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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
APOBEC3D and APOBEC3F potently promote HIV-1 diversification and evolution in humanized mouse model.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Several APOBEC3 proteins, particularly APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3G, induce G-to-A hypermutations in HIV-1 genome, and abrogate viral replication in experimental systems, but their relative contributions to controlling viral replication and viral genetic variation in vivo have not been elucidated. On the other hand, an HIV-1-encoded protein, Vif, can degrade these APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Although APOBEC3 proteins have been widely considered as potent restriction factors against HIV-1, it remains unclear which endogenous APOBEC3 protein(s) affect HIV-1 propagation in vivo. Here we use a humanized mouse model and HIV-1 with mutations in Vif motifs that are responsible for specific APOBEC3 interactions, DRMR/AAAA (4A) or YRHHY/AAAAA (5A), and demonstrate that endogenous APOBEC3D/F and APOBEC3G exert strong anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. We also show that the growth kinetics of 4A HIV-1 negatively correlated with the expression level of APOBEC3F. Moreover, single genome sequencing analyses of viral RNA in plasma of infected mice reveal that 4A HIV-1 is specifically and significantly diversified. Furthermore, a mutated virus that is capable of using both CCR5 and CXCR4 as entry coreceptor is specifically detected in 4A HIV-1-infected mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that APOBEC3D/F and APOBEC3G fundamentally work as restriction factors against HIV-1 in vivo, but at the same time, that APOBEC3D and APOBEC3F are capable of promoting viral diversification and evolution in vivo.
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NOD-Rag2null IL-2R?null mice: an alternative to NOG mice for generation of humanized mice.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We have developed NOD-Rag2(null) IL-2R?(null) (NR2G) mice similar to NOD-scidIL-2R?(null) (NOG) mice that are known as an excellent host to generate humanized mice. To evaluate the usefulness of NR2G mice as a host for humanized mice, the engraftment rates and differentiation of human cells after human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation were compared among NR2G, NOG, and NOD-scid mice. For this purpose, the appropriate irradiation doses to expand the niche for human stem cells in the bone marrow were first determined. As a result, 8 and 2.5 Gy in adult, and 4 and 1 Gy in newborn NR2G and NOG mice, respectively, were found to be appropriate. Next, 5 × 10(4) human umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells were intravenously inoculated into irradiated adult or newborn of the immunodeficient mice. These HSC transplantation experiments demonstrated that both NR2G and NOG mice showed high engraftment rates compared with NOD-scid mice, although NOG mice showed a slightly higher engraftment rate than that for NR2G mice. However, no difference was found in the human cell populations differentiated from HSCs between NR2G and NOG mice. The HSC transplantation experiments to adults and newborns of two immunodeficient mice also revealed that the HSC transplantation into newborn mice resulted in higher engraftment rate than those into adults. These results showed that NR2G mice could be used as an alternative host to NOG mice to generate humanized mice.
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[An adult case of intussusception due to inverted Meckel's diverticulum observed by colonoscopy].
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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A man in his twenties had intermittent abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant for more than 4 years. The abdominal pain persisted after a meal, and he visited our hospital emergency department. We performed an emergency colonoscopy and found a 3-cm mobile polypoid lesion located on the antimesenteric side of the ileum 40 cm from the ileocecal valve and was 85×26×23 mm in size. On the basis of characteristic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT findings, our preoperative diagnosis was intussusception due to Meckel's diverticulum translation and performed a laparoscopic ileocecal resection. The pathological diagnosis was Meckel's diverticulum translation with ectopic pancreatic and gastric tissue. Furthermore, we aggregated the cases of adult intussusception due to Meckel's diverticulum translation reported in Japan, and investigated preoperative diagnoses and treatment plans.
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Effective expansion of engrafted human hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow of mice expressing human Jagged1.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The human immune system can be reconstituted in experimental animals by transplanting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) into immunodeficient mice. To generate such humanized mice, further improvements are required, particularly to ensure that transplanted hHSCs are maintained in mice and proliferate long enough to follow prolonged immune responses to chronic diseases or monitor therapeutic effects. To prepare the relatively human bone marrow environment in mice, we generated nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain null (NOG) mice expressing human Jagged1 (hJ1) in an osteoblast-specific manner (hJ1-NOG mice) to examine whether Notch signaling induced by hJ1 mediates hHSC proliferation and/or maintenance in mice. The established hJ1-NOG mice possess relatively larger bone marrow space and thinner cortical bone compared with nontransgenic littermates, but the number of c-kit(+) Sca-1(+) lineage(-) cells was not significantly different between hJ1-NOG and nontransgenic littermates. In the transplantation experiments of CD34(+) cells obtained from human cord blood, CD34(+)CD38(-) cells (hHSCs) were more increased in hJ1-NOG recipient mice than in nontransgenic littermates in mouse bone marrow environment. In contrast, the transplanted mouse c-kit(+) Sca-1(+) lineage(-) cells did not show significant increase in the same hJ1-NOG mice. These results suggest that hJ1-NOG mice could contribute to the growth of transplanted human CD34(+) cells in a human-specific manner and be useful to study the in vivo behavior and/or development of human stem cells, including cancer stem cells and immune cells.
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Establishment of a Humanized APL Model via the Transplantation of PML-RARA-Transduced Human Common Myeloid Progenitors into Immunodeficient Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent advances in cancer biology have revealed that many malignancies possess a hierarchal system, and leukemic stem cells (LSC) or leukemia-initiating cells (LIC) appear to be obligatory for disease progression. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the formation of a PML-RAR? fusion protein, leads to the accumulation of abnormal promyelocytes. In order to understand the precise mechanisms involved in human APL leukemogenesis, we established a humanized in vivo APL model involving retroviral transduction of PML-RARA into CD34+ hematopoietic cells from human cord blood and transplantation of these cells into immunodeficient mice. The leukemia well recapitulated human APL, consisting of leukemic cells with abundant azurophilic abnormal granules in the cytoplasm, which expressed CD13, CD33 and CD117, but not HLA-DR and CD34, were clustered in the same category as human APL samples in the gene expression analysis, and demonstrated sensitivity to ATRA. As seen in human APL, the induced APL cells showed a low transplantation efficiency in the secondary recipients, which was also exhibited in the transplantations that were carried out using the sorted CD34- fraction. In order to analyze the mechanisms underlying APL initiation and development, fractionated human cord blood was transduced with PML-RARA. Common myeloid progenitors (CMP) from CD34+/CD38+ cells developed APL. These findings demonstrate that CMP are a target fraction for PML-RARA in APL, whereas the resultant CD34- APL cells may share the ability to maintain the tumor.
