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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity.
Daan W Loth, María Soler Artigas, Sina A Gharib, Louise V Wain, Nora Franceschini, Beate Koch, Tess D Pottinger, Albert Vernon Smith, Qing Duan, Chris Oldmeadow, Mi Kyeong Lee, David P Strachan, Alan L James, Jennifer E Huffman, Veronique Vitart, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Nicholas J Wareham, Jaakko Kaprio, Xin-Qun Wang, Holly Trochet, Mika Kähönen, Claudia Flexeder, Eva Albrecht, Lorna M Lopez, Kim de Jong, Bharat Thyagarajan, Alexessander Couto Alves, Stefan Enroth, Ernst Omenaas, Peter K Joshi, Tove Fall, Ana Viñuela, Lenore J Launer, Laura R Loehr, Myriam Fornage, Guo Li, Jemma B Wilk, Wenbo Tang, Ani Manichaikul, Lies Lahousse, Tamara B Harris, Kari E North, Alicja R Rudnicka, Jennie Hui, Xiangjun Gu, Thomas Lumley, Alan F Wright, Nicholas D Hastie, Susan Campbell, Rajesh Kumar, Isabelle Pin, Robert A Scott, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Ida Surakka, Yongmei Liu, Elizabeth G Holliday, Holger Schulz, Joachim Heinrich, Gail Davies, Judith M Vonk, Mary Wojczynski, Anneli Pouta, Asa Johansson, Sarah H Wild, Erik Ingelsson, Fernando Rivadeneira, Henry Völzke, Pirro G Hysi, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Alanna C Morrison, Jerome I Rotter, Wei Gao, Dirkje S Postma, Wendy B White, Stephen S Rich, Albert Hofman, Thor Aspelund, David Couper, Lewis J Smith, Bruce M Psaty, Kurt Lohman, Esteban G Burchard, André G Uitterlinden, Melissa Garcia, Bonnie R Joubert, Wendy L McArdle, A Bill Musk, Nadia Hansel, Susan R Heckbert, Lina Zgaga, Joyce B J van Meurs, Pau Navarro, Igor Rudan, Yeon-Mok Oh, Susan Redline, Deborah L Jarvis, Jing Hua Zhao, Taina Rantanen, George T O'Connor, Samuli Ripatti, Rodney J Scott, Stefan Karrasch, Harald Grallert, Nathan C Gaddis, John M Starr, Cisca Wijmenga, Ryan L Minster, David J Lederer, Juha Pekkanen, Ulf Gyllensten, Harry Campbell, Andrew P Morris, Sven Gläser, Christopher J Hammond, Kristin M Burkart, John Beilby, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Vilmundur Gudnason, Dana B Hancock, O Dale Williams, Ozren Polašek, Tatijana Zemunik, Ivana Kolčić, Marcy F Petrini, Matthias Wjst, Woo Jin Kim, David J Porteous, Generation Scotland, Blair H Smith, Anne Viljanen, Markku Heliövaara, John R Attia, Ian Sayers, Regina Hampel, Christian Gieger, Ian J Deary, H Marike Boezen, Anne Newman, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, James F Wilson, Lars Lind, Bruno H Stricker, Alexander Teumer, Timothy D Spector, Erik Melén, Marjolein J Peters, Leslie A Lange, R Graham Barr, Ken R Bracke, Fien M Verhamme, Joohon Sung, Pieter S Hiemstra, Patricia A Cassano, Akshay Sood, Caroline Hayward, Josée Dupuis, Ian P Hall, Guy G Brusselle, Martin D Tobin, Stephanie J London.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR129-2-HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX and KCNJ2. Two loci previously associated with spirometric measures (GSTCD and PTCH1) were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed up in samples from African-American, Korean, Chinese and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and the pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
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Whole exome re-sequencing implicates CCDC38 and cilia structure and function in resistance to smoking related airflow obstruction.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and, whilst smoking remains the single most important risk factor, COPD risk is heritable. Of 26 independent genomic regions showing association with lung function in genome-wide association studies, eleven have been reported to show association with airflow obstruction. Although the main risk factor for COPD is smoking, some individuals are observed to have a high forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) despite many years of heavy smoking. We hypothesised that these "resistant smokers" may harbour variants which protect against lung function decline caused by smoking and provide insight into the genetic determinants of lung health. We undertook whole exome re-sequencing of 100 heavy smokers who had healthy lung function given their age, sex, height and smoking history and applied three complementary approaches to explore the genetic architecture of smoking resistance. Firstly, we identified novel functional variants in the "resistant smokers" and looked for enrichment of these novel variants within biological pathways. Secondly, we undertook association testing of all exonic variants individually with two independent control sets. Thirdly, we undertook gene-based association testing of all exonic variants. Our strongest signal of association with smoking resistance for a non-synonymous SNP was for rs10859974 (P = 2.34 × 10(-4)) in CCDC38, a gene which has previously been reported to show association with FEV1/FVC, and we demonstrate moderate expression of CCDC38 in bronchial epithelial cells. We identified an enrichment of novel putatively functional variants in genes related to cilia structure and function in resistant smokers. Ciliary function abnormalities are known to be associated with both smoking and reduced mucociliary clearance in patients with COPD. We suggest that genetic influences on the development or function of cilia in the bronchial epithelium may affect growth of cilia or the extent of damage caused by tobacco smoke.
