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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 ?g kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 ?g kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice.
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Lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine manufactured in a good manufacturing practice facility and non-inferiority with respect to an earlier product.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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We conducted a four-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled trial among 818 Bangladeshi infants between 10 and 12 months of age to establish equivalence among three lots of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by the China National Biotec Group's Chengdu Institute of Biological Products (CDIBP) in a new Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) facility and to evaluate non-inferiority of the product with a lot of the same vaccine manufactured in CDIBP's original facility. The study took place in two sites in Bangladesh, rural Matlab and Mirpur in urban Dhaka. We collected pre-vaccination (Day 0) and post-vaccination Day 28 (-4 to +14 days) blood samples to assess neutralizing anti-JE virus antibody titers in serum by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Seroprotection following vaccination was defined as a PRNT titer ?1:10 at Day 28 in participants non-immune at baseline. Follow-up for reactogenicity and safety was conducted through home visits at Day 7 and monitoring for serious adverse events through Day 28. Seroprotection rates ranged from 80.2% to 86.3% for all four lots of vaccine. Equivalence of the seroprotection rates between pairs of vaccine lots produced in the new GMP facility was satisfied at the pre-specified 10% margin of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for two of the three pairwise comparisons, but not for the third (-4.3% observed difference with 95% CI of -11.9 to 3.3%). Nevertheless, the aggregate seroprotection rate for all three vaccine lots manufactured in the GMP facility was calculated and found to be within the non-inferiority margin (within 10%) to the vaccine lot produced in the original facility. All four lots of vaccine were safe and well tolerated. These study results should facilitate the use of SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine as a routine component of immunization programs in Asian countries.
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Literature-based biomedical image classification and retrieval.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Literature-based image informatics techniques are essential for managing the rapidly increasing volume of information in the biomedical domain. Compound figure separation, modality classification, and image retrieval are three related tasks useful for enabling efficient access to the most relevant images contained in the literature. In this article, we describe approaches to these tasks and the evaluation of our methods as part of the 2013 medical track of ImageCLEF. In performing each of these tasks, the textual and visual features used to represent images are an important consideration often left unaddressed. Therefore, we also describe a gradient-based optimization strategy for determining meaningful combinations of features and apply the method to the image retrieval task. An evaluation of our optimization strategy indicates the method is capable of producing statistically significant improvements in retrieval performance. Furthermore, the results of the 2013 ImageCLEF evaluation demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques. In particular, our text-based and mixed image retrieval methods ranked first among all the participating groups.
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Outbreak of hepatitis E in urban bangladesh resulting in maternal and perinatal mortality.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes outbreaks of jaundice associated with maternal mortality. Four deaths among pregnant women with jaundice occurred in an urban community near Dhaka, Bangladesh, in late 2008 and were reported to authorities in January 2009. We investigated the etiology and risk factors for jaundice and death.
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PCDD and PCDF concentrations in a traffic tunnel environment.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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In an effort to understand the fundamental aspects of air quality in traffic tunnel environments, field campaigns were conducted to measure polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other important pollutants within two traffic tunnels in Nam San (NS) and Hong Ji (HJ) in Korea in 2009 and 2010. The mean concentrations of ?PCDD/Fs (in fg/m(3)) at the two tunnel sites were 1270 (± 880) and 1200 (± 810), respectively. These values were moderately lower than those measured at a non-tunnel urban background site (1350 (± 780) fg/m(3))--selected as a reference in this study. In addition, seasonal patterns of dioxin concentrations were clearly evident at the traffic tunnels like the urban reference site, showing higher levels during the winter (and spring) than the summer (and fall). The observed seasonal variations were driven by changes in the concentrations of ?PCDF congeners, while ?PCDD concentrations showed little seasonality. The results of our study suggest that there is no significant difference in source characteristics between the two investigated tunnel sites and urban location, although the role of gasoline and diesel fueled vehicles are considered as the major source in determining the PCDDs and PCDF levels in a tunnel environment. However, given the relative increase in other important ambient pollutant (e.g. PM10) concentrations over ?PCDD/Fs in tunnel air (compared to urban background air), the balance of sources in tunnels is clearly different from those in urban air overall.
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Incidence of and risk factors for hospital-acquired diarrhea in three tertiary care public hospitals in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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During April 2007-April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. Children < 1 year of age were more likely to develop hospital-acquired diarrhea than older children. The risk of developing hospital-acquired diarrhea increased for each additional day of hospitalization beyond 72 hours, whereas exposure to antibiotics within 72 hours of admission decreased the risk. There were three deaths among case-patients; all were infants. Patients, particularly young children, are at risk for hospital-acquired diarrhea and associated deaths in Bangladeshi hospitals. Further research to identify the responsible organisms and transmission routes could inform prevention strategies.
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Economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh during 2010.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Understanding the costs of influenza-associated illness in Bangladesh may help health authorities assess the cost-effectiveness of influenza prevention programs. We estimated the annual economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh.
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Toxicity of arsenic species to three freshwater organisms and biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by freshwater phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. CE-35).
