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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lack of association between DSCAM gene polymorphisms and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In a recent genome wide association study, polymorphisms in the DSCAM and CNTNAP2 genes were reported to be related with susceptibility of AIS. Consequently, further replication studies are warranted in other populations due to ethnic difference in genetic background.OBJECTIVE: To explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DSCAM (rs2222973) and CNTNAP2 (rs11770843) genes are associated with the susceptibility and curve severity of AIS in a Chinese Han population.METHODS: A total of 648 AIS patients and 573 age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents in rs2222973 were recruited, and in rs11770843 there were 100 AIS patients and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents included in present study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was repeatedly carried out to verify the linkage of AIS with SNPs rs2222973 in the DSCAM gene and rs11770843 in the CNTNAP2 gene. Case-control and case-only studies were respectively performed to define the contribution of the DSCAM gene polymorphisms to predisposition and disease severity of AIS.
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Simultaneous Analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and Their Precursors Using UHPLC-MS/MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A novel method allowing simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors (phenylalanine, tyrosine, creatine, creatinine, glucose) has been developed as a robust kinetic study tool by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A direct hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction was applied to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all seven analytes, with the mean recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% at two concentration levels. Then, an Atlantis dC18 column selected from four different chromatographic columns was ultimately used to separate these compounds within 15 min. The limits of detection range of allseven analytes were calculated as 0.14-325.00 ?g L(-1). The intra- and interday precision of the proposed method were less than 15.4 and 19.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to depict the kinetic profiles of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors in pork model, reducing the analysis time and cost in the kinetic study.
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Controlling the stereochemistry and regularity of butanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111).
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The rich stereochemistry of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the four butanethiols on Au(111) is described, SAMs containing up to 12 individual C, S, or Au chiral centers per surface unit cell. This is facilitated by synthesis of enantiomerically pure 2-butanethiol (the smallest unsubstituted chiral alkanethiol), followed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging combined with density-functional theory (DFT) molecular dynamics STM-image simulations. Even though butanethiol SAMs manifest strong head-group interactions, steric interactions are shown to dominate SAM structure and chirality. Indeed, steric interactions are shown to dictate the nature of the head-group itself: whether it takes on the adatom-bound motif RS•Au(0)S•R or else involves direct binding of RS• to face-centered cubic (FCC) or hexagonal close-packed (HCP) sites. Binding as RS• produces large organizationally chiral domains even when R is achiral, while adatom binding leads to rectangular plane groups that suppress long-range expression of chirality. Binding as RS• also inhibits the pitting intrinsically associated with adatom binding, desirably producing more regularly structured SAMs.
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In situ observation of facet-dependent oxidation of graphene on platinum in an environmental TEM.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We performed a direct observation of a crystal facet-dependent oxidation of graphene layers on platinum nanocrystals at atomic resolution in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Combined with density functional theory calculations, our work provides a novel approach for the dynamical exploration of the facet-dependent reactions at the atomic level.
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Efficacy and safety of biapenem in treatment of infectious disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Chemother
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Background: Biapenem is a parenteral carbapenem antibiotic that has powerful antibacterial activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biapenem for the treatment of infection diseases. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of published randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) identified in Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane library that compared the efficacy and safety of biapenem with other antibiotic regimes for the treatment of patients with infections. Results: Eight RCTs were included in the meta-analysis, involving totally 1685 patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). There was no difference found between the patients with LRTIs, cUTIs, or cIAIs treated with biapenem and comparators, regarding treatment success and adverse events. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence that biapenem can be used as effectively and safely as imipenem-cilstatin or meropenem, for the treatment of patients with LRTIs, cUTIs, and cIAIs. It may be a considerable option for the treatment of these infections.
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Does powder and granular activated carbon perform equally in immobilizing chlorobenzenes in soil?
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The objective of this study is to compare the efficacies of powder activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) as amendments for the immobilization of volatile compounds in soil. Soil artificially-spiked with chlorobenzenes (CBs) was amended with either PAC or GAC to obtain an application rate of 1%. The results showed that the dissipation and volatilization of CBs from the amended soil significantly decreased compared to the unamended soil. The bioavailabilities of CBs, which is expressed as butanol extraction and earthworm accumulation, were significantly reduced in PAC and GAC amended soils. The lower chlorinated and hence more volatile CBs experienced higher reductions in both dissipation and bioavailability in the amended soils. The GAC and PAC equally immobilized more volatile CBs in soil. Therefore, it could be concluded that along with environmental implication, applying GAC was the more promising approach for the effective immobilization of volatile compounds in soil.
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[Clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in children.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) in children and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of CAEBV.
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Ionic Liquid Based Approach for Single-Molecule Electronics with Cobalt Contacts.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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An electrochemical method is presented for fabricating cobalt thin films for single-molecule electrical transport measurements. These films are electroplated in an aqueous electrolyte, but the crucial stages of electrochemical reduction to remove surface oxide and adsorption of alkane(di)thiol target molecules under electrochemical control to form self-assembled monolayers which protect the oxide-free cobalt surface are carried out in an ionic liquid. This approach yields monolayers on Co that are of comparable quality to those formed on Au by standard self-assembly protocols, as assessed by electrochemical methods and surface infrared spectroscopy. Using an adapted scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) method, we have determined the single-molecule conductance of cobalt/1,8-octanedithiol/cobalt junctions by employing a monolayer on cobalt and a cobalt STM tip in an ionic liquid environment and have compared the results with those of experiments using gold electrodes as a control. These cobalt substrates could therefore have future application in organic spintronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions.
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In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Surface modification of silicon nanoparticles via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism of how this thin layer of coating functions is not known, which is complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation and therefore low Coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD-coated particles show extremely fast, thorough, and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li(+)/e(-) conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer, and therefore mitigates side reactions and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the Coulombic efficiency, preserves capacity, and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrates that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance to the coating layer itself.
