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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[The value of FibroScan® in the follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection without indication for treatment].
Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method of assessing hepatic fibrosis in a quick, simple and reproducible manner. FibroScan is the best-known elastography apparatus and can assess a tissue volume 100 times greater than hepatic biopsy. Given that it lacks complications, TE can be repeated in the follow-up visit, thereby providing evolutionary information. One of its limitations, however, is its failure rate (4.5% of examinations), mainly in obese patients. TE has certain characteristics in chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Transaminase levels and necroinflammation increase in reactivations, with hepatic stiffness increasing by 1.2 to 4.4 times. The second characteristic is related to macronodular cirrhosis caused by HBV, with less fibrous tissue compared with that produced by hepatitis C. Therefore, the cutoff values are smaller for hepatitis B than for hepatitis C. FibroScan helps categorize patients with chronic HBV infection into 4 fibrosis groups (approximate mean values and adding 1-2 more points with high transaminase levels): not significant (<6 kPa), grey area (6-9 kPa), significant (>9 kPa) and cirrhosis (>12 kPa). Thus, Fibroscan contributes to the treatment decision, and its repeated use during treatment enables us to verify that fibrosis has not progressed. In cases with no indication for treatment (chronic hepatitis with no criteria, inactive carrier state, immune-tolerant), the periodic reapplication of TE helps determine whether the inactivity continues or not. If the results are compatible with cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma surveillance should be started.
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Granulomatous hepatitis caused by Q fever: a differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) includes infectious, neoplastic, rheumaticinflammatory and miscellaneous diseases. We report the case of a 35-year-old man with FUO caused by Q fever. A liver biopsy showed the characteristic fibrin-ring lipogranulomas compatible with Q fever. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of acute infection by Coxiella burnetii. The therapeutic response was excellent. In conclusion, we described a patient with acute Q fever and granulomatous hepatitis.
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Deficient p27 phosphorylation at serine 10 increases macrophage foam cell formation and aggravates atherosclerosis through a proliferation-independent mechanism.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Genetic ablation of the growth suppressor p27(Kip1) (p27) in the mouse aggravates atherosclerosis coinciding with enhanced arterial cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether molecular mechanisms that limit p27s protective function contribute to atherosclerosis development and whether p27 exerts proliferation-independent activities in the arterial wall. This study aims to provide insight into both questions by investigating the role in atherosclerosis of p27 phosphorylation at serine 10 (p27-phospho-Ser10), a major posttranslational modification of this protein.
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Reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection after cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Reactivation of hepatitis B is defined as the recurrence or an abrupt rise in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, often accompanied by an increase in serum transaminase levels, and both events occurring in a patient with a previous inactive hepatitis B infection. This reactivation can occur in situations in which the ratio of HBV replication and immune response is altered. It can happen during the treatment of hemato-oncological malignancies with chemotherapy and in immunosuppression of autoimmune diseases. Clinical manifestations of hepatitis B reactivation are variable and can range from asymptomatic to acute hepatitis, which are sometimes serious and result in acute liver failure with risk of death, and usually occur in the periods between cycles or at the end of chemotherapy. Immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids or azathioprine can induce HBV reactivation in patients carrying hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) or anti-HBc, but much less frequently than chemotherapy treatments. The tumor necrosis factor ? inhibitors infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab may cause reactivation of hepatitis B, and the overall frequency with infliximab may be similar (50%-66%) to that caused by chemotherapy. Baseline HBV serology is recommended for all patients receiving chemotherapy and immunosuppressive drugs, and HBsAg positive patients should receive anti-HBV prophylaxis to decrease virus reactivation and death rates.
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Immune responses and protection of Aotus monkeys immunized with irradiated Plasmodium vivax sporozoites.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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A non-human primate model for the induction of protective immunity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium vivax malaria using radiation-attenuated P. vivax sporozoites may help to characterize protective immune mechanisms and identify novel malaria vaccine candidates. Immune responses and protective efficacy induced by vaccination with irradiated P. vivax sporozoites were evaluated in malaria-naive Aotus monkeys. Three groups of six monkeys received two, five, or ten intravenous inoculations, respectively, of 100,000 irradiated P. vivax sporozoites; control groups received either 10 doses of uninfected salivary gland extract or no inoculations. Immunization resulted in the production low levels of antibodies that specifically recognized P. vivax sporozoites and the circumsporozoite protein. Additionally, immunization induced low levels of antigen-specific IFN-? responses. Intravenous challenge with viable sporozoites resulted in partial protection in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the Aotus monkey model may be able to play a role in preclinical development of P. vivax pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines.