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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In the environment, arsenic (As) exists in a number of chemical species, and arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) dominate in freshwater systems. Toxicity of As species to aquatic organisms is complicated by their interaction with chemicals in water such as phosphate that can influence the bioavailability and uptake of As(V). In the present study, the toxicities of As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) to three freshwater organisms representing three phylogenetic groups: a phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. strain CE-35), a floating macrophyte (Lemna disperma) and a cladoceran grazer (Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia), were determined using acute and growth inhibition bioassays (EC??) at a range of total phosphate (TP) concentrations in OECD medium. The EC?? values of As(III), As(V) and DMA were 27 ± 10, 1.15 ± 0.04 and 19 ± 3 mg L(-1) for Chlorella sp. CE-35; 0.57 ± 0.16, 2.3 ± 0.2 and 56 ± 15 mg L(-1) for L. disperma, and 1.58 ± 0.05, 1.72 ± 0.01 and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) for C. cf. dubia, respectively. The results showed that As(III) was more toxic than As(V) to L. disperma; however, As(V) was more toxic than As(III) to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicities of As(III) and As(V) to C. cf. dubia were statistically similar (p>0.05). DMA was less toxic than iAs species to L. disperma and C. cf. dubia, but more toxic than As(III) to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicity of As(V) to Chlorella sp. CE-35 and L. disperma decreased with increasing TP concentrations in the growth medium. Phosphate concentrations did not influence the toxicity of As(III) to either organism. Chlorella sp. CE-35 showed the ability to reduce As(V) to As(III), indicating a substantial influence of phytoplankton on As biogeochemistry in freshwater aquatic systems.
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Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers.
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Multiple reassortment events among highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Bangladesh.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In Bangladesh, little is known about the genomic composition and antigenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses, their geographic distribution, temporal patterns, or gene flow within the avian host population. Forty highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans and poultry in Bangladesh between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed by full genome sequencing and antigenic characterization. The analysis included viruses collected from avian hosts and environmental sampling in live bird markets, backyard poultry flocks, outbreak investigations in wild birds or poultry and from three human cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ancestors of these viruses reassorted (1) with other gene lineages of the same clade, (2) between different clades and (3) with low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus subtypes. Bayesian estimates of the time of most recent common ancestry, combined with geographic information, provided evidence of probable routes and timelines of virus spread into and out of Bangladesh.
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Family caregivers in public tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh: risks and opportunities for infection control.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Family caregivers are integral to patient care in Bangladeshi public hospitals. This study explored family caregivers' activities and their perceptions and practices related to disease transmission and prevention in public hospitals.
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Population-based incidence of severe acute respiratory virus infections among children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh, June-October 2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Better understanding the etiology-specific incidence of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in resource-poor, rural settings will help further develop and prioritize prevention strategies. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of SARIs among children in rural Bangladesh.
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Respiratory syncytial virus circulation in seven countries with global disease detection regional centers.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Background.?Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children globally, with the highest burden in low- and middle-income countries where the association between RSV activity and climate remains unclear. Methods.?Monthly laboratory-confirmed RSV cases and associations with climate data were assessed for respiratory surveillance sites in tropical and subtropical areas (Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Guatemala, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand) during 2004-2012. Average monthly minimum and maximum temperatures, relative humidity, and precipitation were calculated using daily local weather data from the US National Climatic Data Center. Results.?RSV circulated with 1-2 epidemic periods each year in site areas. RSV seasonal timing and duration were generally consistent within country from year to year. Associations between RSV and weather varied across years and geographic locations. RSV usually peaked in climates with high annual precipitation (Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Thailand) during wet months, whereas RSV peaked during cooler months in moderately hot (China) and arid (Egypt) regions. In South Africa, RSV peaked in autumn, whereas no associations with seasonal weather trends were observed in Kenya. Conclusions.?Further understanding of RSV seasonality in developing countries and various climate regions will be important to better understand the epidemiology of RSV and for timing the use of future RSV vaccines and immunoprophylaxis in low- and middle-income countries.
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Reducing the health effect of natural hazards in Bangladesh.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Bangladesh, with a population of 151 million people, is a country that is particularly prone to natural disasters: 26% of the population are affected by cyclones and 70% live in flood-prone regions. Mortality and morbidity from these events have fallen substantially in the past 50 years, partly because of improvements in disaster management. Thousands of cyclone shelters have been built and government and civil society have mobilised strategies to provide early warning and respond quickly. Increasingly, flood and cyclone interventions have leveraged community resilience, and general activities for poverty reduction have integrated disaster management. Furthermore, overall population health has improved greatly on the basis of successful public health activities, which has helped to mitigate the effect of natural disasters. Challenges to the maintenance and reduction of the effect of cyclones and floods include rapid urbanisation and the growing effect of global warming. Although the effects of earthquakes are unknown, some efforts to prepare for this type of event are underway.
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Parallel analysis of volatile fatty acids, indole, skatole, phenol, and trimethylamine from waste-related source environments.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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An experimental technique based on sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography (ST-TD-GC) was investigated for the simultaneous determination of a cluster of eight volatile odorants (propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole) and a reference compound (benzene). Calibration was made by direct injection of a liquid working standard (L-WS) into a quartz tube packed with three bed sorbent (Tenax TA, Carbopack B, and Carbopack X). To assess the relative performance between different detector systems, a comparative analysis was made using both mass spectrometry (MS) and a flame ionization detector (FID) with the aid of a TD system. In the TD-GC-MS analysis, calibration results were evaluated in two different modes, namely total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). In both FID and MS, the elution order of investigated odorants complied with the retention time index (RTI) values for the polar column with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) at or above 0.99. As a means to validate our detection approach, environmental samples from a bathroom and manhole (vacuum samples) as well as cat stool and wastewater (headspace samples) were also collected. The ST-TD method tested for the concurrent analysis of diverse odorants allowed us to measure a list of offensive odorants from those samples.