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Immortalization of Erythroblasts by c-MYC and BCL-XL Enables Large-Scale Erythrocyte Production from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The lack of knowledge about the mechanism of erythrocyte biogenesis through self-replication makes the in vitro generation of large quantities of cells difficult. We show that transduction of c-MYC and BCL-XL into multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells and gene overexpression enable sustained exponential self-replication of glycophorin A(+) erythroblasts, which we term immortalized erythrocyte progenitor cells (imERYPCs). In an inducible expression system, turning off the overexpression of c-MYC and BCL-XL enabled imERYPCs to mature with chromatin condensation and reduced cell size, hemoglobin synthesis, downregulation of GCN5, upregulation of GATA1, and endogenous BCL-XL and RAF1, all of which appeared to recapitulate normal erythropoiesis. imERYPCs mostly displayed fetal-type hemoglobin and normal oxygen dissociation in vitro and circulation in immunodeficient mice following transfusion. Using critical factors to induce imERYPCs provides a model of erythrocyte biogenesis that could potentially contribute to a stable supply of erythrocytes for donor-independent transfusion.
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HIV-1 Vpr Accelerates Viral Replication during Acute Infection by Exploitation of Proliferating CD4(+) T Cells In Vivo.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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The precise role of viral protein R (Vpr), an HIV-1-encoded protein, during HIV-1 infection and its contribution to the development of AIDS remain unclear. Previous reports have shown that Vpr has the ability to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In addition, vpr is highly conserved in transmitted/founder HIV-1s and in all primate lentiviruses, which are evolutionarily related to HIV-1. Although these findings suggest an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis, its direct evidence in vivo has not been shown. Here, by using a human hematopoietic stem cell-transplanted humanized mouse model, we demonstrated that Vpr causes G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis predominantly in proliferating CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells, which mainly consist of regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Tregs), resulting in Treg depletion and enhanced virus production during acute infection. The Vpr-dependent enhancement of virus replication and Treg depletion is observed in CCR5-tropic but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1-infected mice, suggesting that these effects are dependent on the coreceptor usage by HIV-1. Immune activation was observed in CCR5-tropic wild-type but not in vpr-deficient HIV-1-infected humanized mice. When humanized mice were treated with denileukin diftitox (DD), to deplete Tregs, DD-treated humanized mice showed massive activation/proliferation of memory T cells compared to the untreated group. This activation/proliferation enhanced CCR5 expression in memory CD4(+) T cells and rendered them more susceptible to CCR5-tropic wild-type HIV-1 infection than to vpr-deficient virus. Taken together, these results suggest that Vpr takes advantage of proliferating CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells for enhancing viremia of CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Because Tregs exist in a higher cycling state than other T cell subsets, Tregs appear to be more vulnerable to exploitation by Vpr during acute HIV-1 infection.
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Establishment of a human allergy model using human IL-3/GM-CSF-transgenic NOG mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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The development of animal models that mimic human allergic responses is crucial to study the pathophysiology of disease and to generate new therapeutic methodologies. Humanized mice reconstituted with human immune systems are essential to study human immune reactions in vivo and are expected to be useful for studying human allergies. However, application of this technology to the study of human allergies has been limited, largely because of the poor development of human myeloid cells, especially granulocytes and mast cells, which are responsible for mediating allergic diseases, in conventional humanized mice. In this study, we developed a novel transgenic (Tg) strain, NOD/Shi-scid-IL2r?(null) (NOG), bearing human IL-3 and GM-CSF genes (NOG IL-3/GM-Tg). In this strain, a large number of human myeloid cells of various lineages developed after transplantation of human CD34? hematopoietic stem cells. Notably, mature basophils and mast cells expressing Fc?RI were markedly increased. These humanized NOG IL-3/GM-Tg mice developed passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions when administered anti-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl IgE Abs and 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl. More importantly, a combination of serum from Japanese cedar pollinosis patients and cedar pollen extract also elicited strong passive cutaneous anaphylaxis responses in mice. Thus, to our knowledge, our NOG IL-3/GM-Tg mice are the first humanized mouse model to enable the study of human allergic responses in vivo and are excellent tools for preclinical studies of allergic diseases.
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Efficient in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in common marmosets by novel CD8 monoclonal antibody administration.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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In order to directly demonstrate the roles of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in non-human primates, in vivo depletion of the CD8(+) T cells by administration of a CD8-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) is one of the crucial techniques. Recently, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is classified as a New World monkey, has been shown useful as an experimental animal model for various human diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease and a number of infectious diseases. Here we show that an anti-marmoset CD8 mAb 6F10, which we have recently established, efficiently depletes the marmoset CD8(+) T lymphocytes in vivo, i.e., the administration of 6F10 induces drastic and specific reduction in the ratio of the CD8(+) T cell subset for at least three weeks or longer. Our finding will help understand the pivotal role of CD8(+) T cells in vivo in the control of human diseases.
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Clonal selection in xenografted TAM recapitulates the evolutionary process of myeloid leukemia in Down syndrome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a clonal preleukemic disorder that progresses to myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) through the accumulation of genetic alterations. To investigate the mechanism of leukemogenesis in this disorder, a xenograft model of TAM was established using NOD/Shi-scid, interleukin (IL)-2R?(null) mice. Serial engraftment after transplantation of cells from a TAM patient who developed ML-DS a year later demonstrated their self-renewal capacity. A GATA1 mutation and no copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected in the primary patient sample by conventional genomic sequencing and CNA profiling. However, in serial transplantations, engrafted TAM-derived cells showed the emergence of divergent subclones with another GATA1 mutation and various CNAs, including a 16q deletion and 1q gain, which are clinically associated with ML-DS. Detailed genomic analysis identified minor subclones with a 16q deletion or this distinct GATA1 mutation in the primary patient sample. These results suggest that genetically heterogeneous subclones with varying leukemia-initiating potential already exist in the neonatal TAM phase, and ML-DS may develop from a pool of such minor clones through clonal selection. Our xenograft model of TAM may provide unique insight into the evolutionary process of leukemia.
