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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HPLC-DAD Determination of CNS-Acting Drugs in Human Blood, Plasma, and Serum.
Crit Rev Anal Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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This is a review of the literature regarding high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) procedures for the detection and determination of several categories of central nervous system-acting drugs in blood, plasma, or serum samples. Psychiatric and neurological drugs, such as antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, and antiparkinsonians, have been included because of their relevance to therapeutic drug monitoring and systematic toxicological analysis. Articles published between 2000 and January 2012 have been taken into consideration. This review has focused on methodological approaches, sample pretreatment techniques, and other practical aspects.
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Triple Subconjunctival Bevacizumab Injection for Early Corneal Recurrent Pterygium: One-Year Follow-Up.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of 3 subconjunctival bevacizumab injections in patients with an early corneal pterygium recurrence. Methods: This study was a nonrandomized single center trial. Patients with an early corneal pterygium recurrence were selected. All patients received 3 subconjunctival bevacizumab (2.5?mg/0.1?mL) injections (basal, 2 and 4 weeks) in the recurrence area of the pterygium. The corneal and corneal-conjunctival neovascularization areas and the corneal opacification area of each pterygium were determined using digital slit lamp pictures. Results: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled into the study; all patients were injected within 3 months of the diagnosed pterygium recurrence. Interestingly, the bevacizumab injections had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the reduction of corneal, corneal-conjunctival area of neovascularization determined as pixels and on the corneal opacification area determined as mm(2) when comparing the basal values, to the values obtained after 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after injections. Conclusions: The vascularized area in all recurrent pterygia and the corneal opacification area with this triple regimen of subconjunctival bevacizumab injections were reduced, which remained until the end of the study. These results suggest that bevacizumab subconjunctival injections could be useful to treat recurrent pterygium.
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[Nutritional assessment and quality of life of oncology outpatients initiating treatment with tyrosine?kinase inhibitors].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The consumption of oral antineoplastics -and more particularly of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI)- has increased in recent years. These therapies show a better tolerance but still, the nutritional alterations related to their daily and chronic clinical use are under investigation. This study assesses the effects of TKI on the intake, nutritional status and micronutrients as well as the patients quality of life.
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Ethical values in emergency medical services: A pilot study.
Nurs Ethics
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Ambulance professionals often address conflicts between ethical values. As individuals' values represent basic convictions of what is right or good and motivate behaviour, research is needed to understand their value profiles.
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rs7903146 Polymorphism at Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 Gene Is Associated with Total Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Profile in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Abstract Transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 polymorphism has been associated with metabolic disturbance and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and potential disturbances on the lipid profile in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. We performed a cross-sectional study on 263 HIV/HVC-coinfected patients. TCF7L2 polymorphism was genotyped by GoldenGate assay. The analysis was performed by linear and logistic regression under a dominant model of inheritance. The variables analyzed were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides. Patients harboring the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype showed a diminished concentration of TC (p=0.003), LDL-C (p=0.004), HDL-C (p=0.012), and non-HDL-C (p=0.013), a lower percentage of TC?200?mg/dl (p=0.038), and a higher percentage of HDL?40?mg/dl (p=0.023). In addition, we observed that rs7903146 was differently related to fasting serum lipid levels according to the HCV-genotype (HCV-GT). With regard to HCV-GT1 patients, the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower levels of HDL-C [adjusted arithmetic mean ratio (aAMR)=0.91; p=0.049] and an elevated percentage of patients with HDL-C?40?mg/dl [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.26; p=0.003]. For HCV-GT3 patients, the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower serum values of TC (aAMR=0.81; p=0.037), LDL-C (aAMR=0.67; p=0.001), and non-HDL-C (aAMR=0.75; p=0.002) and a reduced percentage of TC?200?mg/dl (aOR=0.089; p=0.037). In conclusion, the TCF7L2 rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower levels of TC, LDL, and HDL in HCV-GT3 patients, and lower levels of HDL-C in HCV-GT1 patients, suggesting a role in cardiovascular disease and a potential use as a biomarker in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
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Some ethical conflicts in emergency care.
Nurs Ethics
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Decision-making and assessment in emergency situations are complex and result many times in ethical conflicts between different healthcare professionals.
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Intra-arterial bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) transplantation correlates with GM-CSF, PDGF-BB and MMP-2 serum levels in stroke patients: Results from a clinical trial.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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BM-MNC intra-arterial transplantation improves recovery in experimental models of ischemic stroke through secretion of cytokines and growth factors (GF), enhancing neoangiogenesis, and enhancing neuroplasticity. In this study, we tested whether BM-MNC transplantation in stroke patients induces changes in serum levels of cytokines and GF. A phase I/II trial was conducted in middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke patients with autologous intra-arterial BM-MNC transplantation between 5 and 9 days after stroke. Follow-up was done for up to 6 months. Eight cases and nine controls were included and the serum levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), beta nerve growth factor (b-NGF), and matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) were measured before and 4, 8 and 90 days after transplantation. The correlation of these serum levels with dose of cells and clinical outcomes was studied. A total of 1.59x10(8) (±1.21x10(8)) BM-MNCs were injected in cases, of them 3.38x10(6) (±2.33x10(6)) were CD34(+) cells. There was a positive correlation between total BM-MNCs injected and levels of GM-CSF and PDGF-BB at 90 days after transplantation (r=0.929, p=0.001 and r=0.714, p=0.047; respectively), and a negative correlation between total CD34(+) cells injected and MMP-2 levels at 4 days after transplantation (r=-0.786, p=0.036). Lower plasma levels of MMP-2 at 4 days and higher levels of PDGF-BB at 90 days were associated with better functional outcomes during follow-up (p=0.019 and p=0.037, respectively). When administered intra-arterially in subacute MCA stroke patients, BM-MNCs seem to induce changes in serum levels of GM-CSF, PDGF-BB and MMP-2, even 3 months after transplantation, which could be associated with better functional outcomes. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
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Highly diverse endophytic and soil Fusarium oxysporum populations associated with field-grown tomato plants.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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The diversity and genetic differentiation of populations of Fusarium oxysporum associated with tomato fields, both endophytes obtained from tomato plants as well as isolates obtained from soil surrounding the sampled plants was investigated. A total of 609 isolates of F. oxysporum were obtained, 295 isolates obtained from a total of 32 asymptomatic tomato plants in two fields and 314 isolates from eight soil cores sampled from the area surrounding the plants. Included in this total were 112 isolates from the stems of all 32 plants, a niche that has not been previously included in F. oxysporum population genetics studies. Isolates were characterized using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-? gene. A diverse population of twenty-six sequence types was found, although two sequence types represented nearly two-thirds of the isolates studied. Sequence types were placed in different phylogenetic clades within F. oxysporum, and endophytic isolates were not monophyletic. Multiple sequence types were found in all plants, with an average of 4.2 per plant. Population composition differed between the two fields, but not between soil samples within each field. A certain degree of differentiation was observed between populations associated with different tomato cultivars, suggesting that host genotype may affect the composition of plant-associated F. oxysporum populations. No clear patterns of genetic differentiation were observed between endophyte populations and soil populations, suggesting a lack of specialization of endophytic isolates.
