CCN proteins are extracellular and cell-associated molecules involved in several developmental processes, but their expression patterns and regulation in tooth development remain unclear. Here we first determined the expression patterns of CCN genes in mouse tooth germs. We found that at early stages CCN2 was detected in dental lamina, dental mesenchyme, and primary enamel knot, while other CCN family members were expressed broadly. By the bell stage, all members were expressed in differentiating odontoblasts and ameloblasts, but CCN1 and CCN2 transcripts were conspicuous in differentiating osteoblasts in dental follicle. Next, we asked what signalling molecules regulate CCN2 expression and what roles CCN2 may have. We found that upon surgical removal of dental epithelium CCN2 was not longer expressed in dental mesenchyme in cultured bud stage germs. Implantation of beads pre-coated with BMPs and FGFs onto E12-13 mandibular explants induced CCN2 expression in dental mesenchyme. There was a dose-dependent effect of BMP-4 on CCN2 induction; a concentration of 100 ng/?l was able to induce strong CCN2 expression while a minimum concentration of 25 ng/?l was needed to elicit appreciable expression. Importantly, Noggin treatment inhibited endogenous and BMP-induced CCN2 expression, verifying that CCN2 expression in developing tooth germs requires BMP signalling. Lastly, we found that rCCN2 stimulated proliferation in dental mesenchyme in a dose-dependent manner. Together, the data indicate that expression of CCN genes is spatio-temporally regulated in developing tooth germs. CCN2 expression appears to depend on epithelial and mesenchymal-derived signalling factors, and CCN2 can elicit strong proliferation in dental mesenchyme.
This educational trial was an eight-day problem-based learning (PBL) course for fourth-year predoctoral students at Okayama Universitys dental school who interviewed elderly residents living in a nursing home. The purpose of this PBL course was to introduce geriatric dentistry to the students by allowing them, independently, to discover the clinical problems of elderly patients as well as the solutions. The sixty-five students were divided into nine small groups and received patient information (age, gender, degree of care needed, medical history, food type, medications, and oral condition) in datasheets before visiting the nursing home. Each group of students directly interviewed one patient and the caregivers and identified the patients medical, psychological, and social problems. After the interview, the students participated in a PBL tutorial to delineate a management approach for the patients problems. To measure the efficacy of this program, the students completed a questionnaire before and after the course regarding their level of understanding of and attitudes toward geriatric dentistry, clinical research, and self-study. The results showed that students perceptions of their knowledge about and attitudes toward oral health care for the elderly significantly increased after the PBL course, which suggests that such tutorials should be an option for dental curricula.
Current clinical procedures to control or regenerate bone loss due to peri-implantitis are not predictable neither accomplish complete resolution. Therefore, early detection of the onset and the active periods of bone loss are crucial for prevention of extensive peri-implant bone resorption. This study aimed to determine a possible association between the presence of collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13) in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) and active periods of bone loss by annually adjusted vertical bone loss (AVBL) measurements.
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