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Extending the shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy approach to interfacial ionic liquids at single crystal electrode surfaces.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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We employ, for the first time, a shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhancement strategy to extend Raman spectroscopy studies to single crystal electrode surfaces in ionic liquids, and combine density functional theory (DFT) calculations to elucidate the structural details of the imidazolium-based ionic liquid-Au single crystal electrode interfaces.
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Polarizer-free imaging of liquid crystal lens.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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An image processing method is proposed to realize polarizer-free imaging of liquid crystal lens. Images Il and Inl are captured sequentially in the lens and non-lens states of the LC lens, respectively, and are used to generate a final high contrast image. The proposal is tested by experiments. Clear and well focused images are obtained, even though no polarizer is employed in the imaging system.
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Resolving Fine Structures of the Electric Double Layer of Electrochemical Interfaces in Ionic Liquids with an AFM Tip Modification Strategy.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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We report enhanced force detection selectivity based on Coulombic interactions through AFM tip modification for probing fine structures of the electric double layer (EDL) in ionic liquids. When AFM tips anchored with alkylthiol molecular layers having end groups with different charge states (e.g., -CH3, -COO(-), and -NH3(+)) are employed, Coulombic interactions between the tip and a specified layering structure are intensified or diminished depending on the polarities of the tip and the layering species. Systematic potential-dependent measurements of force curves with careful inspection of layered features and thickness analysis allows the fine structure of the EDL at the Au(111)-OMIPF6 interface to be resolved at the subionic level. The enhanced force detection selectivity provides a basis for thoroughly understanding the EDL in ionic liquids.
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miR-204-5p Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion and Enhances Chemotherapeutic Sensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Down-regulating RAB22A.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Purpose: miR-204-5p was found to be downregulated in CRC tissues in our preliminary microarray analyses. However, the function of miR-204-5p in CRC remains unknown. We therefore investigated the role, mechanism and clinical significance of miR-204-5p in CRC development and progression. Experimental Design: We measured the expression of miR-204-5p and determined its correlation with patient prognoses. Ectopic expression in CRC cells, xenografts and pulmonary metastasis models were used to evaluate the effects of miR-204-5p on proliferation, migration and chemotherapy sensitivity. Luciferase assay and Western blot were performed to validate the potential targets of miR-204-5p after the preliminary screening by a microarray analysis and computer-aided algorithms. Results: miR-204-5p is frequently downregulated in CRC tissues, and survival analysis showed that the downregulation of miR-204-5p in CRC was associated with poor prognoses. Ectopic miR-204-5p expression repressed CRC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, restoring miR-204-5p expression inhibited CRC migration and invasion and promoted tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RAB22A, a member of the RAS oncogene family, is a direct functional target of miR-204-5p in CRC. Furthermore, RAB22A protein levels in CRC tissues were frequently increased and negatively associated with miR-204-5p levels and survival time. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate for the first time that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC through inhibiting RAB22A, and reveal RAB22A to be a new oncogene and prognostic factor for CRC.
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Liquid-like pseudoelasticity of sub-10-nm crystalline silver particles.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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In nanotechnology, small-volume metals with large surface area are used as electrodes, catalysts, interconnects and antennae. Their shape stability at room temperature has, however, been questioned. Using in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we find that Ag nanoparticles can be deformed like a liquid droplet but remain highly crystalline in the interior, with no sign of dislocation activity during deformation. Surface-diffusion-mediated pseudoelastic deformation is evident at room temperature, which can be driven by either an external force or capillary-energy minimization. Atomistic simulations confirm that such highly unusual Coble pseudoelasticity can indeed happen for sub-10-nm Ag particles at room temperature and at timescales from seconds to months.
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Tumor suppressor role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is a membrane skeletal protein that belongs to the protein 4.1 family. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is localized to sites of cell-cell contact and functions as an adapter protein, linking the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton or associated cytoplasmic signaling effectors and facilitating their activities in various pathways. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in various cytoskeleton-associated processes, such as cell motility and adhesion. Moreover, protein 4.1B/DAL-1 also plays a regulatory role in cell growth, differentiation, and the establishment of epithelial-like cell structures. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is normally expressed in multiple human tissues, but loss of its expression or prominent down-regulation of its expression is frequently observed in corresponding tumor tissues and tumor cell lines, suggesting that protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and acts as a potential tumor suppressor. This review will focus on the structure of protein 4.1B/DAL-1, 4.1B/DAL-1-interacting molecules, 4.1B/DAL-1 inactivation and tumor progression, and anti-tumor activity of the 4.1B/DAL-1.
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Indicators of perceived useful dementia care assistive technology: Caregivers' perspectives.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The study aims to investigate the caregivers' context-specific perceived usefulness of available assistive technology (AT) devices and the professionals' perspectives on the usefulness indicators of AT devices for home-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia.
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Formation of monatomic metallic glasses through ultrafast liquid quenching.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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It has long been conjectured that any metallic liquid can be vitrified into a glassy state provided that the cooling rate is sufficiently high. Experimentally, however, vitrification of single-element metallic liquids is notoriously difficult. True laboratory demonstration of the formation of monatomic metallic glass has been lacking. Here we report an experimental approach to the vitrification of monatomic metallic liquids by achieving an unprecedentedly high liquid-quenching rate of 10(14) K s(-1). Under such a high cooling rate, melts of pure refractory body-centred cubic (bcc) metals, such as liquid tantalum and vanadium, are successfully vitrified to form metallic glasses suitable for property interrogations. Combining in situ transmission electron microscopy observation and atoms-to-continuum modelling, we investigated the formation condition and thermal stability of the monatomic metallic glasses as obtained. The availability of monatomic metallic glasses, being the simplest glass formers, offers unique possibilities for studying the structure and property relationships of glasses. Our technique also shows great control over the reversible vitrification-crystallization processes, suggesting its potential in micro-electromechanical applications. The ultrahigh cooling rate, approaching the highest liquid-quenching rate attainable in the experiment, makes it possible to explore the fast kinetics and structural behaviour of supercooled metallic liquids within the nanosecond to picosecond regimes.