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Nipah virus infection outbreak with nosocomial and corpse-to-human transmission, Bangladesh.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Active Nipah virus encephalitis surveillance identified an encephalitis cluster and sporadic cases in Faridpur, Bangladesh, in January 2010. We identified 16 case-patients; 14 of these patients died. For 1 case-patient, the only known exposure was hugging a deceased patient with a probable case, while another case-patients exposure involved preparing the same corpse for burial by removing oral secretions and anogenital excreta with a cloth and bare hands. Among 7 persons with confirmed sporadic cases, 6 died, including a physician who had physically examined encephalitis patients without gloves or a mask. Nipah virus-infected patients were more likely than community-based controls to report drinking raw date palm sap and to have had physical contact with an encephalitis patient (29% vs. 4%, matched odds ratio undefined). Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on reducing caregivers exposure to infected patients bodily secretions during care and traditional burial practices.
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Metalloligands containing aminofulvene-aldiminate (AFA) ligands and their bimetallic complexes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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A simple and convenient route to ?(5)-coordinated Ru and Rh aminofulvene-aldiminate (AFA) complexes is described. The metalloligands [Cp*Ru{?(5)-(Ph(2)AFAH)}][BF(4)] (3), [Cp*Ru{?(5)-(benzyl(2)AFAH)}][OTf] (7), [Cp*Rh{?(5)-(Cy(2)AFA)H}][BF(4)](2) (8) and [Cp*Rh{?(5)-(Cy(2)AFA)}][BF(4)] (9) have been synthesised and characterised. The basicity of 9 has been found to be significantly less than its neutral analogue and thus eliminates the need for a deprotonation step to ligate to a second metal in the ?(2)-N,N-coordination mode. The reaction of 9 with a palladium precursor provides a mixed-metal complex [Cp*Rh(?(5)/?(2)-Cy(2)AFA)PdCl(2)][BF(4)] (12). Cyclic voltammetry studies of the Ph(2)AFAH ligand shows an irreversible one electron oxidation peak at +1.0 V (vs. Fc/Fc(+)). Complex 3 shows an irreversible oxidation at +1.5 V and a reduction peak at -1.0 V. The oxidation of 3 occurs on the AFA ligand backbone whereas the structurally analogous neutral 1,2-bis(imidoyl)pentamethyl-ruthenocene shows reversible oxidation at the Ru center.
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Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study.
Infect Ecol Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program.
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Outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in a school feeding program in northwest Bangladesh, 2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak.
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Seroprevalence of antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers in Bangladesh, 2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2009 to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) [HPAI H5N1] virus antibodies among poultry workers at farms and live bird markets with confirmed/suspected poultry outbreaks during 2009 in Bangladesh. We tested sera by microneutralization assay using A/Bangladesh/207095/2008 (H5N1; clade 2.2.2) virus with confirmation by horse red blood cell hemagglutination inhibition and H5-specific Western blot assays. We enrolled 212 workers from 87 farms and 210 workers from three live bird markets. One hundred and two farm workers (48%) culled poultry. One hundred and ninety-three farm workers (91%) and 178 market workers (85%) reported direct contact with poultry that died during a laboratory confirmed HPAI H5N1 poultry farm outbreak or market poultry die-offs from suspected HPAI H5N1. Despite exposure to sick poultry, no farm or market poultry workers were seropositive for HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies (95% confidence interval 0-1%).
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Evaluation of the memory effect on gold-coated silica adsorption tubes used for the analysis of gaseous mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In an effort to reduce the experimental bias involved in the analysis of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(o)), the blank response from gold-coated adsorption tubes has been investigated using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Our study has been compared with our recent investigation on memory effect in a cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). The pattern of blank responses was quantified after loading different amounts of mercury and after different time intervals of 1, 14, and 45 days. In case of the one day interval, the result of five to six instant blank heating cycles confirmed successful liberation of mercury following the second and third blank heating cycles. The results of 14 or 45 days generally suggest that liberation of excess mercury is affected by both the initial loading amount and the length of storage time prior to analysis. We have demonstrated a possibly effective way to reduce memory effects. Some similarities of these results with those from CVAFS experiment suggests that the blank response is caused by a combination of mercury absorbed within the bulk gold and micro- and nanoparticles liberated during heating and not from coabsorbing interfering gaseous species.
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Date palm sap linked to Nipah virus outbreak in Bangladesh, 2008.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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We investigated a cluster of patients with encephalitis in the Manikgonj and Rajbari Districts of Bangladesh in February 2008 to determine the etiology and risk factors for disease.
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Lethal factor toxemia and anti-protective antigen antibody activity in naturally acquired cutaneous anthrax.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Cutaneous anthrax outbreaks occurred in Bangladesh from August to October 2009. As part of the epidemiological response and to confirm anthrax diagnoses, serum samples were collected from suspected case patients with observed cutaneous lesions. Anthrax lethal factor (LF), anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) immunoglobulin G (IgG), and anthrax lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA) levels were determined in acute and convalescent serum of 26 case patients with suspected cutaneous anthrax from the first and largest of these outbreaks. LF (0.005-1.264 ng/mL) was detected in acute serum from 18 of 26 individuals. Anti-PA IgG and TNA were detected in sera from the same 18 individuals and ranged from 10.0 to 679.5 ?g/mL and 27 to 593 units, respectively. Seroconversion to serum anti-PA and TNA was found only in case patients with measurable toxemia. This is the first report of quantitative analysis of serum LF in cutaneous anthrax and the first to associate acute stage toxemia with subsequent antitoxin antibody responses.