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Common genetic determinants of lung function, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of coronary artery disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) independently associates with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but it has not been fully investigated whether this co-morbidity involves shared pathophysiological mechanisms. To identify potential common pathways across the two diseases, we tested all recently published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human lung function (spirometry) for association with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 3,378 subjects with multiple CAD risk factors, and for association with CAD in a case-control study of 5,775 CAD cases and 7,265 controls. SNPs rs2865531, located in the CFDP1 gene, and rs9978142, located in the KCNE2 gene, were significantly associated with CAD. In addition, SNP rs9978142 and SNP rs3995090 located in the HTR4 gene, were associated with average and maximal cIMT measures. Genetic risk scores combining the most robustly spirometry-associated SNPs from the literature were modestly associated with CAD, (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI95)?= 1.06 (1.03, 1.09); P-value = 1.5 × 10(-4), per allele). In conclusion, our study suggests that some genetic loci implicated in determining human lung function also influence cIMT and susceptibility to CAD. The present results should help elucidate the molecular underpinnings of the co-morbidity observed across COPD and CAD.
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Large-scale genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of longitudinal change in adult lung function.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function.
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APOM and high-density lipoprotein are associated with lung function and percent emphysema.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is linked to cardiovascular disease; however, there are few studies on the associations of cardiovascular genes with COPD.We assessed the association of lung function with 2,100 genes selected for cardiovascular diseases among 20,077 European-Americans and 6,900 African-Americans. We performed replication of significant loci in the other racial group and an independent consortium of Europeans, tested the associations of significant loci with percent emphysema, and examined gene expression in an independent sample. We then tested the association of a related lipid biomarker with FEV1/FVC and percent emphysema.We identified one new polymorphism for FEV1/FVC (rs805301) in European-Americans (p=1.3×10(-6)) and a second (rs707974) in the combined European-American and African-American analysis (p=1.38×10(-7)). Both SNPs flank the gene for apolipoprotein M (apoM), a component of HDL. Both replicated in an independent cohort. SNPs in a second gene related to apoM and HDL, PCSK9, were associated with FEV1/FVC among African-Americans. rs707974 was associated with percent emphysema among European-Americans and African-Americans, and APOM expression was related to FEV1/FVC and percent emphysema. Higher HDL levels were associated with lower FEV1/FVC and greater percent emphysema.These findings suggest a novel role for the APOM/HDL pathway in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema.