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Temperature effects on energy production by salinity exchange.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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In recent years, the capacitance of the interface between charged electrodes and ionic solutions (the electric double layer) has been investigated as a source of clean energy. Charge is placed on the electrodes either by means of ion-exchange membranes or of an external power source. In the latter method, net energy is produced by simple solution exchange in open circuit, due to the associated decrease in the capacitance of the electric double layer. In this work, we consider the change in capacitance associated with temperature variations: the former decreases when temperature is raised, and, hence, a cycle is possible in which some charge is put on the electrode at a certain potential and returned at a higher one. We demonstrate experimentally that it is thus viable to obtain energy from electric double layers if these are successively contacted with water at different temperatures. In addition, we show theoretically and experimentally that temperature and salinity variations can be conveniently combined to maximize the electrode potential increase. The resulting available energy is also estimated.
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Evaluation of sixty-eight cases of fracture stabilisation by external hybrid fixation and a proposal for hybrid construct classification.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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BackgroundHybrid external fixation (HEF) is an emerging technique for fracture stabilization in veterinary orthopedics, but its use has been reported in few papers in the veterinary literature. The linear and circular elements that form hybrid fixators can be connected in a very high number of combinations, and for this reason just referring to HEF without any classification is often misleading about the actual frame structure. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate fracture stabilization by HEF in 58 client-owned dogs and 8 cats, and to extend the already existing classification for hybrid constructs to include all frame configurations used in this study and potentially applicable in clinical settings. Animal signalment, fracture classification, surgical procedure and frame configuration were recorded. Complications, radiographic, functional and cosmetic results were evaluated at the time of fixator removal.ResultsSixty-eight fractures in 58 dogs and eight cats were evaluated. Two dogs had bilateral fractures. Fifty-one percent were radio-ulna, 34% tibial, 9% humeral, 3% femoral and 3% scapular fractures. One ring combined with one or two linear elements was the most widely employed configuration in this case series. Radiographic results at the time of frame removal were excellent in 59% of the cases, good in 38% and fair in 3%, while functional and cosmetic results were excellent in 69% of the cases, good in 27% and fair in 4%.ConclusionsHEF is a useful option for fracture treatment in dogs and cats, particularly for peri and juxta-articular fractures. It can be applied with a minimally invasive approach, allows adjustments during the postoperative period and is a versatile system because of the large variety of combinations that can fit with the specific fracture features. The classification used enables to determine the number of linear and circular elements used in the frame.
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Exogenous melatonin supplementation prevents oxidative stress-evoked DNA damage in human spermatozoa.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for sperm physiological functions such as capacitation, hyperactivation, and acrosome reaction, on the one hand, and for stimulating the apoptotic processes involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, on the other hand. However, the imbalance between production and removal of ROS leads to oxidative stress, which is referred to as one of the main factors involved in male infertility. The pineal hormone melatonin, given its low toxicity and well-known antioxidant capacity, could be an excellent candidate to improve sperm quality. For this reason, the objective of the present work was to analyze whether long-term supplementation with melatonin to infertile men affects human sperm quality and the quality of the embryos retrieved from their couples. Our findings showed that the daily supplementation of 6 mg melatonin, as early as after 45 days of treatment, produced an increase in melatonin endogenous levels, indirectly measured as urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6-s), an enhancement of both urinary and seminal total antioxidant capacity, and a consequent reduction in oxidative damage caused in sperm DNA. Moreover, couples whose men were given melatonin showed a statistically significant increase in the percentage of grade A (embryo with blastomeres of equal size; no cytoplasmic fragmentation), B (embryo with blastomeres of equal size; minor cytoplasmic fragmentation), and C (embryo with blastomeres of distinctly unequal size; significant cytoplasmic fragmentation) embryos at the expense of grade D (embryo with blastomeres of equal or unequal size; severe or complete fragmentation.) embryos which were clearly reduced. In summary, melatonin supplementation improves human sperm quality, which is essential to achieve successful natural and/or assisted reproduction outcome.
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Recombination between clonal lineages of the asexual fungus Verticillium dahliae detected by genotyping by sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Most asexual species of fungi have either lost sexuality recently, or they experience recombination by cryptic sexual reproduction. Verticillium dahliae is a plant-pathogenic, ascomycete fungus with no known sexual stage, even though related genera have well-described sexual reproduction. V. dahliae reproduces mitotically and its population structure is highly clonal. However, previously described discrepancies in phylogenetic relationships among clonal lineages may be explained more parsimoniously by recombination than mutation; therefore, we looked for evidence of recombination within and between clonal lineages. Genotyping by sequencing was performed on 141 V. dahliae isolates from diverse geographic and host origins, resulting in 26,748 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found a strongly clonal population structure with the same lineages as described previously by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and molecular markers. We detected 443 recombination events, evenly distributed throughout the genome. Most recombination events detected were between clonal lineages, with relatively few recombinant haplotypes detected within lineages. The only three isolates with mating type MAT1-1 had recombinant SNP haplotypes; all other isolates had mating type MAT1-2. We found homologs of eight meiosis-specific genes in the V. dahliae genome, all with conserved or partially conserved protein domains. The extent of recombination and molecular signs of sex in (mating-type and meiosis-specific genes) suggest that V. dahliae clonal lineages arose by recombination, even though the current population structure is markedly clonal. Moreover, the detection of new lineages may be evidence that sexual reproduction has occurred recently and may potentially occur under some circumstances. We speculate that the current clonal population structure, despite the sexual origin of lineages, has arisen, in part, as a consequence of agriculture and selection for adaptation to agricultural cropping systems.