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Diagnostic Performance of Fecal Immunochemical Test and Sigmoidoscopy for Advanced Right-Sided Colorectal Neoplasms.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Colorectal cancer screening effect on right-sided colorectal neoplasia is limited. We compared fecal immunochemical test and simulated sigmoidoscopy diagnostic accuracy for advanced right-sided neoplasia detection.
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Nucleic Acid Aptamer-Mediated Drug Delivery for Targeted Cancer Therapy.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Aptamers are emerging as promising therapeutic agents and recognition elements. In particular, cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) allows in vitro selection of aptamers selective to whole cells without prior knowledge of the molecular signatures on the cell surface. The advantage of aptamers is their high affinitiy and binding specificity towards the target. This Minireview focuses on single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotide (DNA or RNA)-based aptamers as cancer therapeutics/theranostics. Specifically, aptamer-nanomaterial conjugates, aptamer-drug conjugates, targeted phototherapy and targeted biotherapy are covered in detail. In reviewing the literature, the potential of aptamers as delivery systems for therapeutic and imaging applications in cancer is clear, however, major challenges remain to be resolved, such as the poorly understood pharmacokinetics, toxicity and off-target effects, before they can be fully exploited in a clinical setting.
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Highly efficient anti-cancer therapy using scorpion 'NanoVenin'.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Host defence peptidotoxins from animal venoms have been identified to possess substantial anticancer properties. Towards a safer, translatable approach, we have developed a viable chemical methodology based on a well-defined, self-assembled polymeric nano-architecture for controlled delivery of toxins derived from scorpion venom.
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Void-assisted plasticity in Ag nanowires with a single twin structure.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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By employing the in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique, tensile deformation behaviors of a silver nanowire (NW) with a single twin structure were studied. Our observations revealed that the initial stage of plastic deformation was dominated by surface-mediated partial dislocation activities. Strikingly, the void formation and growth were shown to govern the later stage of plasticity, leading to the ductile type of fracture in NWs. Possible void nucleation and growth mechanisms were discussed. Additionally, TEM images show the transformation from bi-crystal to polycrystal in the fracture area, likely due to the void activity. Our results have implications in the assembly of functional structures applying nano-building blocks.
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Evaluation of soil washing process with carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin and carboxymethyl chitosan for recovery of PAHs/heavy metals/fluorine from metallurgic plant site.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)/heavy metals/fluorine (F) mixed-contaminated sites caused by abandoned metallurgic plants are receiving wide attention. To address the associated environmental problems, this study was initiated to investigate the feasibility of using carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin (CMCD) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) solution to enhance ex situ soil washing for extracting mixed contaminants. Further, Tenax extraction method was combined with a first-three-compartment model to evaluate the environmental risk of residual PAHs in washed soil. In addition, the redistribution of heavy metals/F after decontamination was also estimated using a sequential extraction procedure. Three successive washing cycles using 50 g/L CMCD and 5 g/L CMC solution were effective to remove 94.3% of total PAHs, 93.2% of Pb, 85.8% of Cd, 93.4% of Cr, 83.2% of Ni and 97.3% of F simultaneously. After the 3rd washing, the residual PAHs mainly existed as very slowly desorbing fractions, which were in the form of well-aged, well-sequestered compounds; while the remaining Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and F mainly existed as Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions, which were always present in stable mineral forms or bound to non-labile soil fractions. Therefore, this combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmentally friendly.
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The draft genome of the large yellow croaker reveals well-developed innate immunity.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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The large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, is one of the most economically important marine fish species endemic to China. Its wild stocks have severely suffered from overfishing, and the aquacultured species are vulnerable to various marine pathogens. Here we report the creation of a draft genome of a wild large yellow croaker using a whole-genome sequencing strategy. We estimate the genome size to be 728?Mb with 19,362 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the stickleback is most closely related to the large yellow croaker. Rapidly evolving genes under positive selection are significantly enriched in pathways related to innate immunity. We also confirm the existence of several genes and identify the expansion of gene families that are important for innate immunity. Our results may reflect a well-developed innate immune system in the large yellow croaker, which could aid in the development of wild resource preservation and mariculture strategies.
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Enhanced soil washing process for the remediation of PBDEs/Pb/Cd-contaminated electronic waste site with carboxymethyl chitosan in a sunflower oil-water solvent system and microbial augmentation.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed to remediate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in an electronic waste site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) in combination with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 5.0 mL L(-1) sunflower oil and 2.5 g L(-1) carboxymethyl chitosan were found to be effective in extracting mixed pollutants from soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, Pb, and Cd were approximately 94.1, 93.4, 94.3, 99.1, 89.3, and 92.7 %, respectively. Treating the second washed soil with PBDE-degrading bacteria (Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1) inoculation and nutrient addition for 3 months led to maximum biodegradation rates of 37.3, 52.6, 23.9, and 1.3 % of the remaining total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, respectively. After the combined treatment, the microbiological functions of washed soil was partially restored, as indicated by a significant increase in the counts, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p?
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Identification and analysis of a Marsupenaeus japonicus ferritin that is regulated at the transcriptional level by WSSV infection.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Marsupenaeus japonicus is a shrimp species of great value in the Chinese aquaculture industry. Given the susceptibility to viral diseases, research efforts have focused on the molecular characteristics of the shrimp's immune mechanisms. Ferritin is well known for its iron storage function, but studies have also addressed its immune function in response to pathogens. In this study, an M. japonicus ferritin cDNA was identified by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR. The full-length cDNA is 1244 bp long and contains an open reading frame (513 bp) that encodes a highly conserved protein of 170 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR detection of ferritin revealed high expression in eight tested tissues, with the highest levels in hemocytes-consistent with the iron storage capacity of ferritin. We infected M. japonicus with white spot syndrome virus and validated the model by viral copy analysis and histopathology, which demonstrated an increase in viral copies along with acute degeneration of tissues. Transcripts of ferritin increased by 3.1-fold, 2.1-fold, and 1.5-fold in the hepatopancreas, gill, and midgut at 24h post-injection, suggesting that ferritin played an important role in the immune response of M. japonicus.