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Social ecological analysis of an outbreak of pufferfish egg poisoning in a coastal area of Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Recurrent outbreaks of marine pufferfish poisoning in Bangladesh highlight the need to understand the context in which the outbreaks occurred. In a recent outbreak investigation, a multidisciplinary team conducted a mixed-method study to identify the demography and clinical manifestation of the victims and to explore different uses of pufferfish, and local buying, selling, and processing practices. The outbreak primarily affected a low income household where an elderly woman collected and cooked pufferfish egg curry. Nine persons consumed the curry, and symptoms developed in 6 (67%) of these persons. Symptoms included vomiting, diarrhea, paresis, and tingling sensation; 2 (22%) persons died. The unstable income of the affected family, food crisis, and the public disposal of unsafe pufferfish byproducts all contributed to the outbreak. A multi-level intervention should be developed and disseminated with the participation of target communities to discourage unsafe discarding of pufferfish scraps and to improve the community knowledge about the risk of consuming pufferfish.
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Co-circulation of G1, G2 and G9 rotaviruses in hospitalized patients in Bangladesh during 2006-2009.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Rotavirus strain diversity in Bangladesh has been explored since 1985 and as seen in other parts of the world, rotaviruses have shown tremendous strain diversity overtime. Rotavirus antigen was detected in stool specimens using a solid-phase sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay. A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for rotavirus G and P genotypes. This current study was carried out between 2006 and 2009 during which time 1,607 (23%) of 7,058 fecal specimens tested positive for group A rotaviruses with the highest incidence rate being observed in winter each year. Genotyping of rotaviruses showed a sharp decline in G2P[4] between 2008 and 2009 with a gradual increase in G1 and G9 strains. Since the Government of Bangladesh is planning to include rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization program, these data on rotavirus strain diversity should be taken into consideration for vaccine strain selection.
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A novel low-cost approach to estimate the incidence of Japanese encephalitis in the catchment area of three hospitals in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Acute meningoencephalitis syndrome surveillance was initiated in three medical college hospitals in Bangladesh in October 2007 to identify Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases. We estimated the population-based incidence of JE in the three hospitals catchment areas by adjusting the hospital-based crude incidence of JE by the proportion of catchment area meningoencephalitis cases who were admitted to surveillance hospitals. Instead of a traditional house-to-house survey, which is expensive for a disease with low frequency, we attempted a novel approach to identify meningoencephalitis cases in the hospital catchment area through social networks among the community residents. The estimated JE incidence was 2.7/100,000 population in Rajshahi (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-4.9), 1.4 in Khulna (95% CI = 0.9-4.1), and 0.6 in Chittagong (95% CI = 0.4-0.9). Bangladesh should consider a pilot project to introduce JE vaccine in high-incidence areas.
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Phase IV trial of miltefosine in adults and children for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Miltefosine (target dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day for 28 days) is the recommended treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Bangladesh on the basis of data from India. We evaluated miltefosine in a phase IV trial of 977 patients in Bangladesh. At the six-month final follow up, 701 were cured. 24 showed initial treatment failure, and 95 showed treatment failure at 6 months, although 73 of the 95 showed treatment failure solely by the criterion of low hemoglobin values. One hundred twenty-one patients were not assessable. With the conservative assumption that all low hemoglobin values represented treatment failure, the final per protocol cure rate was 85%. Of 13 severe adverse events, 6 led to treatment discontinuation and 7 resulted in deaths, but only 1 death (associated with diarrhea) could be attributed to drug. Nearly all non-serious adverse events were gastrointestinal: vomiting in 25% of patients and diarrhea in 8% of patients. Oral miltefosine is an attractive alternative to intramuscular antimony and intravenous amphotericin B for treatment of kala-azar in Bangladesh.
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A learning-based similarity fusion and filtering approach for biomedical image retrieval using SVM classification and relevance feedback.
IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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This paper presents a classification-driven biomedical image retrieval framework based on image filtering and similarity fusion by employing supervised learning techniques. In this framework, the probabilistic outputs of a multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier as category prediction of query and database images are exploited at first to filter out irrelevant images, thereby reducing the search space for similarity matching. Images are classified at a global level according to their modalities based on different low-level, concept, and keypoint-based features. It is difficult to find a unique feature to compare images effectively for all types of queries. Hence, a query-specific adaptive linear combination of similarity matching approach is proposed by relying on the image classification and feedback information from users. Based on the prediction of a query image category, individual precomputed weights of different features are adjusted online. The prediction of the classifier may be inaccurate in some cases and a user might have a different semantic interpretation about retrieved images. Hence, the weights are finally determined by considering both precision and rank order information of each individual feature representation by considering top retrieved relevant images as judged by the users. As a result, the system can adapt itself to individual searches to produce query-specific results. Experiment is performed in a diverse collection of 5 000 biomedical images of different modalities, body parts, and orientations. It demonstrates the efficiency (about half computation time compared to search on entire collection) and effectiveness (about 10%-15% improvement in precision at each recall level) of the retrieval approach.
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Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a Muslim society.
BMC Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Post-mortem needle biopsies have been used in resource-poor settings to determine cause of death and there is interest in using them in Bangladesh. However, we did not know how families and communities would perceive this procedure or how they would decide whether or not to consent to a post-mortem needle biopsy. The goal of this study was to better understand family and community concerns and decision-making about post-mortem needle biopsies in this low-income, predominantly Muslim country in order to design an informed consent process.