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Plasmodium vivax sporozoite production in Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes for vaccine clinical trials.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Vaccine development for Plasmodium vivax malaria is underway. A model to assess the protective efficacy of vaccine candidates in humans is urgently needed. Given the lack of continuous P. vivax cultures, we developed a system to infect Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using blood from P. vivax-infected patients and determined parameters for challenge of malaria-naive volunteers by mosquito bite. Absence of co-infections in parasitized blood was confirmed by tests consistent with blood bank screening. A total of 119 experiments were conducted using batches of 900-4,500 mosquitoes fed by an artificial membrane feeding method. Optimal conditions for mosquito probing and infection were determined. Presence of oocyst and sporozoites were assessed on Days 7-8 and 14-15, respectively, and conditions to choose batches of infected mosquitoes for sporozoite challenge were established. Procedures to infect volunteers took a 2-hour period including verification of inoculum dose. Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes represent a valuable resource for P. vivax sporozoite challenge of volunteers.
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Percutaneous Intervention in a single coronary artery: evaluation of multislice tomography and its feasibility.
Rev Esp Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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The presence of only a single coronary artery is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly. In most cases, it is an incidental finding on coronary angiography and has no clinical significance. However, it can cause angina, myocardial infarction or even sudden death, particularly in young patients in whom the course of the artery runs between the aorta and pulmonary artery. In such cases, angiographic assessment may be difficult. Multislice coronary computed tomography might be better for visualizing the anatomy of the coronary artery tree in these patients. This article describes the cases of three patients with a single coronary artery and associated atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in whom a diagnosis was made using coronary angiography and multislice computed tomography.
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Assessment of myocardial deformation: Predicting medium-term left ventricular dysfunction after surgery in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation.
Rev Esp Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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The development of left ventricular dysfunction after mitral valve replacement is a common problem in patients with chronic severe mitral regurgitation. Assessment of myocardial deformation enables myocardial contractility to be accurately estimated. Our aim was to compare the value of the preoperative strain and strain rate derived by either speckle-tracking echocardiography or tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) for predicting the medium-term decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following surgery.
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Fast and simple nuclear magnetic resonance method to measure conjugated linoleic acid in beef.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2010
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Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of linoleic acid isomers that are naturally found in food products originating from ruminants (meat and dairy). These acids have received special attention in recent years due to their potential human health benefits. Research efforts have been proposed to increase the CLA content in beef to improve public health. However, because there are more than 30 million beef cattle used each year by the American food industry, it will be necessary to ensure their content in a large number of samples. Therefore, it is important to have an inexpensive and rapid analytical method to measure CLA content in food products. Because gas chromatography (GC), a current popular method for measuring CLAs, is slow, this paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) method that is potentially >10 times faster than the GC method. Analyses show a correlation coefficient of 0.97, indicating the capacity of NMR to quantify the CLA content in beef samples. Furthermore, the method proposed herein is simple and does not require sophisticated sample preparation.
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[Association of hyperhomocysteinemia with liver steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is related to viral and metabolic factors and likely to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to know if hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphisms are associated with liver steatosis in nonalcoholic patients with CHC.
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p19(ARF) deficiency reduces macrophage and vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and aggravates atherosclerosis.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The goal of this study was to investigate the role in atherosclerosis of the tumor suppressor protein ARF (human p14(ARF), mouse p19(ARF)) encoded by the CDKN2A gene.
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In-hospital prognosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis after urgent surgery.
Rev Esp Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Prosthetic valve endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly when urgent surgery is needed. The identification of factors that predict a poor prognosis is the first step in improving outcomes. The study objectives were to characterize patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis who need urgent surgery and to identify factors that predict in-hospital mortality in this high-risk group.
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Successful sporozoite challenge model in human volunteers with Plasmodium vivax strain derived from human donors.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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Successful establishment of a Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge model in humans is described. Eighteen healthy adult, malaria-naïve volunteers were randomly allocated to Groups A-C and exposed to 3 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, and 9 +/- 1 bites of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with P. vivax, respectively. Seventeen volunteers developed signs and symptoms consistent with malaria, and geometric mean prepatent periods of 11.1 days (9.3-11) for Group A; 10.8 days (9.8-11.9) for Group B; and 10.6 days (8.7-12.4) for Group C, with no statistically significant difference among groups (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.70). One volunteer exposed to eight mosquito bites did not develop a parasitemia. No differences in parasite density were observed and all individuals successfully recovered after anti-malarial treatment. None of the volunteers developed parasite relapses within an 18-month follow-up. In conclusion, malaria-naive volunteers can be safely and reproducibly infected with bites of 2-10 An. albimanus mosquitoes carrying P. vivax sporozoites. This challenge method is suitable for vaccine and anti-malarial drug testing.