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Long term outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty: a comparison study with posterior sagittal anorectoplasty.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The aim of this study is to compare the long term outcomes between laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP) and posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for children with rectobladderneck and rectoprostatic fistula anorectal malformations (ARM).
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Real-time Human Pose and Shape Estimation for Virtual Try-On Using a Single Commodity Depth Camera.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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We present a system that allows the user to virtually try on new clothes. It uses a single commodity depth camera to capture the user in 3D. Both the pose and the shape of the user are estimated with a novel real-time template-based approach that performs tracking and shape adaptation jointly. The result is then used to drive realistic cloth simulation, in which the synthesized clothes are overlayed on the input image. The main challenge is to handle missing data and pose ambiguities due to the monocular setup, which captures less than 50 percent of the full body. Our solution is to incorporate automatic shape adaptation and novel constraints in pose tracking. The effectiveness of our system is demonstrated with a number of examples.
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Brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to curvature and shear stress.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The highly specialized endothelial cells in brain capillaries are a key component of the blood-brain barrier, forming a network of tight junctions that almost completely block paracellular transport. In contrast to vascular endothelial cells in other organs, we show that brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation in response to curvature and shear stress. Since the tight junction network is defined by endothelial cell morphology, these results suggest that there may be an evolutionary advantage to resisting elongation by minimizing the total length of cell-cell junctions per unit length of vessel.
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Role of cosubstrate and bioaccessibility played in the enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy soil by nitrate and methyl-?-cyclodextrin amendments.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The present study was conducted to investigate the anaerobic biodegradation potential of biostimulation by nitrate (KNO3) and methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD) addition on an aged organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated paddy soil. After 180 days of incubation, total OCP biodegradation was highest in soil receiving the addition of nitrate and MCD simultaneously and then followed by nitrate addition, MCD addition, and control. The highest biodegradation of chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, endosulfans, and total OCPs was 74.3, 63.5, 51.2, and 65.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, MCD addition significantly increased OCP bioaccessibility (p < 0.05) evaluated by Tenax TA extraction and a three-compartment model method. Moreover, the addition of nitrate and MCD also obtained the highest values of soil microbial activities, including soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, ATP production, denitrifying bacteria count, and nitrate reductase activity. Such similar trend between OCP biodegradation and soil-denitrifying activities suggests a close relationship between OCP biodegradation and N cycling and the indirect/direct involvement of soil microorganisms, especially denitrifying microorganisms in the anaerobic biodegradation of OCPs.
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Morphology and properties of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds: impact of process variables.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Successful engineering of functional biological substitutes requires scaffolds with three-dimensional interconnected porous structure, controllable rate of biodegradation, and ideal mechanical strength. In this study, we report the development and characterization of micro-porous PVA scaffolds fabricated by freeze drying method. The impact of molecular weight of PVA, surfactant concentration, foaming time, and stirring speed on pore characteristics, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, and rate of degradation of the scaffolds was characterized. Results show that a foaming time of 60s, a stirring speed of 1,000 rpm, and a surfactant concentration of 5% yielded scaffolds with rigid structure but with interconnected pores. Study also demonstrated that increased foaming time increased porosity and swelling ratio and reduced the rigidity of the samples.
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Implementation of biomarker-driven cancer therapy: existing tools and remaining gaps.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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There has been growing interest in biomarker-driven personalized cancer therapy, also known as precision medicine. Recently, dozens of molecular tests, including next generation sequencing, have been developed to detect biomarkers that have the potential to predict response of cancers to particular targeted therapies. However, detection of cancer-related biomarkers is only the first step in the battle. Deciding what therapy options to pursue can also be daunting, especially when tumors harbor more than one potentially actionable aberration. Further, different mutations/variants in a single gene may have different functional consequences, and response to targeted agents may be context dependent. However, early clinical trials with new molecular entities are increasingly conducted in a biomarker-selected fashion, and even when trials are not biomarker-selected, much effort is placed on enrolling patients onto clinical trials where they have the highest probability of response. We review available molecular tests and therapy discerning tools, including tools available for assessing functional consequences of molecular alterations and tools for finding applicable clinical trials, which exist to help bridge the gap between detection of cancer-related biomarker to the initiation of biomarker-matched targeted therapies.
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Imperfections in a two-dimensional hierarchical structure.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Hierarchical and fractal designs have been shown to yield high mechanical efficiency under a variety of loading conditions. Here a fractal frame is optimized for compressive loading in a two-dimensional space. We obtain the dependence of volume required for stability against loading for which the structure is optimized and a set of scaling relationships is found. We evaluate the dependence of the Hausdorff dimension of the optimal structure on the applied loading and establish the limit to which it tends under gentle loading. We then investigate the effect of a single imperfection in the structure through both analytical and simulational techniques. We find that a single asymmetric perturbation of beam thickness, increasing or decreasing the failure load of the individual beam, causes the same decrease in overall stability of the structure. A scaling relationship between imperfection magnitude and decrease in failure loading is obtained. We calculate theoretically the limit to which the single perturbation can effect the overall stability of higher generation frames.
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Aptamer TY04 inhibits the growth of multiple myeloma cells via cell cycle arrest.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The aptamer TY04 is a single-stranded DNA. However, its biological function has not been elucidated. Here, we found that TY04 specifically bound to multiple myeloma cells MM.1S, and some membrane proteins on the surface of MM.1S cells constituted the target molecules of TY04. TY04 inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma cell lines, induced cell cycle arrest in mitosis, and resulted in a significant accumulation of binucleated cells. Following TY04 treatment, a concomitant increase in CDK1 and cyclin B1 expression occurred. In addition, TY04 treatment also resulted in a significant downregulation of ?-tubulin. Considering the unique advantages of aptamers, TY04 shows great potential as a drug candidate to treat multiple myeloma.