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T-cell receptor gene therapy targeting melanoma-associated antigen-A4 inhibits human tumor growth in non-obese diabetic/SCID/?cnull mice.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Adoptive cell therapy with lymphocytes that have been genetically engineered to express tumor-reactive T-cell receptors (TCR) is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. We have been exploring the development of TCR gene therapy targeting cancer/testis antigens, including melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family antigens, that are ideal targets for adoptive T-cell therapy. The efficacy of TCR gene therapy targeting MAGE family antigens, however, has not yet been evaluated in vivo. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo antitumor activity in immunodeficient non-obese diabetic/SCID/?c(null) (NOG) mice of human lymphocytes genetically engineered to express TCR specific for the MAGE-A4 antigen. Polyclonal T cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transduced with the ?? TCR genes specific for MAGE-A4, then adoptively transferred into NOG mice inoculated with MAGE-A4 expressing human tumor cell lines. The transferred T cells maintained their effector function in vivo, infiltrated into tumors, and inhibited tumor growth in an antigen-specific manner. The combination of adoptive cell therapy with antigen peptide vaccination enhanced antitumor activity, with improved multifunctionality of the transferred cells. These data suggest that TCR gene therapy with MAGE-A4-specific TCR is a promising strategy to treat patients with MAGE-A4-expressing tumors; in addition, the acquisition of multifunctionality in vivo is an important factor to predict the quality of the T-cell response during adoptive therapy with human lymphocytes.
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Vinyl isolator breeding induces insulin resistance in C57BL/6JJcl mice.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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As basic probiotics studies, the glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), and adipokine and hepatic enzyme activities were investigated in male C57BL/6JJcl (B6J) mice under germfree (GF) or specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions. GF B6J mice were reproduced by reproductive engineering and cesarean section using a vinyl isolators (GF group). Some GF group mice were transferred to other vinyl isolators under SPF conditions (SPF group). In addition, conventional B6J mice bred in an open room were defined as controls (Conv group). GTT, ITT, and the sampling of blood, liver, white adipose tissue, and pancreas were performed when these B6J mice were at the age of 8 weeks. As a result, the GF and SPF groups showed hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance when compared with the Conv group. The adipose tissues and plasma TNF? concentrations in the GF and SPF groups were enlarged and increased when compared with the Conv group. Hepatic enzyme activities associated with glucose uptake in the GF and SPF groups were higher than those in the Conv group. However, hepatic enzyme activities associated with gluconeogenesis in the GF and SPF groups were lower than those in the Conv group. We assumed that these results were reactions by the liver to recover from the impaired glucose tolerance and the insulin resistance caused by vinyl isolator breeding of the GF and SPF groups by control of glucose metabolism.
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Identification of hepatic niche harboring human acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2011
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In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, the bone marrow niche is widely known to be an important element of treatment response and relapse. Furthermore, a characteristic liver pathology observed in ALL patients implies that the hepatic microenvironment provides an extramedullary niche for leukemic cells. However, it remains unclear whether the liver actually provides a specific niche. The mechanism underlying this pathology is also poorly understood. Here, to answer these questions, we reconstituted the histopathology of leukemic liver by using patients-derived primary ALL cells into NOD/SCID/Yc (null) mice. The liver pathology in this model was similar to that observed in the patients. By using this model, we clearly demonstrated that bile duct epithelial cells form a hepatic niche that supports infiltration and proliferation of ALL cells in the liver. Furthermore, we showed that functions of the niche are maintained by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, proposing a novel therapeutic approach targeting the extramedullary niche by inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the liver dissemination of leukemia is not due to nonselective infiltration, but rather systematic invasion and proliferation of leukemic cells in hepatic niche. Although the contribution of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is reported in some cancer cells or leukemic niches such as bone marrow, we demonstrated that this axis works even in the extramedullary niche of leukemic cells. Our findings form the basis for therapeutic approaches that target the extramedullary niche by inhibiting the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.
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Epstein-Barr virus induces erosive arthritis in humanized mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the basis of indirect evidence, such as its presence in affected joint tissues, antigenic cross reactions between EBV and human proteins, and elevated humoral and cellular anti-EBV immune responses in patients. Here we report development of erosive arthritis closely resembling RA in humanized mice inoculated with EBV. Human immune system components were reconstituted in mice of the NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R?(null) (NOG) strain by transplantation with CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells isolated from cord blood. These humanized mice were then inoculated with EBV and examined pathologically for the signs of arthritis. Erosive arthritis accompanied by synovial membrane proliferation, pannus formation, and bone marrow edema developed in fifteen of twenty-three NOG mice transplanted with human HSC and inoculated with EBV, but not in the nine NOG mice that were transplanted with HSC but not inoculated with EBV. This is the first report of an animal model of EBV-induced arthritis and strongly suggest a causative role of the virus in RA.
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Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage restricts the self-renewal capacity of human hematopoietic stem cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Stem cells of highly regenerative organs including blood are susceptible to endogenous DNA damage caused by both intrinsic and extrinsic stress. Response mechanisms to such stress equipped in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are crucial in sustaining hematopoietic homeostasis but remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that serial transplantation of human HSCs into immunodeficient mice triggers replication stress that induces incremental elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the accumulation of persistent DNA damage within the human HSCs. This accumulation of DNA damage is also detected in HSCs of clinical HSC transplant patients and elderly individuals. A forced increase of intracellular levels of ROS by treatment with a glutathione synthetase inhibitor aggravates the extent of DNA damage, resulting in the functional impairment of HSCs in vivo. The oxidative DNA damage activates the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors in a HSC specific manner, leading to the premature senescence among HSCs, and ultimately to the loss of stem cell function. Importantly, treatment with an antioxidant can antagonize the oxidative DNA damage and eventual HSC dysfunction. The study reveals that ROS play a causative role for DNA damage and the regulation of ROS have a major influence on human HSC aging.
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Detection of the onset of ischemia and carcinogenesis by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-based in vivo bioluminescence imaging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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An animal model for the early detection of common fatal diseases such as ischemic diseases and cancer is desirable for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates oxygen homeostasis and plays key roles in a number of diseases, including cancer. Here, we established transgenic (Tg) mice that carry HRE/ODD-luciferase (HOL) gene, which generates bioluminescence in an HIF-1-dependent manner and was successfully used in this study to monitor HIF-1 activity in ischemic tissues. To monitor carcinogenesis in vivo, we mated HOL mice with rasH2 Tg mice, which are highly sensitive to carcinogens and are used for short-term carcinogenicity assessments. After rasH2-HOL Tg mice were treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, bioluminescence was detected noninvasively as early as 9 weeks in tissues that contained papillomas and malignant lesions. These results suggest that the Tg mouse lines we established hold significant potential for monitoring the early onset of both ischemia and carcinogenesis and that these lines will be useful for screening chemicals for carcinogenic potential.
