A 59-year-old man presented with hypohydrosis in his left upper extremity and left hand, and experienced difficulty in gripping the steering wheel while driving. One year prior to admission, he had felt pain and/or paresthesias in his left anterior chest, left shoulder area and left periaxillar area, which corresponded to involvement of dermatomes in T1-T3. He was diagnosed with Horners syndrome caused by lung tumour, which was located at the apical posterior wall along with the second to fourth ribs. The tumour interrupted sympathetic neurons at the T1-T4 level. The degree of hypohydrosis was successfully evaluated by the starch-iodine technique, dermal thermography and a skin surface hygrometer. After radiation therapy, hypohydrosis and pain or paresthesias improved partially, and he was discharged uneventfully.
Macrolides are reported to reduce exacerbation of chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and also show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. However the anti-inflammatory efficacies of current macrolides are relatively weak. Here we found that a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) showed superior anti-inflammatory effects to macrolides in current clinical use. The effects of solithromycin (SOL) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF? (tumor necrosis factor ?) and/or CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; interleukin-8) release, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity and NF-?B (nuclear factor-?B) activity under conditions of oxidative stress have been evaluated and compared with the effects of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin in macrophage-like PMA-differentiated U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from COPD patients. We also examined effect of SOL on cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice. SOL exerted superior inhibitory effects on TNF?/CXCL8 production and MMP9 activity in monocytic U937 cells. In addition, SOL suppressed TNF? release and MMP9 activity in PBMC from COPD patients at 10 µM, which is 10 times more potent than the other macrolides tested. Activated NF-?B by oxidative stress was completely reversed by SOL. SOL also inhibited cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and pro-MMP9 production in vivo, although erythromycin did not inhibit them. Thus, SOL showed better anti-inflammatory profiles compared with macrolides currently used in the clinic and may be a promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial macrolide for the treatment of COPD in future.
A 70-year-old man with diabetes mellitus seen for fever, right chest pain, and right-lung field consolidation on chest X-ray was found in thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT) to have variable-sized nodules in both lung fields and multiple low-density hepatic areas. On physical examination, his pulse was 145 beats per minute and blood pressure 92/68mmHg, indicating a preshock state. Laboratory tests showed elevated WBC of 15,200/microL, serum-C-reactive protein (CRP) of 34.4 mg/dL, and a decreased platelet count of 16,000/microL. Suspecting liver abscesses complicated by a septic pulmonary embolism, we immediately conducted percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage (PTAD). Liver abscess blood culture and drainage fluid grew the Klebsiella pneumoniae hypermucoviscosity phenotype, carrying the rmpA gene. Although the man had been in critical condition on admission, broad-spectrum antibiotics and PTAD treatment improved his clinical condition to where he could be discharged without problem.
Context: In management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), excellent biomarkers for inflammation would be helpful in our practice. Objectives: Kinetics of c-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) was characterized, using their biologic half-life times. Materials and methods: Time course of CRP and SAA levels in the successfully treated 36 CAP patients were investigated and their half-life times were determined and compared. Results & Discussions: SAA and CRP declined in an exponential mean and the biologic half-life times of SAA levels was 34.9?±?28.7?h, significantly shorter than that of CRP, 46.4?±?21.7?h (p?=?0.0014). Conclusion: The kinetic evidence, presented as biologic half-life times of CRP and SAA, helps us make a clinical assessment of CAP patients.
Recently, combination treatment with a macrolide and a steroid for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) pneumonia has been reported to be effective. Thus, the effect of this combination on a mouse model of lung inflammation associated with Mp extract (the LIMEX mouse) was studied. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were induced in Mp extract-treated RAW264.7 cells, and this induction was inhibited by dexamethasone, parthenolide, SB203580 or LY294002. This suggested that Mp extract activates nuclear factor ?B-, p38- and PI-3K-linked pro-inflammatory signals. The LIMEX mice were then either treated with or without clarithromycin and/or dexamethasone. Clarithromycin administration enhanced the production of IL-6, TNF-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and RANTES, while their production was perfectly suppressed by the combination of clarithromycin and dexamethasone. IL-17, IL-23, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and interferon-? levels were not affected by clarithromycin treatment, but they were significantly suppressed by the combination of dexamethasone and clarithromycin. Collectively, some components of Mp extract provoked an inflammatory reaction in the RAW 264.7 cell line and LIMEX mice. Whereas the lung reaction in LIMEX mice was further exacerbated by clarithromycin treatment, it was resolved by the combinational treatment with clarithromycin and dexamethasone.
The effect of erythromycin on the inflammation caused by exposure to cigarette smoke was investigated in this study. Mice were exposed either to cigarette smoke or to environmental air (control), and some mice exposed to cigarette smoke were treated with oral erythromycin (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days). Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by determining the cellular content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various mediators, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, surfactant protein (SP)-D, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6 in lung tissue were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. The exposure to cigarette smoke increased significantly the numbers of neutrophils (P = 0.029), macrophages (P = 0.029), and lymphocytes (P = 0.029) recovered in BAL fluid. Moreover, mRNA levels of KC (P = 0.029), MIP-2 (P = 0.029), SP-D (P = 0.029), and GM-CSF (P = 0.057) in the lung tissue were higher in mice exposed to cigarette smoke than in mice exposed to environmental air. In the erythromycin-treated mice that were exposed also to cigarette smoke, both neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in the BAL fluid than those in the vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.029). Erythromycin-treated mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed a trend of lower mRNA levels of KC and TNF-? in the lung tissue than those in the vehicle-treated mice, although the statistical significance was not achieved (P = 0.057). Our data demonstrated that erythromycin prevented lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke, in parallel to the reduced mRNA levels of KC and TNF-?.
A 92-year-old man who had been hospitalized for dementia developed sudden-onset bilious vomiting accompanied by a fever of 40 degrees C. Physical examination revealed an 8 cm diameter pulsatile mass in the upper abdomen. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a huge infrarenal saccular aneurysm with a lobulated appearance. We considered this to be a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm compressing the third portion of the duodenum and causing proximal duodenal dilatation and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome.
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