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Automated modular synthesis of aptamer-drug conjugates for targeted drug delivery.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Aptamer-drug conjugates (ApDCs) are promising targeted drug delivery systems for reducing toxicity while increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy. However, current ApDC technologies suffer from problems caused by the complicated preparation and low controllability of drug-aptamer conjugation. To solve such problems, we have designed and synthesized a therapeutic module for solid phase synthesis, which is a phosphoramdite containing an anticancer drug moiety and a photocleavable linker. Using this module, we have realized automated and modular synthesis of ApDCs, and multiple drugs were efficiently incorporated into ApDCs at predesigned positions. The ApDCs not only recognize target cancer cells specifically, but also release drugs in a photocontrollable manner. We demonstrated the potential of automated and modular ApDC technology for applications in targeted cancer therapy.
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Evaluation of enhanced soil washing process and phytoremediation with maize oil, carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin, and vetiver grass for the recovery of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from a pesticide factory site.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in a mixed contaminated site. Elevated temperature (60 °C) combined with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 50 mL L(-1) maize oil and 45 g L(-1) carboxylmethyl-?-cyclodextrin were effective in extracting pollutants from the soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total OCPs, mirex, endosulfans, chlordanes, Cd, and Pb were approximately 94.7%, 87.2%, 98.5%, 92.3%, 91.6%, and 87.3%, respectively. Cultivation of vetiver grass and addition of nutrients for 3 months further degraded 34.7% of the residual total OCPs and partially restored the microbiological functions of the soil. This result was indicated by the significant increase in the number, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p < 0.05). After the treatment, the residual OCPs and heavy metals existed as very slowly desorbing fraction and residual fraction, as evaluated by Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model and sequential extraction. Moreover, the secondary environmental risk of residual pollutants in the remediated soil was at an acceptable level. The proposed combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmentally friendly.
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High-performance liquid chromatography assay with programmed flow elution for cisatracurium in human plasma: application to pharmacokinetics in infants and children.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay with fluorescence detection (FLD) for quantification of cisatracurium in human plasma was developed and fully validated. Liquid-liquid extraction was employed for sample preparation. The separation was carried out on a C18 column with ternary mobile phase composed of 30mmolL(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol (60:35:5, v/v/v). Verapamil was used as the internal standard. The isocratic elution with programmed flow rate was employed by setting at 0.8mLmin(-1) from 0 to 3.5min, 0.5mLmin(-1) from 3.5 to 6min, and 1.0mLmin(-1) from 6 to 10min. The fluorescence detection was performed at 236nm for excitation and 324nm for emission. The assay was linear from 50 to 2800ngmL(-1), with a detection limit of 12ngmL(-1). The correlation coefficient (r) for linear regression was 0.9997. The intra-day coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2.0%, and the inter-day CVs were less than 4.0%. The mean recoveries were in the range of 92.1-100.4%. The total HPLC run time was less than 10min. The developed HPLC method was fast, simple, sensitive, accurate and suitable for studying the pharmacokinetics of cisatracurium in infants and children after intravenous administration.
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Biomimetic apatite-coated porous PVA scaffolds promote the growth of breast cancer cells.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Recapitulating the native environment of bone tissue is essential to develop in vitro models of breast cancer bone metastasis. The bone is a composite material consisting of organic matrix and inorganic mineral phase, primarily hydroxyapatite. In this study, we report the mineralization of porous poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds upon incubation in modified Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) for 14days. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the deposited minerals have composition similar to hydroxyapatite. The study demonstrated that the rate of nucleation and growth of minerals was faster on surfaces of less porous scaffolds. However, upon prolonged incubation, formation of mineral layer was observed on the surface of all the scaffolds. In addition, the study also demonstrated that 3D mineralization only occurred for scaffolds with highly interconnected porous networks. The mineralization of the scaffolds promoted the adsorption of serum proteins and consequently, the adhesion and proliferation of breast cancer cells.
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Comparative Analysis of Aspergillus oryzae with Normal and Abnormal Color Conidia.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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This study focuses on the characteristic of strains with anomalous color conidium and compares with normal color conidium. Comparative analysis of enzymes activity and extracellular proteins revealed that A. oryzae with anomalous color conidium was not different from the strain with normal color conidium. In addition, A. oryzae with anomalous color conidium could not influence the palatability and quality of the soy sauce. These findings provide an insight into A. oryzae with anomalous color conidium.
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Hijacking common mycorrhizal networks for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer between tomato plants.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) link multiple plants together. We hypothesized that CMNs can serve as an underground conduit for transferring herbivore-induced defence signals. We established CMN between two tomato plants in pots with mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae, challenged a 'donor' plant with caterpillar Spodoptera litura, and investigated defence responses and insect resistance in neighbouring CMN-connected 'receiver' plants. After CMN establishment caterpillar infestation on 'donor' plant led to increased insect resistance and activities of putative defensive enzymes, induction of defence-related genes and activation of jasmonate (JA) pathway in the 'receiver' plant. However, use of a JA biosynthesis defective mutant spr2 as 'donor' plants resulted in no induction of defence responses and no change in insect resistance in 'receiver' plants, suggesting that JA signalling is required for CMN-mediated interplant communication. These results indicate that plants are able to hijack CMNs for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer and interplant defence communication.
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Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-?-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly.
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Challenges and strategies for single-incision laparoscopic Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in managing giant choledochal cysts.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Giant choledochal cyst (CDC) is thought to be a challenge for one-stage single-incision laparoscopic hepaticojejunostomy (SILH). We herewith designed the strategies for SILH in surgical management of giant CDC children, and reported its outcomes.