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Comparative study of friction between metallic and conventional interactive self-ligating brackets in different alignment conditions.
Dental Press J Orthod
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the friction between three bracket models: conventional stainless steel (Ovation, Dentsply GAC), self-ligating ceramic (In-Ovation, Denstply GAC) and self-ligating stainless steel brackets (In-Ovation R, Dentsply GAC).
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PPAR?2 Pro12Ala polymorphism was associated with favorable cardiometabolic risk profile in HIV/HCV coinfected patients: a cross-sectional study.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPAR?2) rs1801282 (Pro12Ala) polymorphism has been associated with lower risk of metabolic disturbance and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and cardiometabolic risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients.
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Mortality of patients infected with HIV in the intensive care unit (2005-2010): significant role of chronic hepatitis C and severe sepsis.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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IntroductionThe combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to decreased opportunistic infections and hospital admissions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients; but the intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate remains constant (or even increased in some instances) during the cART era. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk for hospital admission and/or mortality (particularly those related to severe liver disease) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality among HIV-infected patients in ICU, and to evaluate the impact of HIV/HCV coinfection and severe sepsis on ICU mortality.MethodsWe carried out a retrospective study based on patients admitted to ICU who were recorded in the Minimum Basic Data Set (2005-2010) in Spain. HIV-infected patients (All-HIV-group (n¿=¿1891)) were divided into two groups: HIV-monoinfected patients (HIV-group (n¿=¿1191)) and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (HIV/HCV-group (n¿=¿700)). A control group (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) was also included (n¿=¿7496).ResultsAll-HIV-group had higher frequencies of severe sepsis (57.7% vs. 39.4%; p¿<¿0.001) than control group. Overall, ICU mortality in patients with severe sepsis was much more frequent than in patients without severe sepsis (other causes) at days 30 and 90 in HIV-infected patients and control group (p¿<¿0.001). Moreover, all-HIV-group in presence or absence of severe sepsis had a higher percentage of death than control group at days 7 (p¿<¿0.001), 30 (p¿<¿0.001) and 90 (p¿<¿0.001). Besides, HIV/HCV-group had a higher percentage of death both in patients with severe sepsis, and in patients without severe sepsis compared to HIV-group at days 7 (p¿<¿0.001) and 30 (p¿<¿0.001); while no differences were found at day 90. In a Bayesian competing risk model, HIV/HCV-group had higher mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)¿=¿1.44 (95%CI¿=¿1.30-1.59) and aHR¿=¿1.57 (95%CI¿=¿1.38-1.78) for patients with and without severe sepsis, respectively).ConclusionsHIV infection was related to higher frequency of severe sepsis and death among patients admitted to the ICU. Besides, HIV/HCV coinfection contributed to an increased risk of death in both presence and absence of severe sepsis.
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A nation-wide study of prevalence and risk factors for fecal impaction in nursing homes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people.
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Social Determinants and Their Impact on Visual Impairment in Southern Mexico.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Abstract Purpose: Visual impairment in disadvantaged populations in Mexico has been scarcely reported. We compared the prevalence of visual impairment and its associated risk factors in populations in rural compared to urban areas of the Mexican southern state of Chiapas. Methods: In a population-based study, the prevalence of visual impairment in rural and urban areas of Comitan, Chiapas, was estimated. All eligible individuals aged ?20 years living in rural areas were invited to participate, persons from urban areas were chosen randomly. Individuals were considered of indigenous (IND) origin either by self-report or if they spoke an IND language. Visual acuity (VA) and pinhole VA were measured using a tumbling E chart. VA was defined as normal (better than or equal to 20/60), moderate impairment (worse than 20/60 but better than or equal to 20/200), severe impairment (worse than 20/200 but better than or equal to 20/400), or blindness (worse than 20/400). Results: Data on VA were obtained from 969 persons (610 rural, 359 urban) whose mean age was 43.3 years (standard deviation 15.6 years). Prevalence of moderate visual impairment was higher in rural (10.2%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 7.2-14.2%) than urban (3.9%, 95% CI 1.9-7.9%) areas (p?
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Relationship between European mitochondrial haplogroups and chronic renal allograft rejection in patients with kidney transplant.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Mitochondrial DNA variants may contribute to differences in mitochondrial function, leading to an altered immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between mtDNA haplogroups and the development of chronic allograft dysfunction in patients with kidney transplant. A retrospective observational study was carried out on 261 patients who received kidney transplant (114 had stable transplant and 147 patients developed chronic allograft dysfunction). DNA samples were genotyped for 14 mtDNA polymorphisms by using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform (San Diego, CA, USA). Only European white patients within the N macro-cluster were included. Patients with haplogroups V (odds ratio (OR)=0.32; p=0.037) and J (OR=0.36; p=0.038) showed lower odds for developing CRAD than patients with haplogroup H. After adjusting for the most significant variables, haplogroups V and J tended to statistical significance (p=0.091 and p=0.067 respectively). This is a preliminary study in which mtDNA haplogroups seem to be implicated in susceptibility or protection for developing chronic allograft dysfunction.
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PICALM modulates autophagy activity and tau accumulation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), including proteins involved in endocytic trafficking such as PICALM/CALM (phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein). It is unclear how these loci may contribute to AD pathology. Here we show that CALM modulates autophagy and alters clearance of tau, a protein which is a known autophagy substrate and which is causatively linked to AD, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, altered CALM expression exacerbates tau-mediated toxicity in zebrafish transgenic models. CALM influences autophagy by regulating the endocytosis of SNAREs, such as VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8, which have diverse effects on different stages of the autophagy pathway, from autophagosome formation to autophagosome degradation. This study suggests that the AD genetic risk factor CALM modulates autophagy, and this may affect disease in a number of ways including modulation of tau turnover.
