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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of deoxycholic acid on Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Abstract Deoxycholic acid (DOA) is one of the secondary bile acids used as a mild detergent for the isolation of membrane associated proteins. This study examined whether the secondary bile acid, DOA, altered Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was used to measure [Ca(2+)]i. DOA evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises concentration-dependently. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). DOA-evoked Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (nifedipine, econazole and SKF96365), the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, treatment with DOA abolished TG-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. At 100-500 ?M, DOA decreased cell viability, which was not changed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). DOA between 100 ?M and 300 ?M also induced apoptosis. Collectively, in SCM1 cells, DOA induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels. DOA also caused Ca(2+)-independent apoptosis.
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[Health care transition in young people with intellectual disabilities: from generalist to generalist.]
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The transition of medical care in young people with intellectual disabilities is not well organised in the Netherlands. This heterogeneous group, with a high rate of comorbidity, needs regular medical follow-up. During adolescence the paediatrician should preferably transfer medical care to a generalist, such as a physician for people with intellectual disabilities. The guarantee of a safe and effective transition is an integral element in achieving quality of care in this special group of young people with regard to their long-term health and well-being.
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[Fragile from an early age: Osteoporosis in a child with multiple severe disabilities.]
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In the general population osteoporosis and low impact fractures occur mainly in the elderly and in people at increased risk due to disorders. In children with severe intellectual impairment and multiple disabilities severe osteoporosis and fractures of the long bones may be present from an early age.
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Health literacy issues in the care of Chinese American immigrants with diabetes: a qualitative study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate why first-generation Chinese immigrants with diabetes have difficulty obtaining, processing and understanding diabetes related information despite the existence of translated materials and translators.
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Lateral Meniscocapsular Separation in Patients With Tibial Plateau Fractures: Detection With Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate magnetic resonance imaging findings for the detection of lateral meniscocapsular separation (LMCS) in patients with tibial plateau fractures. We hypothesize that patients with LMCS have greater perimeniscal abnormal signal or greater distance between the lateral meniscus (LM) and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) than patients without LMCS.
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Epidemiology of Internet Behaviors and Addiction Among Adolescents in Six Asian Countries.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Abstract Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.
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Cochlearols A and B, Polycyclic Meroterpenoids from the Fungus Ganoderma cochlear That Have Renoprotective Activities.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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(+)- and (-)-cochlearols A (1) and B (2), two meroterpenoids with novel polycyclic skeletons, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Ganoderma cochlear. Their structures and stereochemistry were determined by using spectroscopic, computational and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Cochlearol A is a new normeroterpenoid containing a naturally unusual dioxaspiro[4.5]decane motif. Biological studies showed that (-)-2 is a strong inhibitor of p-Smads, exhibiting renoprotective activities in TGF-?1 induced rat renal proximal tubular cells.
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The Positive Roles of Integrated Layered-Spinel Structures Combined with Nano Coating in Low-Cost Li-Rich Cathode Li[Li0.2Fe0.1Ni0.15Mn0.55]O2 for Lithium-Ion Batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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As the most promising cathodes of lithium-ion batteries, lithium-rich manganese-based layered oxides with high capacity suffer from poor cycle stability, poor rate capability and fast voltage fading. Here we introduced AlF3 into the surface of layered lithium-rich cathode (Li[Li0.2Fe0.1Ni0.15Mn0.55]O2) as an artificial protective layer as well as an inducer of integrated layered-spinel structures to achieve both low cost and high capacity. The reduced irreversible capacity loss, improved cycling stability, and superior high-rate capability were ascribed to the combination of AlF3 nano coating and the unique structures as well as the low charge transfer resistance. Besides, the intractable issue, fast voltage fading of layered lithium-rich cathode, was also alleviated. Such materials with both low cost and high capacity are considered to be promising candidate cathodes to achieve lithium-ion batteries with high energy and high power.
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Estimating divergently routed nonlinearly interfering channel powers using cross phase modulation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The deployment of coherent transceivers in legacy networks requires significant investment in installation. We propose a method enabling autonomous (re-)configuration of an optical channel, which would be advantageous in legacy networks and necessary in proposed future networks utilizing a flexible frequency grid and software defined components such as reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers (ROADM). We consider potential interfering optical channels propagating with the prospective channel along part of the fiber link which are dropped before arrival at the receiver. The method uses a commercially available line card transmitting a 40Gbit/s polarization multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) probe channel to characterize an optical channel. The power of the nearest neighboring channels is then inferred by examining its bit error rate (BER) which is impacted by cross phase modulation (XPM) from the aggressor channels. In a 4 node network with 2 ROADMs using up to 6 aggressor OOK channels, we successfully deduce the neighboring channel power down to -2 dBm, and an extra improvement down to -3.5 dBm is gained, by measuring at an offset to the international telecommunication union (ITU) grid which also reveals inequality in neighbor channel powers.
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Interleukin-33 promotes disease progression in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune liver disease that can cause a series of complications, including cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is expressed in various non-hematopoietic cells and a certain population of immune cells, and exerts its biological effects by binding to the specific receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2). A soluble form of ST2 (sST2) has been postulated to act as a decoy receptor for IL-33. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of PBC. The study included 20 healthy controls and 68 patients with PBC. We thus found the increased serum IL-33 levels in PBC patients. Its elevated levels were positively correlated with serum alkaline phosphatase levels (a key parameter for the definition of PBC) and with Child-Pugh scores, which were used to determine the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the serum concentrations of sST2 were significantly higher in PBC patients compared with healthy subjects, irrespective of the disease severity. Importantly, the cells that express IL-33 and/or myeloperoxidase (a marker for neutrophils) were accumulated in the livers of PBC patients, and their number increased with the severity of liver lesions. Lastly, in vitro chemotaxis assays revealed that IL-33 enhanced the migration of neutrophils. These data suggest that IL-33 may affect the progress of PBC by recruiting neutrophils to the liver. This expanded knowledge of IL-33 in PBC patients is important for developing therapeutic strategies (e.g., neutralization of IL-33), selecting optimal clinical management, and predicting prognosis.