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GSTCD and INTS12 regulation and expression in the human lung.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analyses have identified a strong association signal for lung function, which maps to a region on 4q24 containing two oppositely transcribed genes: glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain containing (GSTCD) and integrator complex subunit 12 (INTS12). Both genes were found to be expressed in a range of human airway cell types. The promoter regions and transcription start sites were determined in mRNA from human lung and a novel splice variant was identified for each gene. We obtained the following evidence for GSTCD and INTS12 co-regulation and expression: (i) correlated mRNA expression was observed both via Q-PCR and in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) study, (ii) induction of both GSTCD and INTS12 mRNA expression in human airway smooth muscle cells was seen in response to TGF?1, (iii) a lung eQTL study revealed that both GSTCD and INTS12 mRNA levels positively correlate with percent predicted FEV1, and (iv) FEV1 GWAS associated SNPs in 4q24 were found to act as an eQTL for INTS12 in a number of tissues. In fixed sections of human lung tissue, GSTCD protein expression was ubiquitous, whereas INTS12 expression was predominantly in epithelial cells and pneumocytes. During human fetal lung development, GSTCD protein expression was observed to be highest at the earlier pseudoglandular stage (10-12 weeks) compared with the later canalicular stage (17-19 weeks), whereas INTS12 expression levels did not alter throughout these stages. Knowledge of the transcriptional and translational regulation and expression of GSTCD and INTS12 provides important insights into the potential role of these genes in determining lung function. Future work is warranted to fully define the functions of INTS12 and GSTCD.
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Genome-wide association studies in lung disease.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of lung function and lung diseases. GWAS, and studies that build upon their findings, will continue to provide evidence aimed at advancing understanding of lung disease. This paper summarises the key features of a GWAS, references some recent findings and discusses how the chest physician can interpret the validity and utility of future GWAS and related studies.
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Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.
, Georg B Ehret, Patricia B Munroe, Kenneth M Rice, Murielle Bochud, Andrew D Johnson, Daniel I Chasman, Albert V Smith, Martin D Tobin, Germaine C Verwoert, Shih-Jen Hwang, Vasyl Pihur, Peter Vollenweider, Paul F O'Reilly, Najaf Amin, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Alexander Teumer, Nicole L Glazer, Lenore Launer, Jing Hua Zhao, Yurii Aulchenko, Simon Heath, Siim Sõber, Afshin Parsa, Jian'an Luan, Pankaj Arora, Abbas Dehghan, Feng Zhang, Gavin Lucas, Andrew A Hicks, Anne U Jackson, John F Peden, Toshiko Tanaka, Sarah H Wild, Igor Rudan, Wilmar Igl, Yuri Milaneschi, Alex N Parker, Cristiano Fava, John C Chambers, Ervin R Fox, Meena Kumari, Min Jin Go, Pim van der Harst, Wen Hong Linda Kao, Marketa Sjögren, D G Vinay, Myriam Alexander, Yasuharu Tabara, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Peter H Whincup, Yongmei Liu, Gang Shi, Johanna Kuusisto, Bamidele Tayo, Mark Seielstad, Xueling Sim, Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, Terho Lehtimäki, Giuseppe Matullo, Ying Wu, Tom R Gaunt, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Matthew N Cooper, Carl G P Platou, Elin Org, Rebecca Hardy, Santosh Dahgam, Jutta Palmen, Veronique Vitart, Peter S Braund, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Adebowale Adeyemo, Walter Palmas, Harry Campbell, Barbara Ludwig, Maciej Tomaszewski, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Nicholette D Palmer, Thor Aspelund, Melissa Garcia, Yen-Pei C Chang, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Nanette I Steinle, Diederick E Grobbee, Dan E Arking, Sharon L Kardia, Alanna C Morrison, Dena Hernandez, Samer Najjar, Wendy L McArdle, David Hadley, Morris J Brown, John M Connell, Aroon D Hingorani, Ian N M Day, Debbie A Lawlor, John P Beilby, Robert W Lawrence, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, Halit Ongen, Albert W Dreisbach, Yali Li, J Hunter Young, Joshua C Bis, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Linda S Adair, Nanette