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Happy ending of life-threatening upper GI bleeding.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode in humans, and estimated about tens of millions of people are infected worldwide. This parasite is endemic in tropical or temperate and subtropical climates like Bangladesh. The authors report a 33-year-old man who presented with recurrent life-threatening upper gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric infection by S stercoralis.
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Multiple outbreaks of puffer fish intoxication in Bangladesh, 2008.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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During April and June 2008, we investigated three outbreaks of marine puffer fish intoxication in three districts of Bangladesh (Narshingdi, Natore, and Dhaka). We also explored trade of marine puffer fish in Coxs Bazaar, a coastal area of the country. We identified 95 people who had consumed puffer fish; 63 (66%) developed toxicity characterized by tingling sensation in the body, perioral numbness, dizziness, and weakness, 14 of them died. All three outbreaks were caused by consumption of large (0.2-1.5 kg) marine puffer fish, sold in communities where people were unfamiliar with the marine variety of the fish and its toxicity. Coastal fishermen reported that some local businessmen distributed the fresh fish to non-coastal parts of the country, where people were unfamiliar with the larger variety, to make a quick profit. Lack of knowledge about marine puffer toxicity contributed to the outbreaks. Health communication campaigns will enhance peoples knowledge and may prevent future outbreaks.
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Cluster of Nipah virus infection, Kushtia District, Bangladesh, 2007.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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In March 2007, we investigated a cluster of Nipah encephalitis to identify risk factors for Nipah infection in Bangladesh.
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Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: a 14-year study report.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Since 1996, 52,202 water samples from hand tubewells were analyzed for arsenic (As) by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) from all 64 districts of Bangladesh; 27.2% and 42.1% of the tubewells had As above 50 and 10 ?g/l, respectively; 7.5% contained As above 300 ?g/l, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. The groundwater of 50 districts contained As above the Bangladesh standard for As in drinking water (50 ?g/l), and 59 districts had As above the WHO guideline value (10 ?g/l). Water analyses from the four principal geomorphological regions of Bangladesh showed that hand tubewells of the Tableland and Hill tract regions are primarily free from As contamination, while the Flood plain and Deltaic region, including the Coastal region, are highly As-contaminated. Arsenic concentration was usually observed to decrease with increasing tubewell depth; however, 16% of tubewells deeper than 100 m, which is often considered to be a safe depth, contained As above 50 ?g/l. In tubewells deeper than 350 m, As >50 ?g/l has not been found. The estimated number of tubewells in 50 As-affected districts was 4.3 million. Based on the analysis of 52,202 hand tubewell water samples during the last 14 years, we estimate that around 36 million and 22 million people could be drinking As-contaminated water above 10 and 50 ?g/l, respectively. However for roughly the last 5 years due to mitigation efforts by the government, non-governmental organizations and international aid agencies, many individuals living in these contaminated areas have been drinking As-safe water. From 50 contaminated districts with tubewell As concentrations >50 ?g/l, 52% of sampled hand tubewells contained As <10 ?g/l, and these tubewells could be utilized immediately as a source of safe water in these affected regions provided regular monitoring for temporal variation in As concentration. Even in the As-affected Flood plain, sampled tubewells from 22 thanas in 4 districts were almost entirely As-safe. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, India the crisis is not having too little water to satisfy our needs, it is the challenge of managing available water resources. The development of community-specific safe water sources coupled with local participation and education are required to slow the current effects of widespread As poisoning and to prevent this disaster from continuing to plague individuals in the future.
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Rates of hospital-acquired respiratory illness in Bangladeshi tertiary care hospitals: results from a low-cost pilot surveillance strategy.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Patients hospitalized in resource-poor health care settings are at increased risk for hospital-acquired respiratory infections due to inadequate infrastructure.
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Fatal outbreak from consuming Xanthium strumarium seedlings during time of food scarcity in northeastern Bangladesh.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007.
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Palladium complexes of 6-aminofulvene-2-aldiminate (AFA) ligands.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2009
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Bis(N,N-2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-6-aminofulvene-2-aldimine (4) has been synthesised and characterised. The synthesis and characterisation of two zwitterionic Pd(ii) complexes [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(Me)DMAP] (1) and [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(N,N-dimethylbenzylamine-2-C,N)] (2) are reported. Activation of 1 and 2 for ethene polymerisation with Lewis acids such as BF(3) and B(C(6)F(5))(3) were not successful. Attempted synthesis of halide-bridged dimers of the form [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(mu-X)](2) resulted in formation of bis-chelated complexes [(Cy(2)AFA)(2)Pd] (3) and [((t)Bu(2)AFA)(2)Pd] (5).
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Avian influenza virus A (H5N1), detected through routine surveillance, in child, Bangladesh.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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We identified avian influenza virus A (H5N1) infection in a child in Bangladesh in 2008 by routine influenza surveillance. The virus was of the same clade and phylogenetic subgroup as that circulating among poultry during the period. This case illustrates the value of routine surveillance for detection of novel influenza virus.
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Recurrent zoonotic transmission of Nipah virus into humans, Bangladesh, 2001-2007.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Human Nipah outbreaks recur in a specific region and time of year in Bangladesh. Fruit bats are the reservoir host for Nipah virus. We identified 23 introductions of Nipah virus into human populations in central and northwestern Bangladesh from 2001 through 2007. Ten introductions affected multiple persons (median 10). Illness onset occurred from December through May but not every year. We identified 122 cases of human Nipah infection. The mean age of case-patients was 27 years; 87 (71%) died. In 62 (51%) Nipah virus-infected patients, illness developed 5-15 days after close contact with another Nipah case-patient. Nine (7%) Nipah case-patients transmitted virus to others. Nipah case-patients who had difficulty breathing were more likely than those without respiratory difficulty to transmit Nipah (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). Although a small minority of infected patients transmit Nipah virus, more than half of identified cases result from person-to-person transmission. Interventions to prevent virus transmission from bats to humans and from person to person are needed.