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FTO rs9939609 polymorphism is associated with metabolic disturbances and response to HCV therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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BackgroundThe Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Protein (FTO) gene rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance (IR), and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the general population. The aim of our study was to examine for the first time the association of the rs9939609 polymorphism with metabolic disturbances, liver disease and virologic response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin (pegIFN¿/RBV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV coinfected patients.MethodsWe carried out a cross-sectional study in 261 patients, of whom 178 were subsequently treated with pegIFN¿/RBV therapy. FTO rs9939609 and IFNL3 rs12980275 polymorphisms were genotyped by GoldenGate®. The main outcomes were: 1) metabolic disturbances: insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR)) and overweight (body mass index (BMI)); 2) liver disease (Metavir score): significant fibrosis (F ¿2) and steatosis (>10% fatty hepatocytes); and 3) virologic response to HCV treatment: sustained virologic response (SVR).ResultsThe rs9939609 AA genotype was associated with higher values of BMI (adjusted arithmetic mean ratio (aAMR) =1.08; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) =1.03 to 1.14; P =0.002) and HOMA-IR (aAMR =1.32; 95%CI =1.03 to 1.69; P =0.027). Patients with an rs9939609 AA genotype had higher likelihoods of achieving values of BMI ¿27.5 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =3.46; 95%CI =1.17 to 10.21; P =0.024), HOMA-IR ¿2.5 (aOR =2.09; 95%CI =1.02 to 4.32; P =0.045), significant fibrosis (aOR =2.34; 95%CI =1.02 to 5.36; P =0.045) and steatosis (aOR =3.65; 95%CI =1.29 to 10.36; P =0.015). The rs9939609 AT/AA genotype decreased the likelihood of achieving SVR (aOR =0.58; 95%CI =0.34 to 0.99; P =0.044). A decision tree was performed with the genotypes of HCV, IFNL3 and FTO. The incorporation of rs9939609 significantly improves the prediction of SVR (P <0.05). The overall accuracy was 68.2%.ConclusionsPatients carrying the unfavourable AT/AA genotype of rs9939609 polymorphism had higher odds of metabolic disturbances and a lower likelihood of achieving successful virologic response to HCV therapy.
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PPAR?2 Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with sustained virological response in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients under HCV therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To analyze whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?2) rs1801282 (Pro12Ala) polymorphism is associated with the response to pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin treatment in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients, and whether it is able to predict the outcome of HCV treatment.
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Unsuspected urinoma of an obstructed kidney detected in a bone scan in a patient with lung cancer.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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A 60-year-old woman with an adenocarcinoma of the lung was referred to our department for a bone scan to assess the extension of the metastatic bone disease. The images showed several foci of radiotracer uptake in the bone consistent with malignant involvement. Besides, a considerable accumulation of tracer was shown in the right perinephric region as well as in the renal pelvis. SPECT/CT images demonstrated a superior perirenal urine leak due to rupture of the collecting system. The leakage was treated by urinary catheter decompression with complete recovery after 4 weeks.
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Letter position coding across modalities: Braille and sighted reading of sentences with jumbled words.
Psychon Bull Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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This article explores how letter position coding is attained during braille reading and its implications for models of word recognition. When text is presented visually, the reading process easily adjusts to the jumbling of some letters (jugde-judge), with a small cost in reading speed. Two explanations have been proposed: One relies on a general mechanism of perceptual uncertainty at the visual level, and the other focuses on the activation of an abstract level of representation (i.e., bigrams) that is shared by all orthographic codes. Thus, these explanations make differential predictions about reading in a tactile modality. In the present study, congenitally blind readers read sentences presented on a braille display that tracked the finger position. The sentences either were intact or involved letter transpositions. A parallel experiment was conducted in the visual modality. Results revealed a substantially greater reading cost for the sentences with transposed-letter words in braille readers. In contrast with the findings with sighted readers, in which there is a cost of transpositions in the external (initial and final) letters, the reading cost in braille readers occurs serially, with a large cost for initial letter transpositions. Thus, these data suggest that the letter-position-related effects in visual word recognition are due to the characteristics of the visual stream.
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Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.
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Ability for Voice Recognition Is a Marker for Dyslexia in Children.
Exp Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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A recent voice recognition experiment conducted by Perrachione, Del Tufo, and Gabrieli (2011) revealed that, in normal adult readers, the accuracy at identifying human voices was better in the participants' mother tongue than in an unfamiliar language, while this difference was absent in a group of adults with dyslexia. This pattern favored a view of dyslexia as due to "fundamentally impoverished native-language phonological representations." To further examine this issue, we conducted two voice recognition experiments, one with children with/without dyslexia, and the other with adults with/without dyslexia. Results revealed that children/adults with dyslexia were less accurate at identifying voices than normal readers and, importantly, this effect was independent of language. These data are more consistent with the assumption of dyslexia as due to a deficit in multisensory integration rather than a deficit based on impoverished native-language phonologically based representations.
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Passive leg raise (PLR) during cardiopulmonary (CPR) - a method article on a randomised study of survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
BMC Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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It is estimated that about 275,000 inhabitants experience an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) every year in Europe. Survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is relatively low, generally between five per cent and 10%. Being able to explore new methods to improve the relatively low survival rate is vital for people with these conditions. Passive leg raise (PLR) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been found to improve cardiac preload and blood flow during chest compressions. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether early PLR during CPR also has an impact on one-month survival in sudden and unexpected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
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Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.
Rev. Panam. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies.
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?-Synuclein inclusions in the skin of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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The presence in the brain of ?-synuclein containing Lewy neurites, or bodies, is the histological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). The discovery of ?-synuclein aggregates in nerve endings of the heart, digestive tract, and skin has lent support to the concept of PD as a systemic disease. Our goals were, first, to demonstrate the presence of ?-synuclein inclusions in the skin and, second, to detect quantitative differences between patients with PD and atypical parkinsonism (AP).
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Effect of Solution Composition on the Energy Production by Capacitive Mixing in Membrane-Electrode Assembly.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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In this work, we consider the extent to which the presence of multivalent ions in solution modifies the equilibrium and dynamics of the energy production in a capacitive cell built with ion-exchange membranes in contact with high surface area electrodes. The cell potential in open circuit (OCV) is controlled by the difference between both membrane potentials, simulated as constant volume charge regions. A theoretical model is elaborated for steady state OCV, first in the case of monovalent solutions, as a reference. This is compared to the results in multi-ionic systems, containing divalent cations in concentrations similar to those in real seawater. It is found that the OCV is reduced by about 25% (as compared to the results in pure NaCl solutions) due to the presence of the divalent ions, even in low concentrations. Interestingly, this can be related to the "uphill" transport of such ions against their concentration gradients. On the contrary, their effect on the dynamics of the cell potential is negligible in the case of highly charged membranes. The comparison between model predictions and experimental results shows a very satisfactory agreement, and gives clues for the practical application of these recently introduced energy production methods.