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Treg and Th17 balance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia progression and autoimmune cytopenias.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Abstract The reasons for progression and autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are not entirely clear with previous studies suggesting a role for regulatory T-cells (Treg). In this study we prospectively studied the Treg (CD3+CD4+CD25(high)CD127(low)), IL-10 producing Treg and Th17 (CD3+CD4+IL-17+) cells in 40 treatment naive CLL patients. The percentage of Th17 and not Treg was significantly higher in the AIC cohort than those without AIC (p<0.0001). The Treg/Th17 ratio was skewed in favor of Th17 in the AIC cohort (p=0.02). Th17 cells are responsible for the autoimmune cytopenias of CLL. Analysis of the lymph-node aspirates showed the percentage of Treg and IL-10 expression in the Treg and not Th17 was significantly higher than peripheral blood (p<0.01). Treg cells play a major role in the microenvironment where disease progression occurs. This shows the importance of maintaining the Treg: Th17 equilibrium, for imbalance leads to CLL progression or autoimmune cytopenias.
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Thermally adaptive tradeoffs in closely-related marine bacterial strains.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Time series studies have shown that some bacterial taxa occur only at specific times of the year while others are ubiquitous in spite of seasonal shifts in environmental variables. Here, we ask if these ubiquitous clades are generalists that grow over a wide range of environmental conditions, or clusters of strain-level environmental specialists. To answer this question, vibrio strains isolated at a coastal time series were phylogenetically and physiologically characterized revealing three dominant strategies within the vibrio: mesophiles, psychrophiles and apparently generalist broad thermal range clades. Thermal performance curves from laboratory growth rate experiments help explain field observations of relative abundances: the mesophilic clade grows optimally at temperatures 16 ?C higher than the psychrophilic clade. Strains in the broad thermal range clade all have similar optimal growth temperatures but also exhibit temperature-related tradeoffs with faster growth rates for warm temperature strains and broader growth ranges for strains from cool temperatures. Moreover, the mechanisms of thermal adaptation apparently differ based on evolutionary time scales: shifts in the temperature of maximal growth occur between deeply branching clades but thermal performance curve shape changes on shorter time scales. Thus, apparently ubiquitous clades are likely not generalists, but contain subclusters with distinct environmental preferences.
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Relationship among patients' perceived capacity for communication, health literacy, and diabetes self-care.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The mechanisms underlying the relations among health literacy, perceived capacity for communication, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes self-care are unclear. This study tested this relation using structural equation modeling with a sample of 137 Chinese patients 65 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes. The model showed that health literacy, knowledge, communication capacity, and diabetes self-care formed complex relations. After adjusting for age, education, and Chinese cultural influence, health literacy affected diabetes self-care indirectly through perceived capacity for communication (standardized estimate coefficient = .641, p < .001) but not diabetes knowledge. To enhance self-care, interventions should be tailored to increase patient health literacy and perceived capacity for communication with health care providers. Training should be provided to patients to enhance their communication abilities.
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THROMBOPHILIC RISK FACTORS ARE UNCOMMON IN YOUNG PATIENTS WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To study the thrombotic factors, namely deficiencies of plasma proteins C, S, and antithrombin, factor V Leiden mutation, and positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies in young patients with retinal vein occlusion.
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Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium: A clinicopathologic study of six cases.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Primary small cell carcinoma of the endometrium is a rare disease that can only be diagnosed at an advanced stage, and thus has a poor prognosis. In this study, the clinicopathologic characteristics of endometrial small cell carcinoma are described and the survival outcomes are discussed.
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Synthesis-microstructure-performance relationship of layered transition metal oxides as cathode for rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by high-temperature calcination.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Research on sodium batteries has made a comeback because of concern regarding the limited resources and cost of lithium for Li-ion batteries. From the standpoint of electrochemistry and economics, Mn- or Fe-based layered transition metal oxides should be the most suitable cathode candidates for affordable sodium batteries. Herein, this paper reports a novel cathode material, layered Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.1-0.5), synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process combined with subsequent calcination. For such cathode material calcined at 800 °C for 20 h, the Na/Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.4) electrode exhibited a good capacity of 99.1 mAh g(-1) (cycled at 1.5-4.0 V) and capacity retention over 87% after 50 cycles. Optimization of this material would make layered transition metal oxides a strong candidate for the Na-ion battery cathode.
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Anthracene/Phenothiazine ?-Conjugated Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Redox Mediator in Organic and Water-based Solvents.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13?%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85?% of the N719-based standard cell (8.47?%). The cell efficiency (8.42?%) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96?% with an excellent Voc of 0.77?V.
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Curcumin Protects against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting HIF-1? Through an ERK-Dependent Pathway.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The ERK/HIF-1? signaling pathway is believed to play an important role in the genesis of progressive fibrosis. An increasing expression of HIF-1? and ERK accompanies CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Curcumin is verified to have antifibrotic effects in several kinds of liver fibrosis models. There is no specific evidence illustrating a connection between curcumin and the HIF-1?/ERK pathway in rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. In this study, liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in treated rats. The data demonstrated that curcumin was able to attenuate liver fibrosis and inhibit the proliferation of HSC. Moreover, curcumin could remarkably elevate the hepatic function by decreasing serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP, and increasing levels of ALB, TP and ?-SMA, Col III mRNA expression. Meanwhile, ECM status could also be reflected by curcumin treatment. The alleviation with curcumin treatment was associated with inhibition of HIF-1? and phosphor-ERK. This study indicates that curcumin alleviates fibrosis by reducing the expression of HIF-1? partly through the ERK pathway.
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Co-culture with Mature Islet Cells Augments the Differentiation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Islet transplantation has been hampered by the shortage of islet donors available for diabetes therapy. However, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can be an alternative source of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) because of their capacity for self-renewal and differentiation. We described a method to efficiently differentiate PSCs into IPCs by co-culturing mature islets with directed-differentiated pancreatic endoderm (PE) cells from mouse and human PSCs. PE cells co-cultured with islet cells or islet cell-derived conditioned medium (CM) showed increased expression levels of ?-cell markers; significantly higher levels of proinsulin- and Newport Green (NG)-positive cells, which revealed the characteristics of insulin producing cells; and increased insulin secretion upon glucose stimulation. Co-culturing human PE cells with islet cells was also effective to differentiate PE cells into IPCs. Diabetic nude mice transplanted with co-cultured cells exhibited restored euglycemia, human C-peptide release, and improved glucose tolerance. Immunohistochemistry revealed that insulin+/C-peptide + cells existed in the grafted tissues. These results suggest that mature islet cells can increase the differentiation efficiency of PE cells into mature IPCs via paracrine effects.