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MiR-20b, -21, and -130b inhibit PTEN expression resulting in B7-H1 over-expression in advanced colorectal cancer.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Co-inhibitor B7-H1 expresses in various cancers and contributes to cancer immune evasion by inhibiting T cell activation and proliferation, yet the regulatory mechanisms for B7-H1 over-expression in cancers remain largely unknown. Here, the expression of B7-H1 and PTEN proteins were firstly detected by using immunohistochemistry method. B7-H1 immunoreactivities were found in 54.5% (55/101) of the colorectal cancer tissues with no expression in the normal tissues, and the PTEN protein immunoreactivities were observed in 51.5% (52/101) of the colorectal cancer tissues and 72.3% (73/101) of the normal tissues. Statistical analysis results indicated that the B7-H1 expression was negatively correlated to the PTEN expression in colorectal cancer (p=0.001). Then the expressions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in six pairs of colorectal cancer and normal tissues were determined by miRNA array, and 30 up-regulated miRNAs were found in the colorectal cancer tissues. Finally, the impact of these up-regulated miRNAs on PTEN expression was tested by using dual-luciferase reporter assay system, from which the results indicated that miR-20b, -21, and -130b were involved in suppression of PTEN expression. These findings suggest that miR-20b, -21, and -130b, up-regulated in colorectal cancer, through inhibiting the expression of PTEN, result in B7-H1 over-expression in colorectal cancer.
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Enhancing electron transport in molecular wires by insertion of a ferrocene center.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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We have determined the conductance of alkane-linked ferrocene molecules with carboxylic acid anchoring groups using the STM break junction technique, and three sets of conductance values were found, i.e. high conductance (HC), medium conductance (MC) and low conductance (LC) values. The enhancing effect of the incorporated ferrocene on the electron transport in saturated alkane molecular wires is demonstrated by the increased conductance of the ferrocene molecules, attributed to the reduction of the tunneling barrier and the HOMO-LUMO gap induced by the insertion of ferrocene. Furthermore, the electron-withdrawing carbonyl group on the unconjugated backbone has little or no influence on single-molecule conductance. The current work provides a feasible approach for the design of high-performance molecular wires.
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Differential Regulation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Diabetic Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages isolated from DM patients on vascular SMCs. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from macrophages isolated from DM patients. DM-MCM treatment induced HASMC proliferation, decreased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expressions, and increased microRNA (miR)-17-5p and miR-221 expressions. Inhibition of either miR-17-5p or miR-221 inhibited DM-MCM-induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of miR-17-5p abolished DM-MCM-induced p21Cip1 down-regulation; and inhibition of miR-221 attenuated the DM-MCM-induced p27Kip1 down-regulation. Furthermore, blocking assays demonstrated that PDGF-CC in DM-MCM is the major mediators of cell proliferation in SMCs. In conclusion, our present data support the hypothesis that SMC proliferation stimulated by macrophages may play critical roles in vascular complications in DM patients and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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Light Spatial Distribution in the Canopy and Crop Development in Cotton.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The partitioning of light is very difficult to assess, especially in discontinuous or irregular canopies. The aim of the present study was to analyze the spatial distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in a heterogeneous cotton canopy based on a geo-statistical sampling method. Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Anyang, Henan, China. Field plots were arranged in a randomized block design with the main plot factor representing the plant density. There were 3 replications and 6 densities used in every replicate. The six plant density treatments were 15,000, 33,000, 51,000, 69,000, 87,000 and 105,000 plants ha-1. The following results were observed: 1) transmission within the canopy decreased with increasing density and significantly decreased from the top to the bottom of the canopy, but the greatest decreases were observed in the middle layers of the canopy on the vertical axis and closing to the rows along the horizontal axis; 2) the transmitted PAR (TPAR) of 6 different cotton populations decreased slowly and then increased slightly as the leaves matured, the TPAR values were approximately 52.6-84.9% (2011) and 42.7-78.8% (2012) during the early cotton developmental stage, and were 33.9-60.0% (2011) and 34.5-61.8% (2012) during the flowering stage; 3) the Leaf area index (LAI) was highly significant exponentially correlated (R2?=?0.90 in 2011, R2?=?0.91 in 2012) with the intercepted PAR (IPAR) within the canopy; 4) and a highly significant linear correlation (R2?=?0.92 in 2011, R2?=?0.96 in 2012) was observed between the accumulated IPAR and the biomass. Our findings will aid researchers to improve radiation-use efficiency by optimizing the ideotype for cotton canopy architecture based on light spatial distribution characteristics.
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Development of GABA Circuitry of Fast-Spiking Basket Interneurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of erbb4-Mutant Mice.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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erbb4 is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and ErbB4 signals have been hypothesized to function in a number of cortical developmental processes (Silberberg et al., 2006; Mei and Xiong, 2008). Several recent studies show that the expression of ErbB4 is mainly restricted to GABAergic interneurons (Yau et al., 2003; Woo et al., 2007), specifically, to parvalbumin-positive (PV) fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (Vullhorst et al., 2009; Fazzari et al., 2010), a large majority of which are PV FS basket cells (Kawaguchi, 1995; Taniguchi et al., 2013). However, in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that is closely associated with neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, little is known about the roles of ErbB4 signals during the development of GABAergic circuitry particularly that associated with PV FS basket cells. Here, using molecular genetics, biochemistry, and electrophysiology, we deleted ErbB4 receptors in GABAergic forebrain neurons during the embryonic period and demonstrated that in the mouse mPFC, ErbB4 signals were dispensable for the development of GABAergic synapses by PV FS basket cells. Interestingly, they were required for the final maturation rather than the initial formation of glutamatergic synapses on PV FS basket cells. Furthermore, activity-dependent GABAergic PV FS pyramidal neuron transmission was decreased, whereas activity of pyramidal neurons was increased in KO mice. Together, these data indicate that ErbB4 signals contribute to the development of GABAergic circuitry associated with FS basket cells in component- and stage-dependent manners in the mPFC in vivo, and may suggest a mechanism for neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.
