF).
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The porin OmpD from nontyphoidal Salmonella is a key target for a protective B1b cell antibody response.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), including Salmonella typhimurium (STm), are major yet poorly-recognized killers of infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Death in these children is usually associated with bacteremia, commonly in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Evidence from humans and animal studies suggest that severe infection and bacteremia occur when specific Ab is lacking. Understanding how Ab responses to Salmonella are regulated will help develop vaccines against these devastating infections. STm induces atypical Ab responses characterized by prominent, accelerated, extrafollicular T-independent (TI) Ab against a range of surface antigens. These responses develop without concomitant germinal centers, which only appear as infection resolves. Here, we show STm rapidly induces a population of TI B220(+)CD5(-) B1b cells during infection and TI Ab from B1b cells targets the outer membrane protein (Omp) porins OmpC, OmpD and OmpF but not flagellin. When porins are used as immunogens they can ablate bacteremia and provide equivalent protection against STm as killed bacterial vaccine and this is wholly B cell-dependent. Furthermore Ab from porin-immunized chimeras, that have B1b cells, is sufficient to impair infection. Infecting with porin-deficient bacteria identifies OmpD, a protein absent from Salmonella Typhi, as a key target of Ab in these infections. This work broadens the recognized repertoire of TI protein antigens and highlights the importance of Ab from different B cell subsets in controlling STm infection. OmpD is a strong candidate vaccine target and may, in part, explain the lack of cross-protection between Salmonella Typhi and STm infections.
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6-(1-Adamant-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-phen-yl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia-diazole.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2009
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In the title compound, C(19)H(19)FN(4)S, the planes of the 2-fluoro-phenyl and 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia-diazole ring systems are oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.98?(6)°. In the crystal, weak C-H?S and C-H?? inter-actions may help to establish the packing and ?-? inter-actions between the centroids of the benzene rings at a distance of 3.8792?(13)?Å occur.
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Early simultaneous production of intranodal CD4 Th2 effectors and recirculating rapidly responding central-memory-like CD4 T cells.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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This study characterizes the diversity of CD4 Th cells produced during a Th2 response in vivo. Kinetics of effector and memory cell differentiation by mouse OVA-specific CD4 T cells was followed during primary responses to alum-precipitated OVA. The complexity of the CD4 T response was assessed in nodes draining and distant from the site of immunization for phenotype, location and function. By 3 days IL-4-producing effector CD4 T cells developed in the draining node and a proportion of the responding cells had migrated to B-cell follicles, while yet others had left the draining node. Some of these early migrant cells were recirculating cells with a central memory phenotype. These had divided four or more times in the draining node before migrating to distant nodes not exposed to antigen. We questioned the responsiveness of these early central-memory-like cells on secondary antigen challenge at sites distant to the primary immunization. They re-entered cell cycle and migrated to B-cell follicles, much more rapidly than naive CD4 T cells and could still be induced to produce IL-4. Their production and survival were independent of the starting frequency of antigen-specific CD4 T cells. Thus intranodal effector cells and recirculating, rapidly responding central-memory-like cells emerged simultaneously from the third day of a primary Th2 response.
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3-Methyl-thio-benzamide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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In the title compound, C(8)H(9)NS, the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring and the thio-amide fragment is 36.0?(2)°. There are ?-stacking inter-actions between coplanar aryl fragments, with a centroid-centroid separation of 3.658?(2)?Å. In addition, there are inter-molecular hydrogen bonds between the amino group and the S atoms.
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4-Bromo-thio-benzamide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The title compound, C(7)H(6)BrNS, crystallizes with two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angles between the aromatic ring and the thio-amide fragment are 23.6?(4) and 20.5?(3)° in the two mol-ecules. In the crystal, there are inter-molecular N-H?S hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the amine group and the S atoms.
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Stem cell therapy with overexpressed VEGF and PDGF genes improves cardiac function in a rat infarct model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Therapeutic potential was evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction using nanofiber-expanded human cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (CD133+/CD34+) genetically modified with VEGF plus PDGF genes (VIP).
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4-Chloro-benzothio-amide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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In the title compound, C(7)H(6)ClNS, the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring and the thio-amide fragment is 28.1?(2)°. The structure features a ?-stacking inter-action between the aromatic rings with a slight offset of the rings, giving a centroid-centroid separation of 3.7942?(2)?Å. There are inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the amino group and the S atoms.
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Cardioprotection by HO-4038, a novel verapamil derivative, targeted against ischemia and reperfusion-mediated acute myocardial infarction.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Many cardiac interventional procedures, such as coronary angioplasty, stenting, and thrombolysis, attempt to reintroduce blood flow (reperfusion) to an ischemic region of myocardium. However, the reperfusion is accompanied by a complex cascade of cellular and molecular events resulting in oxidative damage, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we evaluated the ability of HO-4038, an N-hydroxypiperidine derivative of verapamil, on the modulation of myocardial tissue oxygenation (Po(2)), I/R injury, and key signaling molecules involved in cardioprotection in an in vivo rat model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was created in rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Verapamil or HO-4038 was infused through the jugular vein 10 min before the induction of ischemia. Myocardial Po(2) and the free-radical scavenging ability of HO-4038 were measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. HO-4038 showed a significantly better scavenging ability of reactive oxygen radicals compared with verapamil. The cardiac contractile functions in the I/R hearts were significantly higher recovery in HO-4038 compared with the verapamil group. A significant decrease in the plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase was observed in the HO-4038 group compared with the verapamil or untreated I/R groups. The left ventricular infarct size was significantly less in the HO-4038 (23 +/- 2%) compared with the untreated I/R (36 +/- 4%) group. HO-4038 significantly attenuated the hyperoxygenation (36 +/- 1 mmHg) during reperfusion compared with the untreated I/R group (44 +/- 2 mmHg). The HO-4038-treated group also markedly attenuated superoxide production, increased nitric oxide generation, and enhanced Akt and Bcl-2 levels in the reperfused myocardium. Overall, the results demonstrated that HO-4038 significantly protected hearts against I/R-induced cardiac dysfunction and damage through the combined beneficial actions of calcium-channel blocking, antioxidant, and prosurvival signaling activities.