R Lee, Ming-Huei Chen, Matthias Olden, Cristian Pattaro, Judith A Hoffman Bolton, Anna Köttgen, Sven Bergmann, Vincent Mooser, Nish Chaturvedi, Timothy M Frayling, Muhammad Islam, Tazeen H Jafar, Jeanette Erdmann, Smita R Kulkarni, Stefan R Bornstein, Jürgen Gräßler, Leif Groop, Benjamin F Voight, Johannes Kettunen, Philip Howard, Andrew Taylor, Simonetta Guarrera, Fulvio Ricceri, Valur Emilsson, Andrew Plump, Inês Barroso, Kay-Tee Khaw, Alan B Weder, Steven C Hunt, Yan V Sun, Richard N Bergman, Francis S Collins, Lori L Bonnycastle, Laura J Scott, Heather M Stringham, Leena Peltonen, Markus Perola, Erkki Vartiainen, Stefan-Martin Brand, Jan A Staessen, Thomas J Wang, Paul R Burton, María Soler Artigas, Yanbin Dong, Harold Snieder, Xiaoling Wang, Haidong Zhu, Kurt K Lohman, Megan E Rudock, Susan R Heckbert, Nicholas L Smith, Kerri L Wiggins, Ayo Doumatey, Daniel Shriner, Gudrun Veldre, Margus Viigimaa, Sanjay Kinra, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Vikal Tripathy, Carl D Langefeld, Annika Rosengren, Dag S Thelle, Anna Maria Corsi, Andrew Singleton, Terrence Forrester, Gina Hilton, Colin A McKenzie, Tunde Salako, Naoharu Iwai, Yoshikuni Kita, Toshio Ogihara, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Tomonori Okamura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Satoshi Umemura, Susana Eyheramendy, Thomas Meitinger, H-Erich Wichmann, Yoon Shin Cho, Hyung-Lae Kim, Jong-Young Lee, James Scott, Joban S Sehmi, Weihua Zhang, Bo Hedblad, Peter Nilsson, George Davey Smith, Andrew Wong, Narisu Narisu, Alena Stančáková, Leslie J Raffel, Jie Yao, Sekar Kathiresan, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen M Schwartz, M Arfan Ikram, W T Longstreth, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Nick R G Shrine, Louise V Wain, Mario A Morken, Amy J Swift, Jaana Laitinen, Inga Prokopenko, Paavo Zitting, Jackie A Cooper, Steve E Humphries, John Danesh, Asif Rasheed, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Hugh Watkins, Stephan J L Bakker, Wiek H van Gilst, Charles S Janipalli, K Radha Mani, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Albert Hofman, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Ben A Oostra, Ayse Demirkan, Aaron Isaacs, Fernando Rivadeneira, Edward G Lakatta, Marco Orrù, Angelo Scuteri, Mika Ala-Korpela, Antti J Kangas, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Pasi Soininen, Taru Tukiainen, Peter Würtz, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Marcus Dörr, Heyo K Kroemer, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Pilar Galán, Serge Hercberg, Mark Lathrop, Diana Zelenika, Panos Deloukas, Massimo Mangino, Tim D Spector, Guangju Zhai, James F Meschia, Michael A Nalls, Pankaj Sharma, Janos Terzic, M V Kranthi Kumar, Matthew Denniff, Ewa Zukowska-Szczechowska, Lynne E Wagenknecht, F Gerald R Fowkes, Fadi J Charchar, Peter E H Schwarz, Caroline Hayward, Xiuqing Guo, Charles Rotimi, Michiel L Bots, Eva Brand, Nilesh J Samani, Ozren Polašek, Philippa J Talmud, Fredrik Nyberg, Diana Kuh, Maris Laan, Kristian Hveem, Lyle J Palmer, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Juan P Casas, Karen L Mohlke, Paolo Vineis, Olli Raitakari, Santhi K Ganesh, Tien Y Wong, E Shyong Tai, Richard S Cooper, Markku Laakso, Dabeeru C Rao, Tamara B Harris, Richard W Morris, Anna F Dominiczak, Mika Kivimäki, Michael G Marmot, Tetsuro Miki, Danish Saleheen, Giriraj R Chandak, Josef Coresh, Gerjan Navis, Veikko Salomaa, Bok-Ghee Han, Xiaofeng Zhu, Jaspal S Kooner, Olle Melander, Paul M Ridker, Stefania Bandinelli, Ulf B Gyllensten, Alan F Wright, James F Wilson, Luigi Ferrucci, Martin Farrall, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Peter P Pramstaller, Roberto Elosua, Nicole Soranzo, Eric J G Sijbrands, David Altshuler, Ruth J F Loos, Alan R Shuldiner, Christian Gieger, Pierre Meneton, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jerome I Rotter, Rainer Rettig, Manuela Uda, David P Strachan, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Jacques S Beckmann, Eric Boerwinkle, Ramachandran S Vasan, Michael Boehnke, Martin G Larson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Bruce M Psaty, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Aravinda Chakravarti, Paul Elliott, Cornelia M van Duijn, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Daniel Levy, Mark J Caulfield, Toby Johnson.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (?140?mm?Hg systolic blood pressure or? ?90?mm?Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.