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Influenza in outpatient ILI case-patients in national hospital-based surveillance, Bangladesh, 2007-2008.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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Recent population-based estimates in a Dhaka low-income community suggest that influenza was prevalent among children. To explore the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza throughout the country and among all age groups, we established nationally representative hospital-based surveillance necessary to guide influenza prevention and control efforts.
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Extraction of arsenic species in soils using microwave-assisted extraction detected by ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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We have developed a novel microwave-assisted extraction method for determining the arsenic (As) speciation in soils that is based on extraction with phosphate solutions, including orthophosphoric acid, ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, and ammonium hydrogen orthophosphate. The highest extracting efficiency was obtained with 1 M ortho-phosphoric acid solution as the extractant, and this efficiency is associated with the pH of the extractant. Total As content and As species in the soil extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) alone and by the combined ion chromatography (IC) with ICP-MS, respectively. The proposed extraction procedure was applied to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) 2711 (Montana soil) as well as to environmental soil samples collected from the agricultural lands of Bangladesh. As(V) was detected in all the soil samples, and As(III) was detected in nine soils of the 20. These results of extractable As testing indicate that the extraction of As species mainly depends on the composition of the soils. The As speciation results also indicate that As adsorption is highly dependent on the iron, aluminum, and manganese concentrations in the soil. The stability of As species in the extracts was also studied.
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Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in the state of West Bengal, India: a 20-year study report.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Since 1988 we have analyzed 140 150 water samples from tube wells in all 19 districts of West Bengal for arsenic; 48.1% had arsenic above 10 microg/L (WHO guideline value), 23.8% above 50 microg/L (Indian Standard) and 3.3% above 300 microg/L (concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions). Based on arsenic concentrations we have classified West Bengal into three zones: highly affected (9 districts mainly in eastern side of Bhagirathi River), mildly affected (5 districts in northern part) and unaffected (5 districts in western part). The estimated number of tube wells in 8 of the highly affected districts is 1.3 million, and estimated population drinking arsenic contaminated water above 10 and 50 microg/L were 9.5 and 4.2 million, respectively. In West Bengal alone, 26 million people are potentially at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated water (above 10 microg/L). Studying information for water from different depths from 107 253 tube wells, we noted that arsenic concentration decreased with increasing depth. Measured arsenic concentration in two tube wells in Kolkata for 325 and 51 days during 2002-2005, showed 15% oscillatory movement without any long-term trend. Regional variability is dependent on sub-surface geology. In the arsenic-affected flood plain of the river Ganga, the crisis is not having too little water to satisfy our needs, it is the crisis of managing the water.
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Heavy metal impact on bacterial biomass based on DNA analyses and uptake by wild plants in the abandoned copper mine soils.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The metals contamination in surface soils and their accumulation in wild plants from the abandoned Burra and Kapunda copper mines located in South Australia were assessed, and the predominant bacterial diversity in the contaminated surface soils from these two abandoned copper mine sites were evaluated through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. The results showed the average concentration of Cu in soils was 3821.59 mg/kg while wild plants accumulated up to 173.44 mg/kg. The concentration of Cu in shoots of spear grass (Stipa uitida) and berry saltbush (Afriplex semibaccata) was higher than that of roots. The concentration of total and extractable As, Cd, Cu and Pb in soils slightly correlated with of these elements in the corresponding wild plants. The toxicity of Cu in heavily contaminated soils impacted on the quantities of specific microbial populations and no significant change in the microbial diversity of highly contaminated soils.
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Chronic exposure of arsenic via drinking water and its adverse health impacts on humans.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Worldwide chronic arsenic (As) toxicity has become a human health threat. Arsenic exposure to humans mainly occurs from the ingestion of As contaminated water and food. This communication presents a review of current research conducted on the adverse health effects on humans exposed to As-contaminated water. Chronic exposure of As via drinking water causes various types of skin lesions such as melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Other manifestations include neurological effects, obstetric problems, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory system and of blood vessels including cardiovascular, and cancers typically involving the skin, lung, and bladder. The skin seems to be quite susceptible to the effects of As. Arsenic-induced skin lesions seem to be the most common and initial symptoms of arsenicosis. More systematic studies are needed to determine the link between As exposure and its related cancer and noncancer end points.
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Arsenic levels in rice grain and assessment of daily dietary intake of arsenic from rice in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh--implications to groundwater irrigation.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) causes significant human health effects, including various cancers and skin disorders. Naturally elevated concentrations of As have been detected in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Dietary intake and drinking water are the major routes of As exposure for humans. The objectives of this study were to measure As concentrations in rice grain collected from households in As-affected villages of Bangladesh where groundwater is used for agricultural irrigation and to estimate the daily intake of As consumed by the villagers from rice. The median and mean total As contents in 214 rice grain samples were 131 and 143 microg/kg, respectively, with a range of 2-557 microg/kg (dry weight, dw). Arsenic concentrations in control rice samples imported from Pakistan and India and on sale in Australian supermarkets were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in rice from contaminated areas. Daily dietary intake of As from rice was 56.4 microg for adults (males and females) while the total daily intake of As from rice and from drinking water was 888.4 and 706.4 microg for adult males and adult females, respectively. From our study, it appears that the villagers are consuming a significant amount of As from rice and drinking water. The results suggest that the communities in the villages studied are potentially at risk of suffering from arsenic-related diseases.