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CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 polymorphisms are associated with sustained virologic response in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 (CXCL9-11) chemokines play a critical role in eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), although HCV-specific immunity often fails to eradicate the HCV, allowing the chronicity of hepatitis C.
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Relationship of vitamin D status with advanced liver fibrosis and response to hepatitis C virus therapy: A meta-analysis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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There is growing evidence that vitamin D is related to chronic hepatitis C (CHC) pathogenicity. We analyzed the relationship of vitamin D status with advanced liver fibrosis (ALF) in CHC treatment-naïve patients and sustained virologic response (SVR) in CHC patients on pegylated interferon alpha plus ribavirin (pegIFN?/ribavirin) therapy. We performed a meta-analysis of all eligible studies published to date (April, 2014) in PubMed, SCOPUS, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library, assessing plasma/serum vitamin D levels related to ALF and/or SVR. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by either fixed or random effects models. Fourteen studies were selected from the literature search, seven for ALF (1,083 patients) and 11 for SVR (2,672 patients). For liver fibrosis, low vitamin D status was related to a diagnosis of ALF, with the cutoffs of 10 ng/mL (OR?=?2.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.20, 4.72) and 30 ng/mL (OR?=?2.22, 95% CI?=?1.24, 3.97) being significant, and a near-significance for 20 ng/mL (OR?=?1.44, 95% CI?=?0.99, 2.12). Regarding SVR, a significant heterogeneity among studies was found (P?
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Mutation in VPS35 associated with Parkinson's disease impairs WASH complex association and inhibits autophagy.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Endosomal protein sorting controls the localization of many physiologically important proteins and is linked to several neurodegenerative diseases. VPS35 is a component of the retromer complex, which mediates endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins such as the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Furthermore, retromer is also required for the endosomal recruitment of the actin nucleation promoting WASH complex. The VPS35 D620N mutation causes a rare form of autosomal-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we show that this mutant associates poorly with the WASH complex and impairs WASH recruitment to endosomes. Autophagy is impaired in cells expressing PD-mutant VPS35 or lacking WASH. The autophagy defects can be explained, at least in part, by abnormal trafficking of the autophagy protein ATG9A. Thus, the PD-causing D620N mutation in VPS35 restricts WASH complex recruitment to endosomes, and reveals a novel role for the WASH complex in autophagosome formation.
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Do young readers have fast access to abstract lexical representations? Evidence from masked priming.
J Exp Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Although there is consensus that adult readers have fast access to abstract letter/word representations, the developmental trajectory of such access has not been mapped out yet. To examine whether developmental readers have rapid access to abstract representations during the early stages of word processing, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with two groups of young readers (third and fifth graders) and a group of young adults. We selected two types of words: (a) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually dissimilar (DIS words; e.g., arte/ARTE [Spanish for art]) and (b) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually similar (SIM words; e.g., vivo/VIVO [Spanish for alive]). For young adults and fifth graders, response times for DIS and SIM words were very similar in the matched- and mismatched-case identity priming conditions, which in turn produced shorter responses than the unrelated condition (i.e., ARTE-ARTE=arte-ARTE
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Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and risk of hospital mortality in intensive care patients on mechanical ventilation.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common and serious complication in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the development of a PU and hospital mortality in patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) in an intensive care unit (ICU).
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A novel mutation in the SLC40A1 gene associated with reduced iron export in vitro.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Ferroportin disease is an inherited disorder of iron metabolism and is caused by mutations in the ferroportin gene (SLC40A1). We present a patient with hyperferritinemia, iron overload in the liver with reticuloendothelial distribution and also in the spleen, and under treatment with erythropheresis. A molecular study of the genes involved in iron metabolism (HFE, HJV, HAMP, TFR2, SLC40A1) was undertaken. In vitro functional studies of the novel mutation found in the SLC40A1 gene was performed. The patient was heterozygous for a novel mutation, c.386T>C (p.L129P) in the SLC40A1 gene; some of his relatives were also heterozygous for this mutation. In vitro functional studies of the L129P mutation on ferroportin showed it impairs its capacity to export iron from cells but does not alter its sensitivity to hepcidin. These findings and the iron overload phenotype of the patient suggest that the novel mutation c.386T>C (p.L129P) in the SLC40A1 gene has incomplete penetrance and causes the classical form of ferroportin disease.
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Targeting miR-21 to treat psoriasis.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with limited treatment options that is characterized by a complex interplay between keratinocytes, immune cells, and inflammatory mediators. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression and play critical roles in many human diseases. A number of miRNAs have been described to be up-regulated in psoriasis, but their causal contribution to disease development has not been demonstrated. We confirm that miR-21 expression is increased in epidermal lesions of patients with psoriasis and that this leads to reduced epidermal TIMP-3 (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 3) expression and activation of TACE (tumor necrosis factor-?-converting enzyme)/ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17). Using patient-derived skin samples and mouse models of psoriasis, we demonstrate that increased miR-21 may be a consequence of impaired transcriptional activity of Jun/activating protein 1 (AP-1), leading to activation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway. Inhibition of miR-21 by locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR-21 compounds ameliorated disease pathology in patient-derived psoriatic skin xenotransplants in mice and in a psoriasis-like mouse model. Targeting miR-21 may represent a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of psoriasis.
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Resistance to First-Line Antituberculosis Drugs in Spain, 2010-2011. RETUBES Study.
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The magnitude of current resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Spain is unknown. The objective of this study is to describe resistance to first-line antituberculosis drugs and determine the associated factors.