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Macrophage-secreted IL-8 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by activating the JAK2/STAT3/Snail pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Macrophages are a major component of the leukocyte infiltrate of tumors and play a pivotal role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms by which macrophages promote HCC invasion are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between macrophages and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC. Double-staining immunohistochemistry was used to observe the association between macrophages and EMT markers in clinical HCC samples and it showed that EMT primarily occurred at the edge of the tumor nest, in which infiltrating macrophages were always observed. This indicated that CD68 which is a marker of macrophages, was correlated with EMT marker levels. In addition, after being cultured with macrophages for 24 h, the ability of HCC cells to migrate and invade increased, Snail and N-Cadherin expression was upregulated, and E-Cadherin was downregulated. An antibody array assay was applied to analyze the supernatant of these cultures and it demonstrated IL-8 increased significantly in the macrophage co-culture system. Finally, the role of macrophage-derived IL-8 in the invasion of HCC cells was assayed, and downstream signaling pathways were also investigated. We found that IL-8: i) may induce EMT and promote HCC cell migration and invasion and ii) is associated with the JAK2/STAT3/Snail signaling pathway. Taking together, these findings revealed that macrophages that have infiltrated tumors may induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HCC cells via the IL-8 activated JAK2/STAT3/Snail pathway. Thus, this may offer a potential target for developing new HCC therapies.
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Spectrum of diseases diagnosed on bone marrow examination of 285 infants in a single tertiary care center.
Hematology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Objectives Bone marrow (BM) aspiration and trephine biopsy is one of the most valuable procedures in the evaluation of hematological disorders. There is a shortage of published literature regarding the indications, procedure, and outcome of bone marrow examination (BME) in neonates and infants. The aim of the present study is to analyze the common indications of performing BME and to assess the spectrum of disorders diagnosed from BM of neonates and infants. Methods A retrospective analysis of BMEs performed in infants over a period of 5 years, between 2009 and 2013 was done. Results and discussion A total of 297 BME were performed on 285 infants, which constitutes 10.3% of pediatric BME procedures during the same period. In our institute, BME is routinely performed by trained pathologists from posterior superior iliac spine in children including infants and neonates with an overall sample adequacy of 97%. Evaluation of cytopenias and suspicion of storage disorder were the most common indications for BME procedure, while acute leukemias and storage disorders were the most common diagnoses offered in infant BM. Conclusions Posterior superior iliac spine is a good site of BME in neonates and infants. BM trephine biopsy is a difficult procedure in this age group, however remains indispensable in situations where an infiltrative pathology is suspected. BME not only helps to make specific diagnoses but should also be used as an extremely valuable, quick, and economically viable procedure to exclude major hematological disorders including certain forms of storage disorder and hematological malignancy in this age group.
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Role of Nrf2 Dysfunction in Uremia-Associated Intestinal Inflammation and Epithelial Barrier Disruption.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Gut inflammation is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contributes to systemic inflammation via disruption of the epithelial tight junction with subsequent endotoxin and bacterial translocation.
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Reliability of tumour grade 1 and endometrioid cell type on preoperative endometrial biopsy.
J Obstet Gynaecol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of using tumour grade and cell type on preoperative endometrial biopsy for the selection of patients for conservative hormone treatment. We retrospectively reviewed results of 643 patients with endometrial carcinoma for tumour grade and 817 for tumour cell type who underwent endometrial biopsy followed by surgery. Of the 357 patients with a grade 1 tumour on preoperative endometrial biopsy, 58 (16.2%) were upgraded based on a final pathology report from hysterectomy specimens. For grade 1, the preoperative endometrial biopsy showed a sensitivity of 80.4%, a specificity of 78.6%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.8% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 74.5%. Of the 672 patients with the endometrioid cell type on preoperative biopsy, 46 (5.6%) showed a different cell type on final pathology. For the endometrioid cell type, preoperative endometrial biopsy had a sensitivity of 91.3%, a specificity of 64.9%, a PPV of 93.2% and an NPV of 58.6%. This weak predictive value should be considered when selecting patients for conservative hormone treatment.
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A rare association of celiac disease and aplastic anemia: case report of a child and review of literature.
Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Abstract An association between severe aplastic anemia and other autoimmune diseases is rare and has been described in adults for eosinophilic fasciitis, thymomas, systemic lupus erythematosus and thyroid disorders. Herein we report a case of celiac disease on gluten free diet, who presented with progressive pallor, fever and weakness of 1 month duration. On investigation, he had pancytopenia, which on subsequent evaluation revealed aplastic anemia. Association between aplastic anemia and celiac disease has rarely been reported. To the best of authors knowledge, only single pediatric case of celiac disease associated with aplastic anemia has been published. This is the second report to suggest such an association in children.
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Comparison of adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma in patients with early-stage cervical cancer after radical surgery.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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To compare outcomes after radical hysterectomy in patients with stage IB1 adenocarcinoma (AdCa) and adenosquamous carcinoma (AdSCCa) of the uterine cervix.
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Metabolomic Profiling of Autoimmune Hepatitis: The Diagnostic Utility of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is often confused with other liver diseases because of their shared nonspecific symptoms and serological and histological overlap. This study compared the plasma metabolomic profiles of patients with AIH, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), PBC/AIH overlap syndrome (OS), and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with those of healthy subjects to identify potential biomarkers of AIH. Metabolomic profiling and biomarker screening were performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) coupled with a partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared with the levels in healthy volunteers and other liver disease patients, AIH patients exhibited relatively high levels of plasma pyruvate, lactate, acetate, acetoacetate, and glucose. Such metabolites are typically related to energy metabolism alterations and may be a sign of metabolic conversion to the aerobic glycolysis phenotype of excessive immune activation. Increased aromatic amino acids and decreased branched-chain amino acids were found in the plasma of AIH patients. The whole NMR profiles were stepwise-reduced, and nine metabolomic biomarkers having the greatest significance in the discriminant analysis were obtained. The diagnostic utility of the selected metabolites was assessed, and these biomarkers achieved good sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (all above 93%) in distinguishing AIH from PBC, DILI, and OS. This report is the first to present the metabolic phenotype of AIH and the potential utility of (1)H NMR metabolomics in the diagnosis of AIH.