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Mismatched human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted CD8? cytotoxic T cells may mediate selective graft-versus-leukemia effects following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Partial human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often performed when an HLA-matched donor is not available. In these cases, CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cell responses are induced depending on the mismatched HLA class I or II allele(s). Herein, we report on an HLA-DRB1*08:03-restricted CD8(+) CTL clone, named CTL-1H8, isolated from a patient following an HLA-DR-mismatched HSCT from his brother. Lysis of a patient Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell line (B-LCL) by CTL-1H8 was inhibited after the addition of blocking antibodies against HLA-DR and CD8, whereas antibodies against pan-HLA class I or CD4 had no effect. The 1H8-CTL clone did not lyse the recipient dermal fibroblasts whose HLA-DRB1*08:03 expression was upregulated after 1 week cytokine treatment. Engraftment of HLA-DRB1*08:03-positive primary leukemic stem cells in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient/?c-null (NOG) mice was completely inhibited by the in vitro preincubation of cells with CTL-1H8, suggesting that HLA-DRB1*08:03 is expressed on leukemic stem cells. Finally, analysis of the precursor frequency of CD8(+) CTL specific for recipient antigens in post-HSCT peripheral blood T cells revealed a significant fraction of the total donor CTL responses towards the individual mismatched HLA-DR antigen in two patients. These findings underscore unexpectedly significant CD8 T cell responses in the context of HLA class II.
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Immunodeficient NOD-scid IL-2R?(null) mice do not display T and B cell leakiness.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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NOD/Shi-scid IL-2R?(null) (NOG) mice established by introducing the IL-2R?(null) gene of IL-2R? KO mice into NOD/Shi-scid mice by backcross-mating show a high xenograft engraftment level and are therefore well suited as a humanized mouse model. SCID mice bearing the Prkdc(scid) gene show a high incidence of thymic lymphoma and a leaky phenomenon in which a few clonal T and B cells develop in aged mice. In the present study, NOG mice were assessed for the presence of a leaky phenomenon such as the one observed in C.B-17-scid and NOD-scid mice. Serum immunoglobulin analysis did not detect IgG or IgM in NOG mice, unlike the findings in C.B-17-scid and NOD-scid mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the absence of T and B cells in the peripheral blood and spleens of NOG mice. These results reflect the suppression of the leaky phenomenon in NOG mice through the inactivation of the IL-2R? gene, which is commonly expressed in T and B cell growth factor receptors to IL-2, IL-4 and IL-7.
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A novel animal model of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in humanized mice.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a rare yet devastating disorder caused by EBV infection in humans. However, the mechanism of this disease has yet to be elucidated because of a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we used a human CD34(+) cell-transplanted humanized mouse model and reproduced pathologic conditions resembling EBV-HLH in humans. By 10 weeks postinfection, two-thirds of the infected mice died after exhibiting high and persistent viremia, leukocytosis, IFN-? cytokinenemia, normocytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. EBV-infected mice also showed systemic organ infiltration by activated CD8(+) T cells and prominent hemophagocytosis in BM, spleen, and liver. Notably, the level of EBV load in plasma correlated directly with both the activation frequency of CD8(+) T cells and the level of IFN-? in plasma. Moreover, high levels of EBV-encoded small RNA1 were detected in plasma of infected mice, reflecting what has been observed in patients. These findings suggest that our EBV infection model mirrors virologic, hematologic, and immunopathologic aspects of EBV-HLH. Furthermore, in contrast to CD8(+) T cells, we found a significant decrease of natural killer cells, myeloid dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the spleens of infected mice, suggesting that the collapse of balanced immunity associates with the progression of EBV-HLH pathogenesis.
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Novel mouse xenograft models reveal a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the proliferation of EBV-infected T and NK cells.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, ectopically infects T or NK cells to cause severe diseases of unknown pathogenesis, including chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). We developed xenograft models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH by transplanting patients PBMC to immunodeficient mice of the NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R?(null) strain. In these models, EBV-infected T, NK, or B cells proliferated systemically and reproduced histological characteristics of the two diseases. Analysis of the TCR repertoire expression revealed that identical predominant EBV-infected T-cell clones proliferated in patients and corresponding mice transplanted with their PBMC. Expression of the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and LMP2, but not EBNA2, in the engrafted cells is consistent with the latency II program of EBV gene expression known in CAEBV. High levels of human cytokines, including IL-8, IFN-?, and RANTES, were detected in the peripheral blood of the model mice, mirroring hypercytokinemia characteristic to both CAEBV and EBV-HLH. Transplantation of individual immunophenotypic subsets isolated from patients PBMC as well as that of various combinations of these subsets revealed a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. In accordance with this finding, in vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells by the administration of the OKT4 antibody following transplantation of PBMC prevented the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. This is the first report of animal models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH that are expected to be useful tools in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the diseases.
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Galectin-1 is expressed in early-type neural progenitor cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and generate new neurons throughout life. A multimodal protein, Galectin-1, is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and implicated in the proliferation of the NPCs in the DG. However, little is known about its detailed expression profile in the NPCs and functions in adult neurogenesis in the DG.
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The reconstituted humanized liver in TK-NOG mice is mature and functional.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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To overcome the limitations of existing models, we developed a novel experimental in vivo platform for replacing mouse liver with functioning human liver tissue. To do this, a herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSVtk) transgene was expressed within the liver of highly immunodeficient NOG mice (TK-NOG). Mouse liver cells expressing this transgene were ablated after a brief exposure to a non-toxic dose of ganciclovir (GCV), and transplanted human liver cells are stably maintained within the liver (humanized TK-NOG) without exogenous drug. The reconstituted liver was shown to be a mature and functioning "human organ" that had zonal position-specific enzyme expression and a global gene expression pattern representative of mature human liver; and could generate a human-specific profile of drug metabolism. The humanized liver could be stably maintained in these mice with a high level of synthetic function for a prolonged period (8 months). This novel in vivo system provides an optimized platform for studying human liver physiology, including drug metabolism, toxicology, or liver regeneration.