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Enzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic N-formyl- and N-carbamoyl-amino acids using immobilized L-N-carbamoylase and N-succinyl-amino acid racemase.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Taking advantage of the catalytic promiscuity of L-carbamoylase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT43 (BsLcar) and N-succinyl-amino acid racemase from Geobacillus kaustophilus CECT4264 (GkNSAAR), we have evaluated the production of different optically pure L-?-amino acids starting from different racemic N-formyl- and N-carbamoyl-amino acids using a dynamic kinetic resolution approach. The enzymes were immobilized on two different solid supports, resulting in improved stability of the enzymes in terms of thermostability and storage when compared to the enzymes in solution. The bienzymatic system retained up to 80 % conversion efficiency after 20 weeks at 4 °C and up to 90 % after 1 week at 45 °C. The immobilization process also resulted in a great enhancement of the activity of BsLcar toward N-formyl-tryptophan, showing for the first time that substrate specificity of L-carbamoylases can be influenced by this approach. The system was effective for the biosynthesis of natural and unnatural L-amino acids (enantiomeric excess (e.e.) >99.5 %), such as L-methionine, L-alanine, L-tryptophan, L-homophenylalanine, L-aminobutyric acid, and L-norleucine, with a higher performance toward N-formyl-?-amino acid substrates. Biocatalyst reuse was studied, and after 10 reaction cycles, over 75 % activity remained.
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Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.
Br J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition.
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Protection of L. rhamnosus by spray-drying using two prebiotics colloids to enhance the viability.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Protection of probiotics by substances considered as prebiotics can be an alternative to increase their viability in the large intestine. The objective of this study was to use two wall materials (native rice starch and inulin) without bonding agent to protect Lactobacillus rhamnosus during spray-drying and determine the viability of the microorganism under two storage conditions. For spray-drying conditions tested in this work the product yield with native rice starch (NRS) ranged between 65% and 74% whereas for inulin (IN) it ranged between 43% and 54%. In general, IN solutions exhibited higher outlet temperature than NRS dispersions. Capsules of IN had smaller particle size than those of NRS. Due to the higher hydrophilic nature of IN capsules as compared to NRS, IN capsules exhibited higher water activity than NRS capsules. Confocal microscopy showed marked differences between both wall materials, which could in turn cause differences in the release profile of encapsulated microorganisms. Agglomerates of NRS provided better protection to the microorganisms as evidenced by the lower reduction in viability when compared to IN, and this effect was corroborated by the stability study. It is possible to protect probiotics using both colloids, but differences in the viability and stability during storage were determined. The use of IN could prove beneficial in the encapsulation of probiotic strains since this carbohydrate is not hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes and may act as prebiotic.
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Association of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) rs2241766 polymorphism and dyslipidemia in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The adiponectin (ADIPOQ) rs2241766 polymorphism is related to metabolic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the ADIPOQ rs2241766 polymorphism with serum dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients.
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Barriers to implementing the "2008 Mexican Clinical Practice Guideline recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis" in primary healthcare practice.
Reumatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To evaluate the implementability of the "2008 Mexican Clinical Practice Guideline for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis at the primary level of care" within primary healthcare of three Mexican regions using the Guideline Implementability Appraisal methodology version 2 (GLIA.v2).
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Structure and immunogenicity of a peptide vaccine, including the complete HIV-1 gp41 2F5 epitope: implications for antibody recognition mechanism and immunogen design.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 harbors the epitope recognized by the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV 2F5 antibody, a research focus in HIV-1 vaccine development. In this work, we analyze the structure and immunogenic properties of MPERp, a peptide vaccine that includes the following: (i) the complete sequence protected from proteolysis by the 2F5 paratope; (ii) downstream residues postulated to establish weak contacts with the CDR-H3 loop of the antibody, which are believed to be crucial for neutralization; and (iii) an aromatic rich anchor to the membrane interface. MPERp structures solved in dodecylphosphocholine micelles and 25% 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (v/v) confirmed folding of the complete 2F5 epitope within continuous kinked helices. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements demonstrated the retention of main helical conformations in immunogenic formulations based on alum, Freund's adjuvant, or two different types of liposomes. Binding to membrane-inserted MPERp, IR, molecular dynamics simulations, and characterization of the immune responses further suggested that packed helical bundles partially inserted into the lipid bilayer, rather than monomeric helices adsorbed to the membrane interface, could encompass effective MPER peptide vaccines. Together, our data constitute a proof-of-concept to support MPER-based peptides in combination with liposomes as stand-alone immunogens and suggest new approaches for structure-aided MPER vaccine development.
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A challenging dissociation in masked identity priming with the lexical decision task.
Acta Psychol (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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The masked priming technique has been used extensively to explore the early stages of visual-word recognition. One key phenomenon in masked priming lexical decision is that identity priming is robust for words, whereas it is small/unreliable for nonwords. This dissociation has usually been explained on the basis that masked priming effects are lexical in nature, and hence there should not be an identity prime facilitation for nonwords. We present two experiments whose results are at odds with the assumption made by models that postulate that identity priming is purely lexical, and also challenge the assumption that word and nonword responses are based on the same information. Our experiments revealed that for nonwords, but not for words, matched-case identity PRIME-TARGET pairs were responded to faster than mismatched-case identity prime-TARGET pairs, and this phenomenon was not modulated by the lowercase/uppercase feature similarity of the stimuli.
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Is there a genuine advantage to the upper part of words during lexical access? Evidence from the Stroop task.
Mem Cognit
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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A number of recent visual-word recognition and reading experiments have concluded that the upper part of words is more important for lexical access than is the lower part, which conforms with Huey's (1908) observation. Here, we examined whether this phenomenon may simply be due to the fact that words in Indo-European languages tend to have a higher number of confusable letters in the lower than in the upper part. We manipulated the letter ambiguity of the upper and lower parts of words in two experiments in which we asked participants to report the presentation color of the upper and lower parts of color words and noncolor words, and in a baseline condition, of strings of &s (Stroop task). In Experiment 1, the lower part of noncolor words was more ambiguous than the upper part (upward-unbalanced words), whereas in Experiment 2, the ambiguities of the two parts of the noncolor words were similar (balanced words). For the upward-unbalanced noncolor words, the magnitude of lexical interference (relative to the baseline condition) was greater for the upper than for the lower part. Critically, the differences vanished when this factor was controlled (i.e., balanced words; Exp. 2). Thus, the apparent bias in favor of the upper part of words can be parsimoniously described as an idiosyncratic feature of the words' component letters.
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[Adaptation of self-image level and defense mechanisms in elderly patients with complicated stoma.]
Enferm Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Ostomy patients face a number of problems that impact negatively on their personal welfare. The aim of this research is determine the nature and intensity of the relationship between the level of self-concept adaptive mode and the consistent use of coping strategies of older adults with a stoma.