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Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Southeast Asia region.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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The adverse impact of groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) on humans has been reported worldwide, particularly in Asian countries. In this study, we present an overview of the As crisis in the Southeast Asian region where groundwater is contaminated with naturally occurring As and where contamination has become more widespread in recent years. In this region more than 100 million people are estimated to be at risk from groundwater As contamination, and some 700,000 people are known so far to have been affected by As-related diseases. Despite investments exceeding many millions of dollars, there are still substantial knowledge gaps about the prevalence and impact of As, notably in its epidemiology, temporal variations, social factors, patient identification, treatment, etc. Arsenic-affected people in the affected regions also face serious social problems. Of major concern is the fact that many researchers from different countries have been conducting research in SE Asia region but with a lack of coordination, thus duplicating their work. There is an urgent need to coordinate these various studies to ensure better delivery of research outcomes. Further research is needed to improve field testing and monitoring of drinking water sources, and to develop new treatments for chronic As toxicity and new sources of safe drinking water.
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Rose Angina Questionnaire: validation with cardiologists diagnoses to detect coronary heart disease in Bangladesh.
Indian Heart J
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The study aimed to validate the Rose Angina Questionnaire (RAQ) to detect coronary heart disease (CHD) by comparing with cardiologists diagnoses in Bangladesh.
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Towards the creation of a visual ontology of biomedical imaging entities.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc
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Image content is frequently the target of biomedical information extraction systems. However, the meaning of this content cannot be easily understood without some associated text. In order to improve the integration of textual and visual information, we are developing a visual ontology for biomedical image retrieval. Our visual ontology maps the appearance of image regions to concepts in an existing textual ontology, thereby inheriting relationships among the visual entities. Such a resource creates a bridge between the visual characteristics of important image regions and their semantic interpretation. We automatically populate our visual ontology by pairing image regions with their associated descriptions. To demonstrate the usefulness of this resource, we have developed a classification method that automatically labels image regions with appropriate concepts based solely on their appearance. Our results for thoracic imaging terms show that our methods are promising first steps towards the creation of a biomedical visual ontology.
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Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of Northeastern Karnataka, India.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in the Mangalur greenstone belt of Karnataka, India. Arsenic contents in water, hair, nail, soil and food were measured by FI-HG-AAS. Elemental analyses of soils were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Of 59 tube-well water samples, 79% had As above 10 ?g L(-1) (maximum 303 ?g L(-1)). Of 12 topsoil samples, six were found to contain As greater than 2000 mg kg(-1) possibly indicating the impact of mine tailings on the area. All hair and nail samples collected from 171 residents contained elevated As. Arsenical skin lesions were observed among 58.6% of a total 181 screened individuals. Histopathological analysis of puncture biopsies of suspected arsenical dermatological symptoms confirmed the diagnosis in three out of four patients. Based on the time-course of As-like symptoms reported by the community as well as the presence of overt arsenicosis, it is hypothesized that the primary route of exposure in the study area was via contaminated groundwater; however, the identified high As content in residential soil could also be a significant source of As exposure via ingestion. Additional studies are required to determine the extent as well as the relative contribution of geologic and anthropogenic factors in environmental As contamination in the region. This study report is to our knowledge one of the first to describe overt arsenicosis in this region of Karnataka, India as well as more broadly an area with underlying greenstone geology and historic mining activity.
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Exposure to hazardous volatile pollutants back diffusing from automobile exhaust systems.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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As back diffusion gases from automobiles are significant sources of in-vehicular pollution, we investigated eight automobiles, five for back diffusion (driving) measurements and three for reference conditions (non-driving). To characterize the back diffusion emission conditions, seven volatile organic compounds (VOC) and four carbonyl compounds (CCs) were measured along with dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio. The data obtained from back diffusion measurements were examined after having been divided into three subcategories: (i) driving and non-driving, (ii) with and without automobile upgrading (sealing the inner line), and (iii) differences in CO emission levels. Among the VOCs, the concentrations of toluene (T) was found to be the highest (range: 13.6-155 ppb), while benzene (0.19-1.47 ppb) was hardly distinguishable from its ambient levels. Other VOCs (xylene, trimethylbenzene, and styrene) were generally below <1 ppb. Unlike VOCs, the concentrations (ppb) of CCs were seen at fairly enhanced levels: 30.1-95 (formaldehyde), 34.6-87.2 (acetaldehyde), 4.56-34.7 (propionaldehyde), and 3.45-68.8 (butyraldehyde). The results of our study suggest that the back diffusion phenomenon, if occurring, can deteriorate in-vehicle air, especially with the most imminent health hazards from a compound such as formaldehyde in view of its exceedance pattern over common guidelines.
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Swab protocol for rapid laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 extraction methods, the swab extraction tube system (SETS), sonication, and vortex. Swabs were spiked with virulent B. anthracis cells, and the methods were compared for their efficiency over time by culture and real-time PCR. Viability testing indicated that the SETS yielded greater recovery of B. anthracis from 1-day-old swabs; however, reduced viability was consistent for the 3 extraction methods after 7 days and nonviability was consistent by 28 days. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the PCR amplification was not impacted by time for any swab extraction method and that the SETS method provided the lowest limit of detection. When evaluated using lesion swabs from cutaneous anthrax outbreaks, the SETS yielded culture-negative, PCR-positive results. This study demonstrated that swab extraction methods differ in their efficiency of recovery of viable B. anthracis cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that culture is not reliable for isolation of B. anthracis from swabs at ? 7 days. Thus, we recommend the use of the SETS method with subsequent testing by culture and real-time PCR for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax from clinical swabs of cutaneous lesions.