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Glycemic responses to intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion in living liver donors.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The occurrence of glycemic disturbances have been described in patients undergoing intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion (IHIO) for tumor removal. However, the glycemic responses to IHIO in living liver donors are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the glycemic response to IHIO in these patients and examined the association between this procedure and the occurrence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose >180 mg/dl). The data from a total of 154 living donors were retrospectively reviewed. The decision to perform IHIO was made based on the extent of bleeding that occurred during parenchymal dissection. One round of IHIO consisted of 15 minutes of clamping and 5 minutes of unclamping the hepatic artery and portal vein. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at predetermined time points, including the start and end of IHIO. Repeated hyperglycemic episodes occurred following unclamping. The mean maximum intraoperative blood glucose concentration was greater in donors who underwent ?3 rounds of IHIO than in those who underwent 1-2 rounds of IHIO (169 ± 30 mg/dl versus 149 ± 31 mg/dl, P = 0.005). The incidence of intraoperative hyperglycemia was also greater in donors who underwent ?3 rounds of IHIO than in those who underwent 1-2 rounds of IHIO (38.7% versus 7.7%, odds ratio 7.1, 95% confidence interval 2.5-20.4, P = 0.001). Donors who did not undergo IHIO and those who underwent 1-2 rounds of IHIO exhibited similar maximum glucose concentrations and similar incidence rates of hyperglycemia. In conclusion, IHIO induced repeated hyperglycemic responses in living donors, and donors who underwent ?3 rounds of IHIO were more likely to experience intraoperative hyperglycemia. These results provide additional information on the risks and benefits of IHIO in living donors. Liver Transpl , 2014. © 2014 AASLD.
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Primary bone marrow lymphoma is a rare neoplasm with poor outcome: case series from single tertiary care centre and review of literature.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Primary bone marrow lymphoma is a rare disease and remains undiagnosed due to deceptive clinical presentation. Here, we report four cases of primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which presented with cytopenias without any lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Bone marrow examination revealed large atypical B-cells with a reactive T-cell infiltrate with suppression of the normal hematopoietic elements. This lymphoma is known to have a poor prognosis. Inspite of treatment, two of our patients died during chemotherapy. Two patients relapsed, of which one showed an early relapse after two months and was put on an alternative regimen. The other patient relapsed twice at an interval of 4 and 5 years, respectively, following which he remained in remission for another 5 years and had recently shown a relapse for the third time. Review of literature revealed seven case series and 11 case reports of primary bone marrow lymphoma in the last five decades.
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Amyloidogenic peptide oligomer accumulation in autophagy-deficient ? cells induces diabetes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Islet amyloid accumulation is a hallmark of human type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), murine islet amyloid polypeptide (mIAPP) does not exhibit amyloidogenic propensity. Because autophagy is important in the clearance of amyloid-like proteins, we studied transgenic mice with ? cell-specific expression of hIAPP to evaluate the contribution of autophagy in T2D-associated accumulation of hIAPP. In mice with ? cell-specific expression of hIAPP, a deficiency in autophagy resulted in development of overt diabetes, which was not observed in mice expressing hIAPP alone or lacking autophagy alone. Furthermore, lack of autophagy in hIAPP-expressing animals resulted in hIAPP oligomer and amyloid accumulation in pancreatic islets, leading to increased death and decreased mass of ? cells. Expression of hIAPP in purified monkey islet cells or a murine ? cell line resulted in pro-hIAPP dimer formation, while dimer formation was absent or reduced dramatically in cells expressing either nonamyloidogenic mIAPP or nonfibrillar mutant hIAPP. In autophagy-deficient cells, accumulation of pro-hIAPP dimers increased markedly, and pro-hIAPP trimers were detected in the detergent-insoluble fraction. Enhancement of autophagy improved the metabolic profile of hIAPP-expressing mice fed a high-fat diet. These results suggest that autophagy promotes clearance of amyloidogenic hIAPP, autophagy deficiency exacerbates pathogenesis of human T2D, and autophagy enhancers have therapeutic potential for islet amyloid accumulation-associated human T2D.
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High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by 24-hour Urine Specimen Increase Urinary Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption Marker.
J Bone Metab
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The average dietary sodium intake of Koreans is 2.6 times higher than the World Health Organization's recommended amount. The effect of a diet high in sodium on the skeletal system, especially osteoporosis, has not previously been examined in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass. We assessed the daily sodium intake, and determined the impact of sodium intake on urinary calcium excretion and bone resorption marker.
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The association between internet addiction and psychiatric co-morbidity: a meta-analysis.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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This study evaluates the association between Internal Addiction (IA) and psychiatric co-morbidity in the literature.
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Hemoglobin A1c values are affected by hemoglobin level and gender in non-anemic Koreans.
J Diabetes Investig
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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To evaluate whether hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are affected by hemoglobin level and gender.
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The Mechanism of NPC-14686-Induced [Ca²?]i Rises and Non-Ca²?-Triggered Cell Death in MG63 Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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NPC-14686 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect in previous studies, but the mechanisms are unclear. The effect of NPC-14686 on cytosolic Ca²? concentrations ([Ca²?]i) and viability in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells was explored. The Ca²?-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca²?]i. NPC-14686 at concentrations of 100-500 ?M induced a [Ca²?]i rise in a concentrationdependent manner. The response was reduced by 80% by removing Ca²?. NPC-14686 induced Mn²? influx leading to quenching of fura-2 fluorescence. NPC-14686-evoked Ca²? entry was suppressed by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C inhibitor. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished NPC-14686-induced [Ca²?]i rise. At 20-50 ?M, NPC-14686 decreased cell viability, which was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca²? with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/acetoxy methyl (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that NPC-14686 (30-50 ?M) induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. NPC-14686 also increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in human osteosarcoma cells, NPC-14686 induced a [Ca²?]i rise by inducing phospholipase C-dependent Ca²? release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²? entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²? channels. NPC-14686 induced cell death that might involve apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways.