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Resolving the abundance and air-sea fluxes of airborne microorganisms in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Airborne transport of microbes may play a central role in microbial dispersal, the maintenance of diversity in aquatic systems and in meteorological processes such as cloud formation. Yet, there is almost no information about the abundance and fate of microbes over the oceans, which cover >70% of the Earth's surface and are the likely source and final destination of a large fraction of airborne microbes. We measured the abundance of microbes in the lower atmosphere over a transect covering 17° of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean and derived estimates of air-sea exchange of microorganisms from meteorological data. The estimated load of microorganisms in the atmospheric boundary layer ranged between 6 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(7) microbes per m(2) of ocean, indicating a very dynamic air-sea exchange with millions of microbes leaving and entering the ocean per m(2) every day. Our results show that about 10% of the microbes detected in the boundary layer were still airborne 4 days later and that they could travel up to 11,000 km before they entered the ocean again. The size of the microbial pool hovering over the North Atlantic indicates that it could play a central role in the maintenance of microbial diversity in the surface ocean and contribute significantly to atmospheric processes.
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Practice of preventive dentistry for nursing staff in primary care.
Colomb. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit.
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Structural Insights into RNA Polymerase Recognition and Essential Function of Myxococcus xanthus CdnL.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CdnL and CarD are two functionally distinct members of the CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-interacting proteins, which co-exist in Myxococcus xanthus. While CarD, found exclusively in myxobacteria, has been implicated in the activity of various extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ?-factors, the function and mode of action of the essential CdnL, whose homologs are widespread among bacteria, remain to be elucidated in M. xanthus. Here, we report the NMR solution structure of CdnL and present a structure-based mutational analysis of its function. An N-terminal five-stranded ?-sheet Tudor-like module in the two-domain CdnL mediates binding to RNAP-?, and mutations that disrupt this interaction impair cell growth. The compact CdnL C-terminal domain consists of five ?-helices folded as in some tetratricopeptide repeat-like protein-protein interaction domains, and contains a patch of solvent-exposed nonpolar and basic residues, among which a set of basic residues is shown to be crucial for CdnL function. We show that CdnL, but not its loss-of-function mutants, stabilizes formation of transcriptionally competent, open complexes by the primary ?A-RNAP holoenzyme at an rRNA promoter in vitro. Consistent with this, CdnL is present at rRNA promoters in vivo. Implication of CdnL in RNAP-?A activity and of CarD in ECF-? function in M. xanthus exemplifies how two related members within a widespread bacterial protein family have evolved to enable distinct ?-dependent promoter activity.
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Lifespan analyses of forest raptor nests: patterns of creation, persistence and reuse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively). Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species), to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding attempts.
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Protein malnutrition impairs the immune response and influences the severity of infection in a hamster model of chronic visceral leishmaniasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most devastating neglected tropical diseases. It mainly affects developing countries, where it often co-exists with chronic malnutrition, one of the main risk factors for developing the disease. Few studies have been published, however, on the relationship between leishmaniasis progression and malnutrition. The present paper reports the influence of protein malnutrition on the immune response and visceral disease development in adult hamsters infected with Leishmania infantum fed either standard or low protein diets. The low protein diet induced severe malnutrition in these animals, and upon infection with L. infantum 33% had severe visceral leishmaniasis compared to only 8% of animals fed the standard diet. The infected, malnourished animals showed notable leukocyte depletion, mild specific antibody responses, impairment of lymphoproliferation, presence of parasites in blood (16.67% of the hamsters) and significant increase of the splenic parasite burden. Animals fed standard diet suffered agranulocytosis and monocytopenia, but showed stronger specific immune responses and had lower parasite loads than their malnourished counterparts. The present results show that protein malnutrition promotes visceral leishmaniasis and provide clues regarding the mechanisms underlying the impairment of the immune system.
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Neither Dectin-2 nor the Mannose Receptor is required for resistance to Coccidioides immitis in mice.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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We investigated the roles of the mannose receptor (MR) and Dectin-2 in resistance to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and in the interaction of myeloid cells with spherules, using B6 mice with targeted mutations in Mrc1 and Clec4n. Spherules are the tissue form of Coccidioides and we determined that the MR on bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was important for recognition of spherules (FKS), and for secretion of IL-10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to FKS by both elicited macrophages and BMDC. Infected MR KO mice produced more IL-10 in their lungs than did B6 mice, and MR KO mice also made more protective Th-17 cytokines. In contrast to the MR, Dectin-2 was not required for recognition of FKS by BMDCs or for the production of cytokines by BMDC in response to FKS. However, Dectin-2 KO was required for stimulation of elicited peritoneal macrophages. Despite that, lung cytokine levels were not significantly different in Dectin-2 KO and B6 mice 14 days after infection, except for IL-1?, which was higher in Dectin-2 KO lungs. Although both Dectin-2-/- and MR -/- myeloid cells had reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to FKS in vitro, neither MR nor Dectin-2 deficiency reduced the resistance of B6 mice to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.
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Osteoblast-specific expression of Fra-2/AP-1 controls adiponectin and osteocalcin expression and affects metabolism.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Recent studies have established that the skeleton functions as an endocrine organ affecting metabolism through the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin (Ocn). However, it is not fully understood how many transcription factors expressed in osteoblasts regulate the endocrine function. Here, we show that mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of Fra-2 (Fosl2) have low bone mass but increased body weight. In contrast, transgenic expression of Fra-2 in osteoblasts leads to increased bone mass and decreased body weight accompanied by reduced serum glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, mice lacking Fra-2 have reduced levels of circulating Ocn, but high adiponectin (Adipoq), whereas Fra-2 transgenic mice exhibit high Ocn and low Adipoq levels. Moreover, we found that Adipoq was expressed in osteoblasts and that this expression was transcriptionally repressed by Fra-2. These results demonstrate that Fra-2 expression in osteoblasts represents a novel paradigm for a transcription factor controlling the endocrine function of the skeleton.
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Profile of the orthodontist practicing in the State of São Paulo--part 2.
Dental Press J Orthod
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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The choice of brackets, bands and wires is a very important aspect of orthodontic treatment. Stainless steel prevailed for a long time, but new alloys and resources have emerged to diversify the orthodontic wire mechanics.