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Establishment of a xenograft model of human myelodysplastic syndromes.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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To understand how myelodysplastic syndrome cells evolve from normal stem cells and gain competitive advantages over normal hematopoiesis, we established a murine xenograft model harboring bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes.
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Establishment of a novel xenograft model for human uterine leiomyoma in immunodeficient mice.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynecological benign tumor and greatly affect reproductive health and wellbeing, but the pathophysiology and epidemiology of uterine leiomyoma are poorly understood. One of the major reasons for the slow progress in leiomyoma research is the lack of a good in vivo model system. We therefore aimed to develop a novel model by transplanting human uterine leiomyoma xenografts in an immunodeficient mouse strain (NOD/SCID/gammac-null: NOG). Human uterine leiomyoma tissues were cut into small pieces and inserted subcutaneously into the right and left flanks of NOG mice. Estrogen supplementation was needed to maintain the features of uterine leiomyoma in xenografted tissues. After 4 weeks or 8 weeks of transplantation, xenografted tissues were harvested and analyzed regarding tissue morphology, collagen content, and proliferation and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells. The xenografts that were harvested after 4 weeks and 8 weeks retained the histological architecture of original uterine leiomyoma tissue both in cellular and collagen components. The expression profiles of key markers of uterine leiomyoma were also maintained, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and alpha-smooth muscle actin, as judged by immunohistochemical staining. The proportion of proliferating cells was significantly increased (1.5-fold) in the xenografts after 8 weeks of transplantation, whereas that of the apoptotic cells remained unchanged. Importantly, the reproducible results were obtained with the tumor tissues derived from six patients. The present in vivo model may provide a useful tool for development of novel therapeutic strategies for uterine leiomyoma.
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Comparative study of doses of exogenous progesterone administration needed to delay parturition in Jcl:MCH(ICR) mice.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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The effects of progesterone (P4) used in physiological studies and in delayed parturition in reproductive engineering were examined. A dose of 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 2 mg of P4 was repeatedly administered to Jcl:MCH(ICR) mice on days 17 and 18 of gestation, and plasma concentrations of P4 were investigated. The P4 concentrations in mothers and fetuses after administration of exogenous P4 were no differences between doses of 1 and 2 mg. Jcl:MCH(ICR) mothers administered a P4 dose of 1 mg did not give birth. Therefore, we consider 2 mg of P4 is an overdose and that it is evident that a dose of 1 mg P4 is sufficient to induce delayed parturition.
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In vivo assay of human NK-dependent ADCC using NOD/SCID/gammac(null) (NOG) mice.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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Monoclonal antibodies are essential to the success of molecularly targeted therapies. Recently, numerous therapeutic antibodies have been developed for various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune diseases. Experimental systems to effectively evaluate these candidate antibodies are urgently needed. One of the mechanisms used by antibodies to kill tumor cells is antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), in which natural killer cells (NK) are the main mediator. The capacity to induce ADCC has conventionally been assessed in the human-mouse xeno-graft model, in which human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), containing NK cells along with antibodies, are administered to tumor-bearing immunodeficient mice. However, contamination from other cellular populations often affects tumor growth, making it difficult to evaluate the antibodys effect. In this study, we established a new NK-dependent ADCC assay model using a supra-immunodeficient strain of mice, NOD/SCID/gammac(null) (NOG). Our model system simply consisted of three elements: isolated human NK cells, a Burkitts lymphoma cell line (Daudi), and an anti-CD20 antibody (Rituximab). In this experimental setting, human NK cells from healthy donors retained their killing activity and suppressed the growth of Daudi cells in NOG mice when they were administered along with Rituximab. This system, therefore, is useful for evaluating the in vivo function of human NK cells.
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Remarkable lethal G-to-A mutations in vif-proficient HIV-1 provirus by individual APOBEC3 proteins in humanized mice.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Genomic hypermutation of RNA viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), can be provoked by intrinsic and extrinsic pressures, which lead to the inhibition of viral replication and/or the progression of viral diversity. Human APOBEC3G was identified as an HIV-1 restriction factor, which edits nascent HIV-1 DNA by inducing G-to-A hypermutations and debilitates the infectivity of vif-deficient HIV-1. On the other hand, HIV-1 Vif protein has the robust potential to degrade APOBEC3G protein. Although subsequent investigations have revealed that lines of APOBEC3 family proteins have the capacity to mutate HIV-1 DNA, it remains unclear whether these endogenous APOBEC3s, including APOBEC3G, contribute to mutations of vif-proficient HIV-1 provirus in vivo and, if so, what is the significance of these mutations. In this study, we use a human hematopoietic stem cell-transplanted humanized mouse (NOG-hCD34 mouse) model and demonstrate the predominant accumulation of G-to-A mutations in vif-proficient HIV-1 provirus displaying characteristics of APOBEC3-mediated mutagenesis. Notably, the APOBEC3-associated G-to-A mutation of HIV-1 DNA that leads to the termination of translation was significantly observed. We further provide a novel insight suggesting that HIV-1 G-to-A hypermutation is independently induced by individual APOBEC3 proteins. In contrast to the prominent mutation in intracellular proviral DNA, viral RNA in plasma possessed fewer G-to-A mutations. Taken together, these results provide the evidence indicating that endogenous APOBEC3s are associated with G-to-A mutation of HIV-1 provirus in vivo, which can result in the abrogation of HIV-1 infection.
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Dynamics of memory and naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes in humanized NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgammanull mice infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Creating a novel small animal model of HIV-1 infection that can support long-term systemic HIV-1 infection and produce HIV-1-specific immune response has a great benefit for studying HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo. In the present study, we have generated a humanized mouse, NOG-hCD34 mouse, by transplanting newborn NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgamma(null) mice with human hematopoietic stem cells through hepatic injection. These mice were infected with a CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and were analyzed for plasma viral load, changes in peripheral blood T lymphocytes, and HIV-1-specific antibody production. High level of viral replication, increase in effector/memory CD8(+) T lymphocytes, class-switching to IgG, and production of HIV-1-specific IgGs were observed. Our findings suggest that NOG-hCD34 mice may have a wide variety of application in HIV-1 research.