María Soler Artigas, Daan W Loth, Louise V Wain, Sina A Gharib, Ma'en Obeidat, Wenbo Tang, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, Albert Vernon Smith, Jennifer E Huffman, Eva Albrecht, Catherine M Jackson, David M Evans, Gemma Cadby, Myriam Fornage, Ani Manichaikul, Lorna M Lopez, Toby Johnson, Melinda C Aldrich, Thor Aspelund, Inês Barroso, Harry Campbell, Patricia A Cassano, David J Couper, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Nora Franceschini, Melissa Garcia, Christian Gieger, Gauti Kjartan Gislason, Ivica Grković, Christopher J Hammond, Dana B Hancock, Tamara B Harris, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Susan R Heckbert, Markku Heliövaara, Georg Homuth, Pirro G Hysi, Alan L James, Stipan Janković, Bonnie R Joubert, Stefan Karrasch, Norman Klopp, Beate Koch, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Lenore J Launer, Yongmei Liu, Laura R Loehr, Kurt Lohman, Ruth J F Loos, Thomas Lumley, Khalid A Al Balushi, Wei Q Ang, R Graham Barr, John Beilby, John D Blakey, Mladen Boban, Vesna Boraska, Jonas Brisman, John R Britton, Guy G Brusselle, Cyrus Cooper, Ivan Curjuric, Santosh Dahgam, Ian J Deary, Shah Ebrahim, Mark Eijgelsheim, Clyde Francks, Darya Gaysina, Raquel Granell, Xiangjun Gu, John L Hankinson, Rebecca Hardy, Sarah E Harris, John Henderson, Amanda Henry, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Patrick G Holt, Jennie Hui, Michael L Hunter, Medea Imboden, Karen A Jameson, Shona M Kerr, Ivana Kolčić, Florian Kronenberg, Jason Z Liu, Jonathan Marchini, Tricia McKeever, Andrew D Morris, Anna-Carin Olin, David J Porteous, Dirkje S Postma, Stephen S Rich, Susan M Ring, Fernando Rivadeneira, Thierry Rochat, Avan Aihie Sayer, Ian Sayers, Peter D Sly, George Davey Smith, Akshay Sood, John M Starr, André G Uitterlinden, Judith M Vonk, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Cisca Wijmenga, O Dale Williams, Andrew Wong, Massimo Mangino, Kristin D Marciante, Wendy L McArdle, Bernd Meibohm, Alanna C Morrison, Kari E North, Ernst Omenaas, Lyle J Palmer, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Isabelle Pin, Ozren Pola Sbreve Ek, Anneli Pouta, Bruce M Psaty, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Taina Rantanen, Samuli Ripatti, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Alicja R Rudnicka, Holger Schulz, So-Youn Shin, Tim D Spector, Ida Surakka, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Nicholas J Wareham, Nicole M Warrington, H-Erich Wichmann, Sarah H Wild, Jemma B Wilk, Matthias Wjst, Alan F Wright, Lina Zgaga, Tatijana Zemunik, Craig E Pennell, Fredrik Nyberg, Diana Kuh, John W Holloway, H Marike Boezen, Debbie A Lawlor, Richard W Morris, Nicole Probst-Hensch, , Jaakko Kaprio, James F Wilson, Caroline Hayward, Mika Kähönen, Joachim Heinrich, Arthur W Musk, Deborah L Jarvis, Sven Gläser, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Paul Elliott, George T O'Connor, David P Strachan, Stephanie J London, Ian P Hall, Vilmundur Gudnason, Martin D Tobin.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P < 5 × 10(-8)) with pulmonary function in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (also known as EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1 and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.