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Acute meningoencephalitis in hospitalised children in southern Bangladesh.
Malays J Med Sci
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Acute meningoencephalitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of acute meningoencephalitis and its aetiological agents among children admitted to a tertiary hospital in southern Bangladesh.
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Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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The study assesses the daily consumption by adults of arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water and home-grown vegetables in a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. Most of the examined elements in drinking water were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values except As. The median concentrations of As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Mn, nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables were 90 ?g kg(-1), 111 ?g kg(-1), 0.80 mg kg(-1), 168 ?g kg(-1), 13 mg kg(-1), 2.1 mg kg(-1), 65 mg kg(-1), 1.7 mg kg(-1), and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. Daily intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, manganese (Mn), Ni, and Zn from vegetables and drinking water for adults were 839 ?g, 2.9 ?g, 20.8 ?g, 5.5 ?g, 0.35 mg, 56.4 ?g, 2.0mg, 49.1 ?g, and 1.3mg, respectively. The health risks from consuming vegetables were estimated by comparing these figures with the WHO/FAO provisional tolerable weekly or daily intake (PTWI or PTDI). Vegetables alone contribute 0.05 ?g of As and 0.008 mg of Cu per kg of body weight (bw) daily; 0.42 ?g of Cd, 8.77 mg of Pb, and 0.03 mg of Zn per kg bw weekly. Other food sources and particularly dietary staple rice need to be evaluated to determine the exact health risks from such foods.
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Bronchiolitis outbreak caused by respiratory syncytial virus in southwest Bangladesh, 2010.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
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During July 2010, newspapers reported a respiratory disease outbreak in southwestern Bangladesh resulting in the admission of children to a secondary care hospital. We investigated this outbreak to determine the etiology and explore possible risk factors.
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Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India.
Sci. Total Environ.
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A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person and per unit body weight was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (± SD), respectively. Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15 years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14 L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16-55 years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to 15 years of age was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80±0.64 L/day; for adult males, adult females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10 L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92 L/person/day; for adult males, adult females and children, total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24 L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption was 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones.
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Why Do Bangladeshi People Use Smokeless Tobacco Products?
Asia Pac J Public Health
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Despite scientific evidence about the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco (SLT), it is widely used in Bangladesh. This study explored perceptions about health effects of SLT use. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 1812 nonsmoking adults. About 40% of the participants were current SLT users or had used SLT in the past. Family members influence was the main factor for initiation. The participants believed that people continued using SLT because of addiction (52%) and as a part of their lifestyle (23%). The majority of participants (77%) did not mention any benefit, but SLT users considered it to be a remedy for toothache (P < .05). Almost all participants mentioned that SLT was harmful and causes heart disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. Doctors advice was the common motivating factor to quit. Health promotion interventions should highlight the adverse effects of SLT use, which outweigh the perceived benefits, and should consider addressing the role of family in SLT initiation and use.
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Anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009-2010.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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During August 2009-October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future.
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Release of offensive odorants from the combustion of barbecue charcoals.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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A number of offensive odorants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, and ammonia were measured along with several reference pollutants (like benzene (B), CS(2), SO(2), CO, and total hydrocarbon (THC)) from combusted fumes of barbecue charcoals produced from five different countries (Korea, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the US). Although the emission concentrations of most odorants were generally below the reference guideline set by the malodor prevention law in Korea, the mean concentration of some aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) and ammonia exceeded those guidelines. As such, aldehydes were the most dominant odorant released from charcoal combustion followed by VOC and ammonia. If odorant levels of charcoal products are compared, there are great distinctions between the products of different countries. If comparison is made using the concept of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), the magnitude of SOI for the charcoal products from the five different countries varied in the order of 4.30 (Korea), 3.10 (Indonesia), 2.97 (China), 2.76 (Malaysia), and 2.76 (the US).
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Incidence of respiratory virus-associated pneumonia in urban poor young children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011.
PLoS ONE
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged <2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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Is there any association between use of smokeless tobacco products and coronary heart disease in Bangladesh?
PLoS ONE
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Most epidemiological studies exploring the association between smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been in Western populations, and have focused on SLT products used in those countries. Few studies come from South Asian countries. Our objective was to determine the association between SLT use and CHD among non-smoking adults in Bangladesh.
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Early detection of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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To explore Bangladeshs ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June-July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population.
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Hospital-based prevalence of malaria and dengue in febrile patients in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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We conducted a nationwide study at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 through November 2009 to investigate etiologies of febrile illnesses in Bangladesh. Febrile patients meeting a clinical case definition were enrolled from inpatient and outpatient medicine and pediatric units. We assessed 720 febrile patients over 12 months; 69 (9.6%) were positive for IgM antibodies against dengue virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and four malaria patients (0.56%) were confirmed with immuno-chromatography and microscopic slide tests. We identified dengue cases throughout the year from rural (49%) and urban areas (51%). We followed-up 55 accessible dengue-infected patients two months after their initial enrollment: 45 (82%) patients had fully recovered, 9 (16%) reported ongoing jaundice, fever and/or joint pain, and one died. Dengue infection is widespread across Bangladesh, but malaria is sufficiently uncommon that it should not be assumed as the cause of fever without laboratory confirmation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.