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Stem cell-like properties of the endometrial side population: implication in endometrial regeneration.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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The human endometrium undergoes cyclical regeneration throughout a womans reproductive life. Ectopic implantation of endometrial cells through retrograde menstruation gives rise to endometriotic lesions which affect approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women. The high regenerative capacity of the human endometrium at eutopic and ectopic sites suggests the existence of stem/progenitor cells and a unique angiogenic system. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize putative endometrial stem/progenitor cells and to address how they might be involved in the physiology of endometrium.
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Molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Gerbillinae (Muridae, Rodentia) with emphasis on species living in the Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of China and based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II genes.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Rodents belonging to the subfamily Gerbillinae and living in the Xinjiang-Uygur autonomous region of China were collected in field surveys between 2001 and 2003. We found four Meriones species, including M. chengi M. liycus, M. meridianus, and M. tamariscinus, as well as related species from different genera, Rhombomys opimus and Brachiones przewaliskii For phylogenetic analyses of these gerbilline species, DNA sequences of parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) genes were examined with the neighbor Joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Meriones is not monophyletic and place M. tamaricinus as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Brachiones, Psammomys, Rhombomys, and the other Meriones species. The remaining Meriones species separate into three lineages: M. meridianus (including M. chengi), Meriones unguiculatus, and a clade that includes multiple Meriones species originating from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera Brachines, Meriones, Psammomys, and Rhombomys remain ambiguous, probably due to the saturation of mutations that occurs in fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA. In addition, intraspecific variation was observed for M. meridianus, and this mostly correlated with collection localities, i.e., the northern and southern parts of the Xinjiang region. This variation corresponded to interspecific levels of divergence among other lineages of Meriones. Interestingly, no differences were observed in either the Cytb or COII gene sequences isolated from M. chengi collected from the Turfan Basin in the north and those from M. meridianus in the south, suggesting that M. chengi may be a synonym of M. meridianus.
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Over-expression of Runx1 transcription factor impairs the development of thymocytes from the double-negative to double-positive stages.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Runx1 transcription factor is highly expressed at a CD4/CD8-double-negative (DN) stage of thymocyte development but is down-regulated when cells proceed to the double-positive (DP) stage. In the present study, we examined whether the down-regulation of Runx1 is necessary for thymocyte differentiation from the DN to DP stage. When Runx1 was artificially over-expressed in thymocytes by Lck-driven Cre, the DN3 population was unaffected, as exemplified by proper pre-T-cell receptor expression, whereas the DN4 population was perturbed as shown by the decrease in the CD27(hi) sub-fraction. In parallel, the growth rate of DN4 cells was reduced by half, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. These events impaired the transition of DN4 cells to the DP stage, resulting in the drastic reduction of the number of DP thymocytes. The Runx1 gene has two promoters, a proximal and a distal promoter; and, in thymocytes, endogenous Runx1 was mainly transcribed from the distal promoter. Interestingly, only distal, but not proximal, Runx1 over-expression exhibited an inhibitory effect on thymocyte differentiation, suggesting that the distal Runx1 protein may fulfil a unique function. Our collective results indicate that production of the distal Runx1 protein must be adequately down-regulated for thymocytes to transit from the DN to the DP stage, a critical step in the massive expansion of the T-cell lineage.
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Profile and removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals by using an ER/AR competitive ligand binding assay and chemical analyses.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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An estrogen receptor (ER)/androgen receptor (AR) ligand competitive binding assay (ER/AR-binding assay) and chemical analyses were used to evaluate the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) behavior of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (K and S). In the influents, estrone (E1), androsterone (A), androstenedione (AD), BPA (bisphenol A), NP (nonylphenol) and daidzein (DZ) were detected in high amounts with subsequent 24 h-average concentrations of 350, 1000, 29, 1300, 3900, and 5700 ng/L in K-WWTP and of 310, 620, 59, 1600, 2600, and 8400 ng/L in S-WWTP. The estrogenic (androgenic) activity as 17beta-estradiol (E2) equivalents (EEQ) or testosterone (Te) equivalents (TEQ) was consequently 620 ng E2/L (570 ng Te/L) and 580 ng E2/L (800 ng Te/L) for the two WWTPs. The removal efficiencies of the above mentioned sole target chemicals were 51%-100% for K-WWTP and 55.6%-100% for S-WWTP. The removal efficiencies of EEQ were about 73% for both WWTPs, while the removal efficiencies of TEQ were 62.1% for K-WWTP and 98.4% for S-WWTP. In addition, chemical-derived EEQ were about 1.2%-52.4% of those by ER-binding assay for K-WWTP and the corresponding ratios were 1.3%-83.3% for S-WWTP, while chemical derived TEQ were less than 3% of values measured by the AR-binding assay for both WWTPs.
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T cell-mediated control of Epstein-Barr virus infection in humanized mice.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2009
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Humanized NOD/Shi-scid/interleukin-2Rgamma(null) (NOG) mice with full T cell development had significantly longer life span after Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, compared with those with minimal T cell development. Removing CD3(+) or CD8(+) T cells from EBV-infected humanized mice by administration of anti-CD3 or anti-CD8 antibodies reduced their life span. CD8(+) T cells obtained from EBV-infected mice suppressed the outgrowth of autologous B cells isolated from uninfected mice and inoculated with EBV in vitro. These results indicate that humanized NOG mice are capable of T cell-mediated control of EBV infection and imply their usefulness as a tool to evaluate immunotherapeutic and prophylactic strategies for EBV infection.
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The analysis of the functions of human B and T cells in humanized NOD/shi-scid/gammac(null) (NOG) mice (hu-HSC NOG mice).
Int. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Humanized mice are anticipated to be a valuable tool for studying the human immune system, but the reconstituted human immune cells have not yet been well characterized. Here, we extensively investigated the differentiation and functions of human B and T cells in a supra-immunodeficient mouse strain, NOD/shi-scid/gammac(null) (NOG) reconstituted with CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood. In these hu-HSC NOG mice, the development of human B cells was partially blocked, and a significant number of B-cell progenitors accumulated in the spleen. The mature CD19(+)IgM(+)IgD(+) human B cells of the hu-HSC NOG mice could produce IgG in vivo and in vitro by antigenic stimulation. In contrast, although human T cells with an apparently normal phenotype developed, most of them could neither proliferate nor produce IL-2 in response to antigenic stimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies in vitro. The positive selection of human T cells in the thymus was sufficiently functional, if not complete, and mainly mediated by mouse class II, suggesting that the human T cells lost their function in the periphery. We found that multiple mechanisms were involved in the T-cell abnormalities. Collectively, our results demonstrate that further improvements are necessary before humanized mice with a functional human immune system are achieved.