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Myocardial oxygenation and functional recovery in infarct rat hearts transplanted with mesenchymal stem cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Stem cell therapy for myocardial tissue repair is limited by the poor survival of transplanted cells, possibly because of inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygenation level and functional recovery after allogenic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial oxygen tension (Po(2)) was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using an implantable oxygen-sensing spin probe (OxySpin). MSCs incubated with OxySpins showed substantial uptake of the probe without affecting its oxygen sensitivity or calibration. The cells internalized with OxySpins were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial cell lineages. The labeled cells tested positive for CD44 and CD29 markers and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD14 and CD45. For the in vivo studies, MI was induced in rats by permanently ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. MSCs with OxySpins were transplanted in the infarct region of hearts. A significant increase in Po(2) was observed in the MSC group compared with the untreated MI group (18.1 +/- 2.6 vs. 13.0 +/- 1.8 mmHg, n = 4, P < 0.05) at 4 wk after transplantation. Echocardiography showed a significant improvement in ejection fraction and fraction shortening, which inversely correlated with the magnitude of fibrosis in the treated hearts. The cell-transplanted hearts also showed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor level and capillary density in the infarct region. The study established our ability to measure and correlate changes in myocardial tissue oxygenation with cardiac function in infarcted rat hearts treated with MSCs.
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Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by invoking an anti-angiogenic program in tumor-educated macrophages.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Tumor-educated macrophages facilitate tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. We discovered that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) blocked macrophages vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity by producing soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and determined the effect on tumor-associated macrophage behavior and tumor growth. We show GM-CSF treatment of murine mammary tumors slowed tumor growth and slowed metastasis. These tumors had more macrophages, fewer blood vessels, and lower oxygen concentrations. This effect was sVEGFR-1 dependent. In situ hybridization and flow cytometry identified macrophages as the primary source of sVEGFR-1. These data suggest that GM-CSF can re-educate macrophages to reduce angiogenesis and metastases in murine breast cancer.
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Pharmacological preconditioning of mesenchymal stem cells with trimetazidine (1-[2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl]piperazine) protects hypoxic cells against oxidative stress and enhances recovery of myocardial function in infarcted heart through Bcl-2 expression.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Stem cell transplantation is a possible therapeutic option to repair ischemic damage to the heart. However, it is faced with a number of challenges including the survival of the transplanted cells in the ischemic region. The present study was designed to use stem cells preconditioned with trimetazidine (1-[2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl]piperazine; TMZ), a widely used anti-ischemic drug for treating angina in cardiac patients, to increase the rate of their survival after transplantation. Bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were subjected to a simulated host tissue environment by culturing them under hypoxia (2% O(2)) and using hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) to induce oxidative stress. MSCs were preconditioned with 10 microM TMZ for 6 h followed by treatment with 100 microM H(2)O(2) for 1 h and characterized for their cellular viability and metabolic activity. The preconditioned cells showed a significant protection against H(2)O(2)-induced loss of cellular viability, membrane damage, and oxygen metabolism accompanied by a significant increase in HIF-1alpha, survivin, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), and Bcl-2 protein levels and Bcl-2 gene expression. The therapeutic efficacy of the TMZ-preconditioned MSCs was evaluated in an in vivo rat model of myocardial infarction induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. A significant increase in the recovery of myocardial function and up-regulation of pAkt and Bcl-2 levels were observed in hearts transplanted with TMZ-preconditioned cells. This study clearly demonstrated the potential benefits of pharmacological preconditioning of MSCs with TMZ for stem cell therapy for repairing myocardial ischemic damage.
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Evaluation of the acute toxicity of profenofos and its effects on the behavioral pattern of fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758).
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Profenofos, an organophosphate insecticide is acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has the potential to contaminate the ground water. The 96 h LC(50) value of profenofos was determined in 3-month-old fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a body weight 1.04 +/- 0.25 g and a body length 4.25 +/- 0.75 cm at 26 +/- 1 degrees C temperature. Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) software was used for the statistical analysis, which calculated the LC(50) value as 62.4 microg/L for three replicates of the assay. The behavioral responses of fish exposed to profenofos included loss of balance, moving in spiral fashion with sudden jerky movements, lying on their sides and rapid flapping of the operculum with the mouth open.
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Dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophages that create the IL-6/APRIL-rich lymph node microenvironments where plasmablasts mature.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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IL-6 and APRIL influence the growth, differentiation, and survival of normal and neoplastic Ab-forming cells (AFC). In this study, we identify two subsets of myeloid cells that associate with the AFC and are the main producers of these factors during a T-dependent Ab response to alum-precipitated protein in mouse lymph nodes. First CD11c(+)CD8alpha(-) dendritic cells located in the perivascular area of the T zone provide about half of the IL-6 mRNA produced in the node together with significant amounts of APRIL mRNA. The number of these cells increases during the response, at least in part due to local proliferation. The second subset comprises Gr1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) monocyte/macrophages. These colonize the medullary cords during the response and are the other main IL-6 mRNA producers and the greatest source of APRIL mRNA. This medullary cord monocyte/macrophage subset results in local increase of APRIL mRNA that mirrors the polarity of CXCL12 expression in the node. The distribution of these myeloid cell subsets correlates with a gradient of AFC maturation assessed by progressive loss of Ki67 as AFC pass from the B cell follicle along the perivascular areas to the medullary cords.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.