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Therapeutic DC vaccination with IL-2 as a consolidation therapy for ovarian cancer patients: a phase I/II trial.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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While ovarian cancer (OvCa) responds well to surgery and conventional chemotherapy, a high recurrence rate of advanced OvCa is observed. In this phase I/II study, 10 OvCa patients with minimal residual disease were treated with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) and IL-2 to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this therapeutic strategy and to characterize the antigen-specific immune alterations induced through this treatment. Approximately 4 months after initial debulking and chemotherapy, patients received two subcutaneous doses of autologous monocyte-derived DCs pulsed with autologous tumor lysate and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) at 4-week intervals. After each DC inoculation, low-dose (200 mIU) IL-2 was introduced for 14 consecutive days as an immune adjuvant. The vaccination was well tolerated. In three out of 10 patients, the inclusion status after the initial therapy showed the maintenance of complete remission (CR) after DC vaccination for 83, 80.9 and 38.2 months without disease relapse. One patient with stable disease (SD) experienced the complete disappearance of tumor after DC vaccination, and this status was maintained for 50.8 months until tumor recurrence. In two patients with partial response (PR) was not responding to DC vaccination and their disease recurred. In the three patients with disease free long-term survival, significant immune alterations were observed, including increased natural killer (NK) activity, IFN-?-secreting T cells, immune-stimulatory cytokine secretion and reduced immune-suppressive factor secretion after DC vaccination. Thus, in patients with NED status and increased overall survival, DC vaccination induced tumor-related immunity, potentially associated with long-term clinical responses against OvCa.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 30 June 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.40.
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A randomized controlled trial of an internet-based mentoring program for type 1 diabetes patients with inadequate glycemic control.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To determine whether an internet-based mentoring program can improve glycemic control in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
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Occult hepatitis B virus infection predicts de novo hepatitis B infection in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis after liver transplantation.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) is a suspected source of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after LT. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of OBI in liver transplant recipients with alcoholic cirrhosis and demonstrate the association between OBI and de novo HBV infection after LT in these patients.
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Effects of Thymol on Ca²? Homeostasis and Apoptosis in MDCK Renal Tubular Cells.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Thymol is a natural essential oil present in many plants and has many different effects in various cell types. However, the effect of thymol on the physiology of MDCK renal tubular cells is unknown. The action of the phytochemical thymol on cytosolic Ca²? concentrations ([Ca²?]i) and apoptosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubular cells was explored. Fura-2, a Ca²?-sensitive fluorescent dye, was used to assess [Ca²?]i. Thymol at concentrations of 200-500 ?M caused a [Ca²?]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of extracellular Ca²? partially reduced the effects of thymol. Thymol-induced Ca²? entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365 and protein kinase C modulators. In a Ca²?-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²? pump inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited thymol-induced [Ca²?]i increases. Treatment with thymol also inhibited thapsigargin-induced [Ca²?]i rise. Thymol killed cells at concentrations of 300-500 ?M in a concentrationdependent fashion. Chelating cytosolic Ca²? with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent thymol cytotoxicity. Thymol (400 and 500 ?M) induced apoptosis detected by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. At 400 or 500 ?M, thymol increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in MDCK cells, thymol induced a [Ca²?]i rise by inducing Ca²? release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²? entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²? channels. Our data suggest that thymol-induced apoptosis might involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
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Cardiovascular disease incidence, mortality and case-fatality related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome: A community-based prospective study (Ansung-Ansan cohort 2001-2012).
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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We evaluated the separate and combined effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD mortality and case-fatality risk.
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Feasibility and Safety of Laparoscopic Surgery for Obese Korean Women with Endometrial Cancer: Long-Term Results at a Single Institution.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility of and survival outcome after laparoscopy in obese Korean women with endometrial cancer which has recently been increasing. We reviewed the medical records of the patients treated at our medical institution between 1999 and 2012. The patients were divided into three groups, non-obese (Body Mass Index [BMI]<25.0), overweight (BMI 25-27.99), and obese (BMI?28.0). These patient groups were compared in terms of their clinical characteristics, treatment methods, as well as surgical and survival outcomes. In total, 55 of the 278 eligible patients were obese women. There were no differences in the three groups in terms of the proportion of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, their cancer stage, histologic type, type of adjuvant treatment administered, intra-, post-operative, and long-term complications, operative time, number of removed lymph nodes, blood loss, and duration of hospitalization (P=0.067, 0.435, 0.757, 0.739, 0.458, 0.173, 0.076, 0.124, 0.770, 0.739, and 0.831, respectively). The Disease-Free Survival (DFS) times were 139.1 vs. 121.6 vs. 135.5 months (P=0.313), and the Overall Survival (OS) times were 145.2 vs. 124.8 vs. 139.5 months (P=0.436) for each group, respectively. Obese women with endometrial cancer can, therefore, be as safely managed using laparoscopy as women with normal BMIs.
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Impact of body mass index on the prognosis of Korean women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: A cohort study.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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To analyze how pretreatment body mass index relates to known endometrial cancer prognostic factors and how it impacts the disease-free survival and cause-specific survival of Korean women with endometrial cancer.
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Optimal glycated albumin cutoff value to diagnose diabetes in Korean adults: a retrospective study based on the oral glucose tolerance test.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Glycated albumin (GA) reflects short-term status of glycemic control. We suggest a GA cut-off value to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes in Korean adults. In addition, we compared the performance of GA for the diagnosis of diabetes with that of glycated hemoglobin (A1c).
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Cdo suppresses canonical Wnt signalling via interaction with Lrp6 thereby promoting neuronal differentiation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Canonical Wnt signalling regulates expansion of neural progenitors and functions as a dorsalizing signal in the developing forebrain. In contrast, the multifunctional co-receptor Cdo promotes neuronal differentiation and is important for the function of the ventralizing signal, Shh. Here we show that Cdo negatively regulates Wnt signalling during neurogenesis. Wnt signalling is enhanced in Cdo-deficient cells, leading to impaired neuronal differentiation. The ectodomains of Cdo and Lrp6 interact via the Ig2 repeat of Cdo and the LDLR repeats of Lrp6, and the Cdo Ig2 repeat is necessary for Cdo-dependent Wnt inhibition. Furthermore, the Cdo-deficient dorsal forebrain displays stronger Wnt signalling activity, increased cell proliferation and enhanced expression of the dorsal markers and Wnt targets, Pax6, Gli3, Axin2. Therefore, in addition to promoting ventral central nervous system cell fates with Shh, Cdo promotes neuronal differentiation by suppression of Wnt signalling and provides a direct link between two major dorsoventral morphogenetic signalling pathways.