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Highly sensitive model for xenogenic GVHD using severe immunodeficient NOG mice.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Several animal models for xenogenic (xeno) graft versus host disease (GVHD) have been developed in immunodeficient mice, such as C.B-17-scid and nonobese diabetes (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), by human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (hPBMC) transplantation. However, these models pose problems because they require sublethal total body irradiation of the mice and a large number of hPBMCs to induce GVHD, and the timing of onset of GVHD is also unstable. The aim of this study is to establish improved murine models of xeno-GVHD using novel immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid IL2r gamma null (NOG) mice.
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Generation of transgenic non-human primates with germline transmission.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is increasingly attractive for use as a non-human primate animal model in biomedical research. It has a relatively high reproduction rate for a primate, making it potentially suitable for transgenic modification. Although several attempts have been made to produce non-human transgenic primates, transgene expression in the somatic tissues of live infants has not been demonstrated by objective analyses such as polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription or western blots. Here we show that the injection of a self-inactivating lentiviral vector in sucrose solution into marmoset embryos results in transgenic common marmosets that expressed the transgene in several organs. Notably, we achieved germline transmission of the transgene, and the transgenic offspring developed normally. The successful creation of transgenic marmosets provides a new animal model for human disease that has the great advantage of a close genetic relationship with humans. This model will be valuable to many fields of biomedical research.
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Selective infection of CD4+ effector memory T lymphocytes leads to preferential depletion of memory T lymphocytes in R5 HIV-1-infected humanized NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgammanull mice.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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To investigate the events leading to the depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes during long-term infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we infected human CD34(+) cells-transplanted NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgamma(null) mice with CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic HIV-1. CXCR4-tropic HIV-1-infected mice were quickly depleted of CD4(+) thymocytes and both CD45RA(+) naïve and CD45RA(-) memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes, while CCR5-tropic HIV-1-infected mice were preferentially depleted of CD45RA(-) memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Staining of HIV-1 p24 antigen revealed that CCR5-tropic HIV-1 preferentially infected effector memory T lymphocytes (T(EM)) rather than central memory T lymphocytes. In addition, the majority of p24(+) cells in CCR5-tropic HIV-1-infected mice were activated and in cycling phase. Taken together, our findings indicate that productive infection mainly takes place in the activated T(EM) in cycling phase and further suggest that the predominant infection in T(EM) would lead to the depletion of memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes in CCR5-tropic HIV-1-infected mice.
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Evaluation of human fetal neural stem/progenitor cells as a source for cell replacement therapy for neurological disorders: properties and tumorigenicity after long-term in vitro maintenance.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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It is expected that human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs) will some day be used in cell replacement therapies. However, their availability is limited because of ethical issues, so they have to be expanded to obtain sufficient amounts for clinical application. Moreover, in-vitro-maintained hNS/PCs may have a potential for tumorigenicity that could be manifested after transplantation in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo properties of long-term-expanded hNS/PCs, including a 6-month bioluminescence imaging (BLI) study of their in vivo tumorigenicity. hNS/PCs cultured for approximately 250 days in vitro (hNS/PCs-250) exhibited a higher growth rate and greater neurogenic potential than those cultured for approximately 500 days in vitro (hNS/PCs-500), which showed greater gliogenic potential. In vivo, both hNS/PCs-250 and -500 differentiated into neurons and astrocytes 4 weeks after being transplanted into the striatum of immunodeficient mice, and hNS/PCs-250 exhibited better survival than hNS/PCs-500 at this time point. We also found that the grafted hNS/PCs-250 survived stably and differentiated properly into neurons and astrocytes even 6 months after the surgery. Moreover, during the 6-month observation period by BLI, we did not detect any evidence of rapid tumorigenic growth of the grafted hNS/PCs, and neither PCNA/Ki67-positive proliferating cells nor significant malignant invasive features were detected histologically. These findings support the idea that hNS/PCs may represent a nontumorigenic, safe, and appropriate cell source for regenerative therapies for neurological disorders.
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Diagnosis of a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm using EUS-FNA.
Intern. Med.
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A woman in her 50s was found to have a pancreatic mass on abdominal ultrasound. The tumor measured 40 mm in diameter and included a cystic lesion and calcification. In this case, we suspected a diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) due to the findings observed on various images. However, we were unable to exclude the possibility that the lesion was a neuroendocrine tumor. Therefore, we performed endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In addition, in order to confirm the diagnosis of SPN, we performed minimized resection (segmental pancreatectomy). Obtaining a definitive preoperative diagnosis of SPN using EUS-FNA can guide the surgical approach.
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Application of a new convenience gender sorting method for mouse spermatozoa to mouse reproductive engineering technology.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
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In this study, we attempted to apply new convenience gender sorting methods using sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene expression on Y spermatozoa to mice. Mouse spermatozoa labeled with Cy3-SRY antibody conjugate were used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In addition, spermatozoa conjugated with SRY antibody were conjugated with magnetic beads (Mag) and were pulled to the bottom of the medium. The supernatant of the medium was used for in vitro fertilization (IVF). The rate of males reproduced by ICSI using the spermatozoa conjugated with Cy3-SRY antibody was 86.1%. The female proportion reproduced by IVF using the spermatozoa separated in the supernatant after Mag-SRY antibody conjugation was 67.3%. These gender sorting methods are effective for the reproduction of transgenic mice.
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Efficient xenoengraftment in severe immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid IL2r?null mice is attributed to a lack of CD11c+B220+CD122+ cells.