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Dynamic Process of Phase Transition from Wurtzite to Zinc Blende Structure in InAs Nanowires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the precipitation of the zinc-blende (ZB) structure InAs at the liquid/solid interface or liquid/solid/amorphous carbon triple point at high temperature. Subsequent to its precipitation, detailed analysis demonstrates unique solid to solid wurtzite (WZ) to ZB phase transition through gliding of sharp steps with Shockley partial dislocations. The most intriguing phenomenon was that each step is 6 {111} atomic layers high and the step migrated without any mechanical stress applied. We believe that this is the first direct in situ observation of WZ-ZB transition in semiconductor nanowires. A model was proposed in which three Shockley partial dislocations collectively glide on every two {0001} planes (corresponds to six atomic planes in an unit). The collective glide mechanism does not need any applied shear stress.
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Priming of jasmonate-mediated antiherbivore defense responses in rice by silicon.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Although the function of silicon (Si) in plant physiology has long been debated, its beneficial effects on plant resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses, including insect herbivory, have been well documented. In addition, the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in mediating antiherbivore defense responses in plants. However, potential interactions between JA and Si in response to insect attack have not been examined directly. To explore the role JA may play in Si-enhanced resistance, we silenced the expression of allene oxide synthase (OsAOS; active in JA biosynthesis) and CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (OsCOI1; active in JA perception) genes in transgenic rice plants via RNAi and examined resulting changes in Si accumulation and defense responses against caterpillar Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaffolder, LF) infestation. Si pretreatment increased rice resistance against LF larvae in wild-type plants but not in OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi lines. Upon LF attack, wild-type plants subjected to Si pretreatment exhibited enhanced defense responses relative to untreated controls, including higher levels of JA accumulation; increased levels of transcripts encoding defense marker genes; and elevated activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and trypsin protease inhibitor. Additionally, reduced Si deposition and Si cell expansion were observed in leaves of OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi plants in comparison with wild-type plants, and reduced steady-state transcript levels of the Si transporters OsLsi1, OsLsi2, and OsLsi6 were observed in Si-pretreated plants after LF attack. These results suggest a strong interaction between Si and JA in defense against insect herbivores involving priming of JA-mediated defense responses by Si and the promotion of Si accumulation by JA.
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Clinical significance of costimulatory molecule B7-H3 expression on CD3(+) T cells in colorectal carcinoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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B7-H3 has been widely studied in the context of tumor progression in recent years, and behaves as a tumor cell marker in a variety of tumors including colorectal carcinoma. The mechanism of B7-H3 in tumor progression is complicated and not clear yet. Studies have revealed that B7 family molecules are expressed on infiltrated lymphocytes as well as tumor cells in tumor microenvironment, which indicates that different expression pattern may lead to different clinical outcomes.
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Experimental Evidence of Hidden Topological Surface States in PbBi_{4}Te_{7}.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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A topological surface state that is protected physically under the Bi_{2}Te_{3}-like five-layer block has been revealed on the Pb-based topological insulator (TI) PbBi_{4}Te_{7} by bulk sensitive angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). Furthermore, conservation of the spin polarization of the hidden topological surface states is directly confirmed by bulk-sensitive spin ARPES observation. This finding paves the way to realize the real spintronics devices by TIs that are operable in the real environment.
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Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-?-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies.
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Accuracy and repeatability of joint angles measured using a single camera markerless motion capture system.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Markerless motion capture systems have developed in an effort to evaluate human movement in a natural setting. However, the accuracy and reliability of these systems remain understudied. Therefore, the goals of this study were to quantify the accuracy and repeatability of joint angles using a single camera markerless motion capture system and to compare the markerless system performance with that of a marker-based system. A jig was placed in multiple static postures with marker trajectories collected using a ten camera motion analysis system. Depth and color image data were simultaneously collected from a single Microsoft Kinect camera, which was subsequently used to calculate virtual marker trajectories. A digital inclinometer provided a measure of ground-truth for sagittal and frontal plane joint angles. Joint angles were calculated with marker data from both motion capture systems using successive body-fixed rotations. The sagittal and frontal plane joint angles calculated from the marker-based and markerless system agreed with inclinometer measurements by <0.5°. The systems agreed with each other by <0.5° for sagittal and frontal plane joint angles and <2° for transverse plane rotation. Both systems showed a coefficient of reliability <0.5° for all angles. These results illustrate the feasibility of a single camera markerless motion capture system to accurately measure lower extremity kinematics and provide a first step in using this technology to discern clinically relevant differences in the joint kinematics of patient populations.
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Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance for predicting plasma methotrexate concentrations after high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy for the treatment for childhood lymphoblastic malignancies.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Monitoring of plasma methotrexate (MTX) concentrations allows for therapeutic adjustments in treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with high-dose MTX (HDMTX). We tested the hypothesis that assessment of creatinine clearance (CrCl) and/or serum Cr may be a suitable means of monitoring plasma MTX concentrations.
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[Surveillance of schistosome antibodies in population in mountainous schistosomiasis endemic regions in China].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To understand the dynamics of schistosome antibodies in population in mountainous schistosomiasis low endemic regions, China, so as to provide the evaluation reference for immunodiagnosis.
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A survey of intragenic breakpoints in glioblastoma identifies a distinct subset associated with poor survival.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, much progress has been made in the identification of somatic structural rearrangements in cancer genomes. However, characterization of the complex alterations and their associated mechanisms remains inadequate. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of whole-genome sequencing and DNA copy number data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas to relate chromosomal alterations to imbalances in DNA dosage and describe the landscape of intragenic breakpoints in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Gene length, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and local presence of a copy number alteration were closely associated with breakpoint susceptibility. A dense pattern of repeated focal amplifications involving the murine double minute 2 (MDM2)/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) oncogenes and associated with poor survival was identified in 5% of GBMs. Gene fusions and rearrangements were detected concomitant within the breakpoint-enriched region. At the gene level, we noted recurrent breakpoints in genes such as apoptosis regulator FAF1. Structural alterations of the FAF1 gene disrupted expression and led to protein depletion. Restoration of the FAF1 protein in glioma cell lines significantly increased the FAS-mediated apoptosis response. Our study uncovered a previously underappreciated genomic mechanism of gene deregulation that can confer growth advantages on tumor cells and may generate cancer-specific vulnerabilities in subsets of GBM.