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Distortion of the QRS in elderly patients with myocardial infarction.
Cardiol J
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Distortion of the terminal portion of the QRS in the initial electrocardiogram (ECG) is a strong predictor of adverse outcome in myocardial infarction. Our purpose is to assess the relationship of distortion of QRS and other ECG characteristics with older age.
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Annexin A2 is involved in antiphospholipid antibody-mediated pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies recognize receptor-bound beta(2) glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) on target cells, and induce an intracellular signaling and a procoagulant/proinflammatory phenotype that leads to thrombosis. Evidence indicates that annexin A2 (A2), a receptor for tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen, binds beta(2)GPI on target cells. However, whether A2 mediates pathogenic effects of aPL antibodies in vivo is unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of human aPL antibodies in A2-deficient (A2(-/-)) mice. A2(-/-) and A2(+/+) mice were injected with immunoglobulin G (IgG) isolated from either a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (IgG-APS), a healthy control subject (IgG-normal human serum), a monoclonal anti-beta(2)GPI antibody (4C5), an anti-A2 monoclonal antibody, or monoclonal antibody of irrelevant specificity as control. We found that, after IgG-APS or 4C5 injections and vascular injury, mean thrombus size was significantly smaller and tissue factor activity was significantly less in A2(-/-) mice compared with A2(+/+) mice. The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced by IgG-APS or 4C5 in explanted A2(-/-) aorta was also significantly reduced compared with A2(+/+) mice. Interestingly, anti-A2 monoclonal antibody significantly decreased aPL-induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and tissue factor activity on cultured endothelial cells. Together, these data indicate for the first time that A2 mediates the pathogenic effects of aPL antibodies in vivo and in vitro APS.
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Life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different environmental conditions on two bean cultivars.
Neotrop. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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Life-history parameters of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an important pest of bean crops in Colombia, were determined in environmental control chambers on two dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (cv.). Trialeurodes vaporariorum longevity on cv. Chocho decreased as temperature increased from 22.6 d at 19 degrees C to 5.9 d at 26 degrees C. Fecundity was significantly lower at 19 degrees C (8.6 eggs/female), as compared to 22 degrees C (32.6 eggs/female) and 26 degrees C (33.3 eggs/female) on cv. Chocho. Fecundity on cv. ICA-Pijao was much higher (127.2 eggs/female) than on cv. Chocho (32.6 eggs/female) at 19 degrees C. The intrinsic rate of population increase (r m) was highest at 22 degrees C (0.061), intermediate at 19 degrees C (0.044) and lowest at 26 degrees C (0.035) on cv. Chocho, and was 0.072 on cv. ICA-Pijao at 19 degrees C. Life history parameters of T. vaporariorum are compared to those of one of its natural enemies, the parasitoid Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker. Finally, data are presented on the distribution of the parasitoid related to the altitude for the Valle del Cauca, Colombia.
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Chronic mitral regurgitation: a pilot study to assess preoperative left ventricular contractile function using speckle-tracking echocardiography.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2009
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The development of postoperative left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a frequent complication in patients with chronic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and implies a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of preoperative regional LV contractile function assessment using two-dimensional echocardiography-based speckle-tracking analysis in patients with chronic severe MR.
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Occlusion of the left main coronary artery and collateral circulation via the conus branch.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown)
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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We report the case of a 71-year-old-man, a smoker, admitted for unstable angina. Subsequent investigation revealed complete proximal occlusion of the left main coronary with an unusual collateral circulation. The left coronary artery was filled by a large conus branch originating from the right sinus of Valsalva. This case shows the importance of looking for atypical collateral circulation in patients with chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery and normal left ventricular function.
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Calcified right ventricular thrombus and antiphospholipid syndrome.
Eur J Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Antiphospholipid syndrome has been associated with venous and arterial thrombotic events but intracardiac thrombosis is rare. We describe a case about a 30-year-old woman, admitted with a 6-month history of arthralgia, fatigue, and intermittent fever. Subsequent investigation revealed the presence of a large and calcified mass in the right ventricular outflow tract attached to the subvalvular tricuspid apparatus. Cardiac surgery was performed and histological examination demonstrated it to be composed entirely of calcified thrombus. Screening laboratory evaluation for hypercoagulable states confirmed the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome.