J. Immunol.
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Xenograft animal models using immunodeficient mice have been widely applied in medical research on various human diseases. NOD/Shi-scid-IL2r?(null) (NOG) mice are known to show an extremely high engraftment rate of xenotransplants compared with conventional immunodeficient mice. This high engraftment rate of xenotransplants in NOG mice was substantially suppressed by the transfer of spleen cells from NOD-scid mice that were devoid of NK cells. These results indicate that cell types other than splenic NK cells present in NOD-scid mice but not in NOG mice may be involved in this suppression. To identify the cell types responsible for this effect, we transferred subpopulations of spleen cells from NOD-scid mice into NOG mice and assessed the levels of human cell engraftment after human PBMC (hPBMC) transplantation. These experiments revealed that CD11c(+)B220(+) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from NOD-scid mice markedly inhibited engraftment of human cells. The CD11c(+)B220(+)CD122(+) cells further fractionated from the pDCs based on the expression of CD122, which is an NK cell marker strongly inhibited during hPBMC engraftment in NOG mice. Moreover, the CD122(+) cells in the pDC fraction were morphologically distinguishable from conventional CD122(+) NK cells and showed a higher rejection efficiency. The current results suggest that CD11c(+)B220(+)CD122(+) cells play an important role in xenograft rejection, and their absence in NOG mice may be critical in supporting the successful engraftment of xenotransplants.
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Osteosclerosis and inhibition of human hematopoiesis in NOG mice expressing human Delta-like 1 in osteoblasts.
Exp. Hematol.
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NOD/Shi-scid IL2r?null (NOG) mice with severe immunodeficiency are excellent recipients to generate "humanized" mice by the transplantation of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this study, we developed NOG mice carrying a human Delta-like1 (DLL1) gene, which is a ligand of the Notch receptor and is known to be important in HSC maintenance and self-renewal. We also analyzed the effect of DLL1 signaling on human hematopoiesis and HSC maintenance using humanized DLL1 transgenic NOG mice. To develop DLL1 transgenic NOG (NOG-D1-Tg) mice, a transgenic vector consisting of a human DLL1 complementary DNA fragment placed downstream of the ?1(I) collagen (Col1a1) promoter for expression specifically in osteoblasts was constructed. Human CD34(+) HSCs were transplanted into NOG-D1-Tg mice, and differentiation of lymphoid or myeloid lineage cells from human HSCs and maintenance of HSCs in bone marrow were analyzed. Severe osteosclerosis accompanied by increased bone mass and a decreased number of bone marrow cells were observed in NOG-D1-Tg mice. After human HSC transplantation, development of human B lymphocytes, but not T lymphocytes, was significantly suppressed in both bone marrow and the periphery of NOG-D1-Tg mice. Contrary to the initial expectation, retention of human CD34(+) HSCs was inhibited in the bone marrow of NOG-D1-Tg mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that the development of human B lymphocytes and HSC maintenance in osteosclerotic bone may be suppressed by introducing DLL1. These unique humanized mice with sclerotic bone reconstituted by human HSCs are useful models of hematopoiesis in patients with osteosclerosis, such as osteopetrosis, and for investigation of osteogenesis via Notch signaling.
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Induction of human humoral immune responses in a novel HLA-DR-expressing transgenic NOD/Shi-scid/?cnull mouse.
Int. Immunol.
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Mounting evidence has demonstrated that NOD-Shi/scid/?c(null) (NOG) mice are one of the most suitable mouse strains for humanized mouse technologies, in which various human cells or tissues can be engrafted without rejection and autonomously maintained. We have characterized and analyzed various features of the human immune system reconstituted in NOG mice by transplanting human hematopoietic stem cells (hu-HSC). One of the problems of the quasi-immune system in these hu-HSC NOG mice is that the quality of immune responses is not always sufficient, as demonstrated by the lack of IgG production in response to antigen challenge. In this study, we established a novel transgenic NOG sub-strain of mice bearing the HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB1:0405 genes, which specifically expresses HLA-DR4 molecules in MHC II-positive cells. This mouse strain enabled us to match the haplotype of HLA-DR between the recipient mice and human donor HSC. We demonstrated that T-cell homeostasis was differentially regulated in HLA-matched hu-HSC NOG mice compared with HLA-mismatched control mice, and antibody class switching was induced after immunization with exogenous antigens in HLA-matched mice. This novel mouse strain improves the reconstituted human immune systems that develop in humanized mice and will contribute to future studies of human humoral immune responses.
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Vpu augments the initial burst phase of HIV-1 propagation and downregulates BST2 and CD4 in humanized mice.
J. Virol.
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While human cells express potent antiviral proteins as part of the host defense repertoire, viruses have evolved their own arsenal of proteins to antagonize them. BST2 was identified as an inhibitory cellular protein of HIV-1 replication, which tethers virions to the cell surface to prevent their release. On the other hand, the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, has the ability to downregulate and counteract BST2. Vpu also possesses the ability to downmodulate cellular CD4 and SLAMF6 molecules expressed on infected cells. However, the role of Vpu in HIV-1 infection in vivo remains unclear. Here, using a human hematopoietic stem cell-transplanted humanized mouse model, we demonstrate that Vpu contributes to the efficient spread of HIV-1 in vivo during the acute phase of infection. Although Vpu did not affect viral cytopathicity, target cell preference, and the level of viral protein expression, the amount of cell-free virions in vpu-deficient HIV-1-infected mice was profoundly lower than that in wild-type HIV-1-infected mice. We provide a novel insight suggesting that Vpu concomitantly downregulates BST2 and CD4, but not SLAMF6, from the surface of infected cells. Furthermore, we show evidence suggesting that BST2 and CD4 impair the production of cell-free infectious virions but do not associate with the efficiency of cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission. Taken together, our findings suggest that Vpu downmodulates BST2 and CD4 in infected cells and augments the initial burst of HIV-1 replication in vivo. This is the first report demonstrating the role of Vpu in HIV-1 infection in an in vivo model.
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Current advances in humanized mouse models.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
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Humanized mouse models that have received human cells or tissue transplants are extremely useful in basic and applied human disease research. Highly immunodeficient mice, which do not reject xenografts and support cell and tissue differentiation and growth, are indispensable for generating additional appropriate models. Since the early 2000s, a series of immunodeficient mice appropriate for generating humanized mice has been successively developed by introducing the IL-2R?(null) gene (e.g., NOD/SCID/?c(null) and Rag2(null)?c(null) mice). These strains show not only a high rate of human cell engraftment, but also generate well-differentiated multilineage human hematopoietic cells after human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. These humanized mice facilitate the analysis of human hematology and immunology in vivo. However, human hematopoietic cells developed from HSCs are not always phenotypically and functionally identical to those in humans. More recently, a new series of immunodeficient mice compensates for these disadvantages. These mice were generated by genetically introducing human cytokine genes into NOD/SCID/?c(null) and Rag2(null)?c(null) mice. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of human hematopoietic cells developed in these mice. Various human disease mouse models using these humanized mice are summarized.
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