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Psychometric properties of the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) in Chinese adolescents.
J Abnorm Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) was developed to assess Internet addiction in Chinese populations, but its psychometric properties in adolescents have not been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of CIAS-R in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. 860 Grade 7 to 13 students (38 % boys) completed the CIAS-R, the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) in a survey. The prevalence of Internet addiction as assessed by CIAS-R was 18 %. High internal consistency and inter-item correlations were reported for the CIAS-R. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure of Compulsive Use and Withdrawal, Tolerance, Interpersonal and Health-related Problems, and Time Management Problems. Moreover, results of hierarchical multiple regression supported the incremental validity of the CIAS-R to predict mental health outcomes beyond the effects of demographic differences and self-reported time spent online. The CIAS is a reliable and valid measure of internet addiction problems in Hong Kong adolescents. Future study is warranted to validate the cutoffs of the CIAS-R for identification of adolescents with Internet use problems who may have mental health needs.
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Spectrum-effect relationships between UPLC fingerprints and bioactivities of crude secondary roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux (Fuzi) and its three processed products on mitochondrial growth coupled with canonical correlation analysis.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: The crude secondary roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux (Fuzi), together with its processed products, including Yanfuzi, Heishunpian and Paofupian, are commonly applied in clinic using for thousands of years, such as collapse, syncope, rheumatic fever, painful joints and various tumors. Aim of the study: To explore the different effects of Fuzi and its processed products on energy metabolism, with mitochondria as the model with the aim of guiding the clinical use of Fuzi and its products. fingerprints of Fuzi, Yanfuzi, Heishunpian and Paofupian were established by Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) and effects of Fuzi and its processed products on rat's liver?s mitochondrial metabolism were studied by microcalorimetry. Spectrum-effect relationships between UPLC fingerprints and energy metabolism of mitochondria were investigated using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Results: Because of their inherent differences in chemical compositions, the main activities of energy metabolism of mitochondria were different among Fuzi and its processed products. The potential bioactivity sequence of the tested products was Fuzi>Heishunpian>Paofupian>Yanfuzi. Results of CCA showed that compounds mesaconitine, benzoylaconitine, and benzoylhypacoitine might be the principal active components. Conclusion: Altogether, this work provides a general model of combination of UPLC and microcalorimetry to study the spectrum-effect relationships of Fuzi and its processed products which can offer some references for detecting principal components of traditional Chinese medicine on bioactivity to mitochondrial growth.
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Benefits of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of labeled islets.
Islets
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm (2) of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P<0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm (2) (P<0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets.
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Multiple paracrine factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells contribute to angiogenesis.
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation in ischemic disease are mediated by the production of paracrine bioactive factors. However, the bioactive factors secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their angiogenic activity are not clearly identified or determined. We here found that hMSC-derived conditioned media (hMSC-CdM) stimulated in vitro angiogenic activity of endothelial cells and contained significant levels of various growth factors and cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1). The angiogenic activity of hMSC-CdM was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with neutralizing antibodies against VEGF, MCP-1, and IL-6, but not against TGF-?1 and HGF. A mixture of those inhibitory antibodies blocked CdM-mediated activation of angiogenic signals, as well as inhibited CdM-mediated in vivo angiogenesis. Moreover, local injection of CdM increased angiogenesis and promoted blood flow in mice with hindlimb ischemia, and these effects were inhibited by co-treatment with these inhibitory antibodies. These results indicate that hMSC-CdM represents a promising cell-free therapeutic strategy for neovascularization in ischemic diseases. These results suggest the combination of VEGF, MCP-1, and IL-6 as a commercial application for therapeutic angiogenesis.
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Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria is rare cause for thrombosis of the intra-abdominal veins in the ethnic Indian population - results from FLAER-based flowcytometry screening.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may present as cytopenia, hemolysis, or thrombosis at unusual sites including splanchnic vessels. Thrombosis of the portal veins and hepatic veins are associated with thrombophilic risk factors: deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin, positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies, and factor V Leiden mutation. There is limited information regarding PNH presenting primarily as a thrombotic event. We prospectively screened 142 consecutive patients with intrabdominal thrombosis and 106 controls with fluorescently labeled inactive toxin aerolysin (FLAER)-based flowcytometry to assess the frequency of PNH as a thrombophilic risk factor in patients with intra-abdominal thrombosis.
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A Long-term follow-up study of 91 cases with ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To evaluate the prognostic factors of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) and treatment outcomes in recurrent GCT cases.
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Risk of bladder cancer among patients with diabetes treated with a 15 mg pioglitazone dose in Korea: a multi-center retrospective cohort study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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It has not yet been determined whether chronic exposure to relatively low doses of pioglitazone increases risk of bladder cancer. We aimed to assess the risk of bladder cancer associated with pioglitazone in Korean patients. This was a retrospective cohort study of diabetic patients who had ? 2 clinic visits between November 2005 and June 2011 at one of four tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. A prevalent case-control analysis nested within the cohort was conducted to further adjust confounders. A total of 101,953 control patients and 11,240 pioglitazone-treated patients were included, in which there were 237 and 30 cases of incidental bladder cancer (64.9 and 54.9 per 100,000 person-years; age, sex-adjusted HR 1.135, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.769-1.677), respectively. In the prevalent case-control analysis nested within the cohort, use of pioglitazone for a duration of > 6 months, but not ever use of pioglitazone, was associated with an increased rate of bladder cancer as compared to never use of pioglitazone. In conclusion, we failed to exclude the possible association between use of pioglitazone for a duration of > 6 months and bladder cancer.
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Clinical factors associated with absolute and relative measures of glycemic variability determined by continuous glucose monitoring: an analysis of 480 subjects.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Factors associated with absolute and relative measures of glycemic variability have not been determined by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and concurrent measurement of fasting C-peptide levels.