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In vivo inhibition of c-MYC in myeloid cells impairs tumor-associated macrophage maturation and pro-tumoral activities.
PLoS ONE
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Although tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor growth and metastasis, the mechanisms controlling their pro-tumoral activities remain largely unknown. The transcription factor c-MYC has been recently shown to regulate in vitro human macrophage polarization and be expressed in macrophages infiltrating human tumors. In this study, we exploited the predominant expression of LysM in myeloid cells to generate c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice, which lack c-Myc in macrophages, to investigate the role of macrophage c-MYC expression in cancer. Under steady-state conditions, immune system parameters in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice appeared normal, including the abundance of different subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, precursors and circulating cells, macrophage density, and immune organ structure. In a model of melanoma, however, TAMs lacking c-Myc displayed a delay in maturation and showed an attenuation of pro-tumoral functions (e.g., reduced expression of VEGF, MMP9, and HIF1?) that was associated with impaired tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and limited tumor growth in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice. Macrophage c-Myc deletion also diminished fibrosarcoma growth. These data identify c-Myc as a positive regulator of the pro-tumoral program of TAMs and suggest c-Myc inactivation as an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.
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Processing of high resolution magic angle spinning spectra of breast cancer cells by the filter diagonalization method.
Analyst
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Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy for detection of biochemical changes in biological samples is a successful technique. However, the achieved NMR resolution is not sufficiently high when the analysis is performed with intact cells. To improve spectral resolution, high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) is used and the broad signals are separated by a T(2) filter based on the CPMG pulse sequence. Additionally, HR-MAS experiments with a T(2) filter are preceded by a water suppression procedure. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that the experimental procedures of water suppression and T(2) or diffusing filters are unnecessary steps when the filter diagonalization method (FDM) is used to process the time domain HR-MAS signals. Manipulation of the FDM results, represented as a tabular list of peak positions, widths, amplitudes and phases, allows the removal of water signals without the disturbing overlapping or nearby signals. Additionally, the FDM can also be used for phase correction and noise suppression, and to discriminate between sharp and broad lines. Results demonstrate the applicability of the FDM post-acquisition processing to obtain high quality HR-MAS spectra of heterogeneous biological materials.
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Peripheral autonomic nerves of human pineal organ terminate on vessels, their supposed role in the periodic secretion of pineal melatonin.
APMIS
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Nonvisual pineal and retinal photoreceptors are synchronizing circadian and circannual periodicity to the environmental light periods in the function of various organs. Melatonin of the pineal organ is secreted at night and represents an important factor of this periodic regulation. Night illumination suppressing melatonin secretion may result in pathological events like breast and colorectal cancer. Experimental works demonstrated the role of autonomic nerves in the pineal melatonin secretion. It was supposed that mammalian pineals have lost their photoreceptor capacity that is present in submammalians, and sympathetic fibers would mediate light information from the retina to regulate melatonin secretion. Retinal afferentation may reach the organ by central nerve fibers via the pineal habenulae as well. In our earlier works we have found that the pineal organ developing from lobular evaginations of the epithalamus differs from peripheral endocrine glands and is composed of a retina-like central nervous tissue that is comprised of cone-like pinealocytes, secondary pineal neurons and glial cells. Their autonomic nerves in submammalians as well as in mammalian animals do not terminate on pineal cells, rather, they run in the meningeal septa among pineal lobules and form vasomotor nerve endings. Concerning the adult human pineal there are no detailed fine structural data about the termination of autonomic fibers, therefore, in the present work we investigated the ultrastructure of the human pineal peripheral autonomic nerve fibers. It was found, that similarly to other parts of the brain, autonomic nerves do not enter the human pineal nervous tissue itself but separated by glial limiting membranes take their course in the meningeal septa of the organ and terminate on vessels by vasomotor endings. We suppose that these autonomic vasomotor nerves serve the regulation of the pineal blood supply according to the circadian and circannual changes of the metabolic activity of the organ and support by this effect the secretion of pineal neurohormones including melatonin.
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Acute hepatitis C in Spain: a retrospective study of 131 cases.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig
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The management of acute hepatitis C (AHC) is controversial. We have conducted a retrospective study to determine the epidemiological and biochemical aspects, the genotypes, the spontaneous clearance of HCV (SVC), and the treatment responses in patients with AHC.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.