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Assessment of metals bound to marine plankton proteins and to dissolved proteins in seawater.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Studies based on laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have been performed to assess metal bound to dissolved proteins and proteins from marine plankton after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE). Dissolved proteins were pre-concentrated from surface seawater (60L) by tangential ultrafiltration with 10kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes and further centrifugal ultrafiltration (10kDa) before proteins isolation by methanol/chloroform/water precipitation. Proteins isolation from plankton was assessed after different trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone and methanol washing stages, and further proteins extraction with a phenol solution. LA-ICP-MS analysis of the electrophoretic profiles obtained for dissolved proteins shows the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn in five spots analyzed. These proteins exhibit quite similar molecular weights (within the 10-14kDa range) and pIs (from 5.8 to 7.3). Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn have also been found to be associated to proteins isolated from plankton samples. In this case, Cd has been found to be bound to proteins of quite different molecular weight (9, 13 and 22kDa) and pIs (4.5, 5.2, 5.5, and 10). However, trace elements such as Cr, Cu and Zn appear to be mainly bound to plankton proteins of low molecular weight and variable pI.
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HLA-E variants are associated with sustained virological response in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients on hepatitis C virus therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To analyze whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E allelic variants are associated with and may predict response to peg-interferon (IFN) alpha and ribavirin treatment in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients.
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Prediction of hepatic fibrosis in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus based on genetic markers.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To assess the ability of the cirrhosis risk score (CRS) to predict liver fibrosis progression in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients.
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O-glycosylation of NnTreg lymphocytes recognized by the Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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O-glycosidically-linked glycans have been involved in development, maturation, homing, and immune regulation in T cells. Previous reports indicate that Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL), specific for glycans containing galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, recognizes human naïve CD27(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells. Our aim was to evaluate the phenotype of CD4(+) T cells recognized by ALL in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy volunteers. CD4(+) T cells were isolated by negative selection using magnetic beads-labeled monoclonal antibodies; the expression of T regulatory cell phenotypic markers was assessed on ALL-recognized cells. In addition, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-?, and TGF-? intracellular production in ALL (+) cells was also evaluated. The analyses of phenotypic markers and intracellular cytokines were performed through flow cytometry. ALL-recognized CD4(+) T cells were mainly CD45RA(+), CCR7(+) cells. Although 52 ± 10% CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells were positive to ALL, only 34 ± 4% of ALL (+) cells corresponded to CD25(+)Foxp3(-) cells. Intracellular cytokines in freshly obtained ALL (+)CD4(+) T cells exhibited 8% of IL-4, 15% of IL-10, 2% of IFN-?, and 15% of TGF-?, whereas ALL (-)CD4(+) T cells depicted 1% of IL-4, 2% of IL-10, <1% of IFN-?, and 6% of TGF-?. Our results show that galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and N-galactosamine-bearing CD4(+) T cells expressed phenotypic markers of NnTreg cells.
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Analysis of IL28B alleles with virologic response patterns and plasma cytokine levels in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To estimate the impact of interleukin 28B (IL28B) polymorphisms (rs12980275, rs8099917, rs7248668, and rs11881222) and their haplotypes on hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment (peg-interferon-? and ribavirin) success in 324 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. We also explore the behavior of plasma cytokine levels.
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Diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic.
Endocrinol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Appearance of a thyroid nodule has become a daily occurrence in clinical practice. Adequate thyroid nodule assessment requires several diagnostic tests and multiple medical appointments, which results in a substantial delay in diagnosis. Implementation of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic largely avoids these drawbacks by condensing in a single appointment all tests required for adequate evaluation of thyroid nodule. This paper reviews the diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic.
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European mitochondrial haplogroups are associated with CD4+ T cell recovery in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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There is substantial interindividual variability in the rate and extent of CD4+ T cell recovery after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of our study was to determine whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with recovery of CD4+ in HIV-infected patients on cART.
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Biochemical and mutational studies of allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis CECT 20T.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Allantoinases (allantoin amidohydrolase, E.C. 3.5.2.5) catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond of allantoin to form allantoic acid, in those organisms where allantoin is not the final product of uric acid degradation. Despite their importance in the purine catabolic pathway, sequences of microbial allantoinases with proven activity are scarce, and only the enzyme from Escherichia coli (AllEco) has been studied in detail in the genomic era. In this work, we report the cloning, purification and characterization of the recombinant allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis CECT 20T (AllBali). The enzyme was a homotetramer with an apparent Tm of 62 ± 1 °C. Optimal parameters for the enzyme activity were pH 7.5 and 50 °C, showing apparent Km and kcat values of 17.7 ± 2.7 mM and 24.4 ± 1.5 s(-1), respectively. Co(2+) proved to be the most effective cofactor, inverting the enantioselectivity of AllBali when compared to that previously reported for other allantoinases. The common ability of different cyclic amidohydrolases to hydrolyze distinct substrates to the natural one also proved true for AllBali. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze hydantoin, dihydrouracil and 5-ethyl-hydantoin, although at relative rates 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than with allantoin. Mutagenesis experiments suggest that S292 is likely implicated in the binding of the allantoin ring through the carbonyl group of the polypeptide main chain, which is the common mechanism observed in other members of the amidohydrolase family. In addition, our results suggest an allosteric effect of H2O2 toward allantoinase.
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Polio eradication: how long and how much to the end?
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Eradication of poliomyelitis seems to be more feasible than ever. During recent years the strategy has reached milestone goals, faced new challenges, and re-configured by itself. In this text we describe the current situation of the polio eradication efforts worldwide and present an analysis of the potential implications and needs regarding vaccination in the coming years.
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Implementation of mechanical chest compression in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in an emergency medical service system.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The aim of this study is to describe the outcome changes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Gothenburg, Sweden, after introduction of mechanical chest compression (MCC).
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Comparative transcriptional profiling analysis of olive ripe-fruit pericarp and abscission zone tissues shows expression differences and distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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In fleshy fruit, abscission of fully ripe fruit is a process intimately linked to the ripening process. In many fruit-tree species, such as olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Picual), there is a coupling of the full ripening and the activation of the abscission-zone (AZ). Although fully ripe fruit have marked physiological differences with respect to their AZs, dissimilarities in gene expression have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study examines the transcriptome of olive fruit and their AZ tissues at the last stage of ripening, monitored using mRNA-Seq.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.