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Risk factors for de novo hepatitis B infection in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To investigate the incidence of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to analyze the risk factors associated with this de novo HBV infection.
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Glucagon/insulin ratio in preoperative screening before pancreatic surgery: correlation with hemoglobin A1C in subjects with and without pancreatic cancer.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Role of impaired suppression of glucagon secretion in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes has been suggested. We examined the correlation between glucagon/insulin ratio (G/I) after glucose challenge and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) in subjects with and without pancreatic cancer. Data were gathered from a preoperative screening 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in patients who would eventually undergo pancreatic resection. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using the following covariates: age, body mass index, hemoglobin, glucose and insulin levels at the corresponding time points, indices of insulin resistance, duration of diabetes, insulinogenic index, and use of glucose-lowering drugs. In subject group with pancreatic cancer (n = 45), but not in subject group without pancreatic cancer (n = 101), participants with A1C ?6.5 % had significantly higher glucagon levels, lower insulin levels, and higher G/I ratios after the glucose challenge than those of the subjects with A1C <5.7 %. In the multiple linear regression analysis, there was an independent correlation between post-challenge G/I ratio and A1C in both groups. Some of the patients without pancreatic cancer had inappropriately elevated G/I ratios despite A1C <6.5 %. These patients were characterized by lower insulinogenic indices (p = 0.004) and less insulin resistance (p = 0.008). In conclusion, post-challenge G/I ratio independently correlated with A1C in patients with pancreatic cancer. Although significant, the degree of correlation was weakened in the subjects without pancreatic cancer because some had lower insulin secretory reserve compensated by less insulin resistance, resulting in inappropriately elevated G/I ratios relative to A1C.
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An infectious RNA with a hepta-adenosine stretch responsible for programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift derived from a full-length cDNA clone of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) is a member of Tobamovirus and its full-length cDNA clones were constructed. The in vitro transcripts from two HLSV full-length cDNA clones, which contain a hepta-adenosine stretch (pHLSV-7A) and an octo-adenosine stretch (pHLSV-8A), are both infectious. The replication level of HLSV-7A in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts was 5-fold lower, as compared to that of HLSV-8A. The replicase proteins of HLSV-7A were produced through programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift (-1 PRF) and the 7A stretch was a slippery sequence for -1 PRF. Mutations to the downstream pseudoknot of 7A stretch showed that the pseudoknot was not required for the frameshift in vitro. The stretch was found to be extended to 8A after subsequent replication cycles in vivo. It is envisaged that HLSV employs the monotonous runs of A and -1 PRF to convert its 7A to 8A to reach higher replication for its survival in plants.
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Paxillin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of paxillin in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF?A)?induced adhesion, proliferation, migration and capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used to evaluate these four processes in vitro. The HUVECs were either mock?transfected (control), transfected with scramble small interference RNA (siRNA) or transfected with siRNA specifically targeting paxillin. VEGF?A (20 ng/ml) was used to stimulate angiogenesis. The VEGF?A treatment significantly increased the adhesion, proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HUVECs in the control and scramble siRNA groups, whereas the siRNA?-mediated knockdown of paxillin inhibited these VEGF?A?induced effects. Paxillin is essential for VEGF?A?mediated angiogenesis in ECs and its inhibition may be a potential target for antiangiogenic therapies.
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Long-term outcomes after fertility-sparing laparoscopic radical trachelectomy in young women with early-stage cervical cancer: an Asan Gynecologic Cancer Group (AGCG) study.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To evaluate the long-term outcomes and risk factors for recurrence after fertility-sparing laparoscopic radical trachelectomy (LRT) in young women with early-stage cervical cancer.
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Reproductive outcomes after laparoscopic radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The objective of this study was to estimate the reproductive outcome of young women with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing laparoscopic radical trachelectomy (LRT).
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Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Movement but Not for Viral RNA Replication.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for ?-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T?=?1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the ?-annulus domain is required in T?=?3 assembly in vitro.
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Intraoperative Hyperglycemia during Liver Resection: Predictors and Association with the Extent of Hepatocytes Injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Patients undergoing liver resection are at risk for intraoperative hyperglycemia and acute hyperglycemia is known to induce hepatocytes injury. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether intraoperative hyperglycemia during liver resection is associated with the extent of hepatic injury.
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Analysis and comparison of somatic mutations in paired primary and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer samples.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The TP53 mutations have been proved to be predominated in ovarian cancer in a study from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). However, the molecular characteristics of recurrent ovarian cancers following initial treatment have been poorly estimated. This study was to investigate the pattern of somatic point mutations in matched paired samples of primary and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers, using the OncoMap mutation detection protocol. We have adapted a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of a large panel of known cancer genes. OncoMap v.4.4 was used to evaluate genomic DNA isolated from a set of 92 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, consisting of matched paired samples of initially diagnosed and recurrent tumors from 46 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Mutations were observed in 33.7% of the samples, with 29.3% of these samples having a single mutation and the remaining 4.3% having two or more mutations. Among the 41 genes analyzed, 35 mutations were found in four genes, namely, CDKN2A (2.2%), KRAS (6.5%), MLH1 (8.2%) and TP53 (20.7%). TP53 was the most frequently mutated gene, but there was no correlation between the presence of mutation in any gene and clinical prognosis. Furthermore, somatic mutations did not differ between primary and recurrent ovarian carcinomas. Every mutation present in recurrent samples was detected in the corresponding primary sample. In conclusion, these OncoMap data of Korean EOC samples provide that somatic mutations were found in CDKN2A, KRAS, MLH1, and TP53. No differences in mutational status between primary and recurrent samples were detected. To understand the biology of tumor recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer, more studies are necessary, including epigenetic modifications or additional mutations in other genes.
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Development of an HbA1c-based conversion equation for estimating glycated albumin in a Korean population with a wide range of glucose intolerance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Compared to the golden standard glycation index of HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) has potentials for assessing insulin secretory dysfunction and glycemic fluctuation as well as predicting diabetic vascular complications. However, the reference ranges of GA and a conversion equation need to be clearly defined. We designed this study to determine the reference ranges in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) based on conventional measures of glycemic status and to devise a conversion equation for calculating HbA1c and GA in a Korean population.