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A comprehensive evaluation of potential lung function associated genes in the SpiroMeta general population sample.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Lung function measures are heritable traits that predict population morbidity and mortality and are essential for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Variations in many genes have been reported to affect these traits, but attempts at replication have provided conflicting results. Recently, we undertook a meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) results for lung function measures in 20,288 individuals from the general population (the SpiroMeta consortium).
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Genome-wide joint meta-analysis of SNP and SNP-by-smoking interaction identifies novel loci for pulmonary function.
Dana B Hancock, María Soler Artigas, Sina A Gharib, Amanda Henry, Ani Manichaikul, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Daan W Loth, Medea Imboden, Beate Koch, Wendy L McArdle, Albert V Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Akshay Sood, Wenbo Tang, Jemma B Wilk, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, Hugues Aschard, Kristin M Burkart, Ivan Curjuric, Mark Eijgelsheim, Paul Elliott, Xiangjun Gu, Tamara B Harris, Christer Janson, Georg Homuth, Pirro G Hysi, Jason Z Liu, Laura R Loehr, Kurt Lohman, Ruth J F Loos, Alisa K Manning, Kristin D Marciante, Ma'en Obeidat, Dirkje S Postma, Melinda C Aldrich, Guy G Brusselle, Ting-hsu Chen, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Nora Franceschini, Joachim Heinrich, Jerome I Rotter, Cisca Wijmenga, O Dale Williams, Amy R Bentley, Albert Hofman, Cathy C Laurie, Thomas Lumley, Alanna C Morrison, Bonnie R Joubert, Fernando Rivadeneira, David J Couper, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Yongmei Liu, Matthias Wjst, Louise V Wain, Judith M Vonk, André G Uitterlinden, Thierry Rochat, Stephen S Rich, Bruce M Psaty, George T O'Connor, Kari E North, Daniel B Mirel, Bernd Meibohm, Lenore J Launer, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Christopher J Hammond, Sven Gläser, Jonathan Marchini, Peter Kraft, Nicholas J Wareham, Henry Völzke, Bruno H C Stricker, Timothy D Spector, Nicole M Probst-Hensch, Deborah Jarvis, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Susan R Heckbert, Vilmundur Gudnason, H Marike Boezen, R Graham Barr, Patricia A Cassano, David P Strachan, Myriam Fornage, Ian P Hall, Josée Dupuis, Martin D Tobin, Stephanie J London.
PLoS Genet.
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Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC across 19 studies (total N?=?50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest P(JMA?=?)5.00×10(-11)), HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest P(JMA?=?)4.35×10(-9)), and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest P(JMA?=?)1.28×10(-8)) were associated with FEV(1)/FVC or FEV(1) in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects.
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Genome-wide association studies identify CHRNA5/3 and HTR4 in the development of airflow obstruction.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci influencing lung function, but fewer genes influencing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known.
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A major recombination hotspot in the XqYq pseudoautosomal region gives new insight into processing of human gene conversion events.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Recombination plays a fundamental role in meiosis. Non-exchange gene conversion (non-crossover, NCO) may facilitate homologue pairing, while reciprocal crossover (CO) physically connects homologues so they orientate appropriately on the meiotic spindle. In males, X-Y homologous pairing and exchange occurs within the two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) together comprising <5% of the human sex chromosomes. Successful meiosis depends on an obligatory CO within PAR1, while the nature and role of exchange within PAR2 is unclear. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a typical ~1 kb wide recombination hotspot within PAR2. We find that both COs and NCOs are strongly modulated in trans by the presumed chromatin remodelling protein PRDM9, and in cis by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at the hotspot centre that appears to influence recombination initiation and which causes biased gene conversion in SNP heterozygotes. This, the largest survey to date of human NCOs reveals for the first time substantial inter-individual variation in the NCO:CO ratio. Although the extent of biased transmission at the central marker in COs is similar across men, it is highly variable among NCO recombinants. This suggests that cis-effects are mediated not only through recombination initiation frequencies varying between haplotypes but also through subsequent processing, with the potential to significantly intensify meiotic drive of hotspot-suppressing alleles. The NCO:CO ratio and extent of transmission distortion among NCOs appear to be inter-related, suggesting the existence of two NCO pathways in humans.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.