Abstract Objectives: Breastfeeding is accepted as the healthiest practice for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants, but decisions about infant feeding are made before the child's HIV status is known. We examined the feasibility of counseling to support breastfeeding for newly diagnosed HIV-infected infants, including relactation for those who had never initiated or who had stopped breastfeeding before the infant's HIV status was known.
Despite high herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) incidence and prevalence among women in Africa, we are unaware of published neonatal herpes reports. To assess neonatal HSV transmission potential in South Africa, we investigated the frequency of the strongest risk factors: HSV acquisition in late pregnancy and HSV shedding during labor.
The objective of this study was to investigate for the first time tenofovir (TFV) pharmacokinetics in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the neonate. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; 300 mg) and emtricitabine (FTC; 200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. A single dose of 13 mg/kg of body weight of TDF was administered to 36 neonates within 12 h of life after the HIV-1-infected mothers had been administered two tablets of TDF-emtricitabine at delivery. A total of 626 samples collected within the 2 days after the drug administration were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and analyzed by a population approach. In the neonate, the median TFV plasma area under the curve and minimal and maximal concentrations, respectively, were 3.73 mg/liter · h and 0.076 and 0.29 mg/liter. In PBMCs, TFV concentrations were detectable in all fetuses, whereas tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) was quantifiable in only two fetuses, suggesting a lag in appearance of TFV-DP. The median TFV-DP neonatal concentration was 146 fmol/10? cells (interquartile range [IQR], 53 to 430 fmol/10? cells); two neonates had very high TFV-DP concentrations (1,530 and 2963 fmol/10? cells). The 13-mg/kg TDF dose given to neonates produced plasma TFV and intracellular active TFV-DP concentrations similar to those in adults. This dose should be given immediately after birth to reduce the delay before the active compound TFV-DP appears in cells.
Our objective was to investigate neonatal emtricitabine (FTC) plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics. The study was designed as a phase I/II prospective trial in two sequential steps evaluating the combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and FTC for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of TDF (300 mg) and FTC (200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. Based on the data obtained in the first part of the Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Africa and Asia (TEmAA) Study, single doses of 2 mg/kg of FTC and 13 mg/kg of TDF were given to the neonates within 12 h after birth. A total of 540 FTC plasma concentrations and 44 active intracellular phosphorylated metabolite FTC-TP concentrations were taken from the 36 enrolled women and their neonates. Concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and analyzed by a population approach. The proposed dose obtained by simulations based on plasma drug concentrations was confirmed. However, median FTC-TP exposures were, respectively, 5.9 and 6.8 times higher in the fetus and the neonate than in the adult. High FTC-TP concentrations were observed in the four children who had serious adverse events (SAEs), but the link between FTC-TP concentrations and SAEs in children was not formally identified. The exposure to the active form of FTC was high in neonates despite plasma drug concentrations equivalent to those in adults. Our results are similar to those obtained with zidovudine or lamivudine.
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