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Preoperative fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose tumoral uptake ratio between upper and lower abdomen in primary advanced-stage ovarian cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The objective of this study was to assess whether the ratio of upper abdomen (UA) to lower abdomen (LA) (relative to the umbilicus) standardized fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, as measured by preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography, is predictive of recurrence, survival, and suboptimal cytoreduction (residual tumor >1.0 cm) in advanced-stage ovarian cancer (AOC).
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Divergent pathways to influence: Cognition and behavior differentially mediate the effects of optimism on physical and mental quality of life in Chinese university students.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Previous research has indicated that both cognitive and behavioral variables mediate the positive effect of optimism on quality of life; yet few attempts have been made to accommodate these constructs into a single explanatory framework. Adopting Fredricksons broaden-and-build perspective, we examined the relationships between optimism, self-rated health, resilience, exercise, and quality of life in 365 Chinese university students using path analysis. For physical quality of life, a two-stage model, in which the effects of optimism were sequentially mediated by cognitive and behavioral variables, provided the best fit. A one-stage model, with full mediation by cognitive variables, provided the best fit for mental quality of life. This suggests that optimism influences physical and mental quality of life via different pathways.
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Tacrolimus-related seizure after pediatric liver transplantation - A single-center experience.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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To identify the risk factors for new-onset seizures after pediatric LT and to assess their clinical implications and long-term prognosis. The clinical and laboratory data of 27 consecutive children who underwent LT from January 2007 to December 2010 in our center were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into seizures group and a non-seizures group. Pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative data were collected. Seizures occurred in four children, an incidence of 14.8%. All exhibited generalized tonic-clonic seizures within the first two wk after LT. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with seizures after pediatric LT included gender, pediatric end-stage liver disease score before surgery, Child-Pugh score before surgery, serum total bilirubin after surgery, and trough TAC level. Multivariate analysis showed that trough TAC level was the only independent risk factor associated with the seizures. All children who experienced seizures survived with good graft function and remained seizure-free without anti-epileptic drugs over a mean follow-up period of 33.7 ± 14.6 months. High trough TAC level was the predominant factor that contributed to seizures in the early post-operative period after pediatric LT. High PELD and Child-Pugh scores before LT and high post-operative serum Tbil may be contributory risk factors for TAC-related seizures.
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia developing in a case of chronic myelogenous leukemia--accelerated phase: a rare case with review of the literature.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are two different and common hematological neoplasms. Their coexistence is rare, especially CLL developing in a patient of CML. Till date, only a few cases are reported and all had chronic myeloid leukemia - chronic phase earlier. We report the first case of CLL developing in a patient initially diagnosed in an accelerated phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. The clonality of both CML and CLL was proven by cytogenetic, molecular and flow cytometric studies.
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Development and validation of the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Chronic Care.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Chronic Care (CHLCC). This is a methodological study with a sample of 262 patients 65 years of age and older who had chronic illnesses. Pearsons correlation, independent sample t tests, and analyses of variance were used. The CHLCC showed a significant positive correlation with Chinese literacy levels (r = 0.80; p < .001) but was negatively correlated with age (r =-0.31; p <.001). Respondents who were male (t =4.34; p <.001) and who had reached Grade 12 or higher in school (F = 51.80; p <.001) had higher CHLCC scores than did their counterparts. Individuals with high levels of health literacy had fewer hospitalizations than did their counterparts (? =-0.31; incidence rate ratio = 0.73; p <.05). The CHLCC also displayed good internal reliability (Cronbachs? =0.91) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.77; p <.01). The CHLCC is a valid and reliable measure for assessing health literacy among Chinese patients with chronic illness. The scale could be used by practitioners before implementing health promotion and education.
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Radioactive iodine ablation does not prevent recurrences in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Although papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) has a favourable long-term prognosis, disease recurrence after initial treatment remains a problem and controversy exists regarding the role of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in PTMC. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of RAI ablation on disease recurrence in patients with PTMC.
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Reduced food intake is the major contributor to the protective effect of rimonabant on islet in established obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Although the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in islets has been reported, the major contributor to the protective effect of rimonabant on islet morphology is unknown. We determined whether the protective effect of rimonabant on pancreatic islet morphology is valid in established diabetes and also whether any effect was independent of decreased food intake.
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Immunotherapeutic treatment of autoimmune diabetes.
Crit. Rev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Type 1 diabetes is a prototypic, organ-specific autoimmune disease. Diverse antigen-specific immunotherapy using insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase peptides and other immunotherapies, such as antibodies, fusion proteins, cytokines, regulatory T cells, small-molecule inhibitors, nonspecific immune modulators, or dietary modifications, have been attempted in human type 1 diabetes. Some of these immunotherapies delay the onset of diabetes or reduce insulin requirements or blood glucose level in patients with established type 1 diabetes. However, most of these immunotherapies failed to induce complete remission of established type 1 diabetes, which could be due to 1) technical difficulties in the achievement of immune tolerance to diabetic autoantigens or in the inhibition of autoimmune responses to those antigens that can be applied to human patients without significant adverse effects, and 2) markedly reduced ?-cell mass at the time of disease onset that should be replenished. This review focuses on the immunological aspects of the disease and its treatment, and data from previous or ongoing human clinical trials using immune-logical measures, and recent results from immunological studies employing animal models are discussed.
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Hyperactivity, Unexplained Speech Delay, and Coarse Facies--Is It Sanfilippo Syndrome?
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Mucopolysaccharidosis-IIIB or Sanfilippo-B syndrome is caused by deficiency of lysosomal ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase that leads to accumulation of heparan-sulphate and degeneration of central nervous system with progressive dementia, hyperactivity, and aggressive behavior. Mucopolysaccharidosis-III remains underdiagnosed as a cause of developmental delay and hyperactivity both in adults and children because in contrast to other mucopolysaccharidoses, they have little somatic disease, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly or skeletal changes, and a high incidence of false-negative results on the urinary screening tests. We describe here a girl with the classic phenotype of mucopolysaccharidosis-IIIB to alert pediatricians to the possibility of this disorder in children with unexplained speech delay and hyperactivity and prevent unnecessary investigations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.