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Authentication and recovery of medical diagnostic image using dual reversible digital watermarking.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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This paper proposes a new region-based tampering detection and recovering method that utilizes both reversible digital watermarking and quad-tree decomposition for medical diagnostic images authentication. Firstly, the quad-tree decomposition is used to divide the original image into blocks with high homogeneity, and then we computer pixels linear interpolation as each blocks recovery feature. Secondly, these recovery features as the first layer watermarking information is embedded by using simple invertible integer transformation. In order to enhance the proposed methods security, the logistic chaotic map is exploited to choose each blocks reference pixel. The second layer watermark comprises by the quad-tree information and essential parameters for extraction are embedded by LSB replacement. In the authentication phase, the embedded watermark is extracted and the source image is recovered, and the similar linear interpolation technique is utilized to get each blocks feature. Therefore, the tampering detection and localization can be achieved through comparing the extracted feature with the recomputed one, and the extracted feature can be used to recover those tampered regions with high similarity to their original state. Experimental results show that, compared with previous similar existing scheme, the proposed method not only achieves high embedding capacity and good visual quality of marked and restored image, but also has more accuracy for tampering detection.
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Clinical significance of the induction of macrophage differentiation by the costimulatory molecule B7-H3 in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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B7-H3, a member of the B7 family of molecules, is expressed in certain types of human cancer and is important in tumor development and progression. Although several studies have reported that the expression of B7-H3 is correlated with poor outcomes in patients with cancer, its exact role in cancer remains unknown. In the present study, the expression levels of B7-H3 in the pathological specimens of 105 patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were examined by immunohistochemistry. A high expression level of B7-H3 was observed in 46.9% of the 105 NSCLC tissue specimens. These patients demonstrated a more advanced tumor grade and a shorter survival time. In addition, we also examined the levels of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in NSCLC tissues and observed that the levels were positively correlated with the expression of B7-H3, and that higher levels of macrophages were associated with lower levels of infiltrating T cells and a shorter survival time. These results demonstrated that TAMs are important in the evasion of tumor immune surveillance in NSCLC. Furthermore, through knockdown of B7-H3 by RNA interference, we observed that soluble B7-H3 was capable of inducing macrophages to express higher levels of macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and lower levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, as well as higher levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and lower levels of IL-1? in vitro. These observations are characteristic of an anti-inflammatory/reparatory (alternative/M2) phenotype. Therefore, our data suggests that B7-H3 proteins are involved in the progression of NSCLC by inducing the development of monocytes into anti-inflammatory cells.
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?-Crystallin protects RGC survival and inhibits microglial activation after optic nerve crush.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Activation of retinal microglial cells (RMCs) is known to contribute to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after optic nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenous injection of ?-crystallin on RGC survival and RMC activation in a rat model of optic nerve crush.
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Engineering and Applications of DNA-Grafting Polymer Materials.
Chem Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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The emergence of hybrid materials combining biomacromolecules and organic polymers has received broad attention based on their potential applications in chemical, biological and materials sciences. Among different coupling strategies, the grafting of oligonucleotides to organic polymers as side chains by covalent bonds provides a novel platform whereby the properties of both oligonucleotides and polymer backbone are integrated, manipulated and optimized for various applications. In this review, we give the perspective on this specific type of DNA polymer hybrid materials , using selected examples with emphasis on bioanalysis, biomedicine and stimuli-responsive materials. It is expected the success of DNA-grafting polymers will not only impact the frabication of novel bimolecule incorporated materials, but also will influence how the properties of synthetic materials are tailored using different functional groups.
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Optimization of fractal space frames under gentle compressive load.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The principle of hierarchical design is a prominent theme in many natural systems where mechanical efficiency is of importance. Here we establish the properties of a particular hierarchical structure, showing that high mechanical efficiency is found in certain loading regimes. We show that in the limit of gentle loading, the optimal hierarchical order increases without bound. We show that the scaling of material required for stability against loading to be withstood can be altered in a systematic, beneficial manner through manipulation of the number of structural length scales optimized upon. We establish the relationship between the Hausdorff dimension of the optimal structure and loading for which the structure is optimized. Practicalities of fabrication are discussed and examples of hierarchical frames of the same geometry constructed from solid beams are shown.
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Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with enhanced orbital moments of Fe adatoms on a topological surface of Bi2Se3.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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We have found a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of iron adatoms on a surface of the prototypical three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 by using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements. The orbital magnetic moment of Fe is strongly enhanced at lower coverage, where angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows coexistence of non-trivial topological states at the surface.
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Stretching single atom contacts at multiple subatomic step-length.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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This work describes jump-to-contact STM-break junction experiments leading to novel statistical distribution of last-step length associated with conductance of a single atom contact. Last-step length histograms are observed with up to five for Fe and three for Cu peaks at integral multiples close to 0.075 nm, a subatomic distance. A model is proposed in terms of gliding from a fcc hollow-site to a hcp hollow-site of adjacent atomic planes at 1/3 regular layer spacing along with tip stretching to account for the multiple subatomic step-length behavior.
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In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of electrochemical oxidation of Li2O2.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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In this Letter, we report the first in situ transmission electron microscopy observation of electrochemical oxidation of Li2O2, providing insights into the rate limiting processes that govern charge in Li-O2 cells. In these studies, oxidation of electrochemically formed Li2O2 particles, supported on multiwall carbon nanotutubes (MWCNTs), was found to occur preferentially at the MWCNT/Li2O2 interface, suggesting that electron transport in Li2O2 ultimately limits the oxidation kinetics at high rates or overpotentials.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.