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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Arsenic and Fluoride Variations in Groundwater of an Endorheic Basin Undergoing Land-Use Changes.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The salt content of soil and water in endorheic basins within arid areas greatly restrict agricultural activities. Despite this limitation, these lands are increasingly used to accommodate new settlements and/or agricultural practices. This study focuses on the Laguna El Cuervo closed basin of northern Mexico and its underlying aquifer, which has been found to contain high concentrations of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F). The spatial distribution of As and F, their variations with time, and the impact of drought conditions and land-use changes were investigated using well data collected from a total of 27 wells in 2007, 2010, and 2011 (As data also collected in 2005). Four of these wells were used as monitoring wells. Data also included the As content of 140 surface sediments. Results showed that 54.5 % of the wells surpassed the As limit for drinking water of 0.025 mg L(-1) and that 89.0 % surpassed he F limit of 1.5 mg L(-1). Spatial analyses identified the areas in the center of the basin with the highest content of contaminants. Principal component and correlation analyses showed a co-occurrence of As and F with r = 0.55 for the 2011 data and 0.59 for the combined data. In contrast, the relationship of As and F concentrations to droughts and changes in land use were not as clearly shown, possibly because of the short time this area has been monitored. The high As and F concentrations in the groundwater may be limiting the availability of water within this basin, especially considering the greater groundwater demand foreseen for the future. Water-conservation practices, such as drip irrigation and artificial groundwater recharge, should be considered to maintain groundwater levels supportive of agricultural practices.
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Wildervanck's syndrome with severe inner ear dysplasia and agenesis of the right internal carotid artery.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We describe a case with Wildervanck syndrome (cervico-oculo-acoustic syndrome) comprising Klippel-Feil anomaly, retractio bulbi (Duane syndrome), and congenital sensorineural deafness. An 18-month male baby had a severe inner ear dysplasia, and MRI also showed a complex vascular carotid malformation associated.
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Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values.
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Parallel RNA interference screens identify EGFR activation as an escape mechanism in FGFR3-mutant cancer.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) is a common oncogenic event. Little is known about the determinants of sensitivity to FGFR inhibition and how these may vary between different oncogenic FGFRs. Using parallel RNA interference (RNAi) genetic screens, we show that the EGF receptor (EGFR) limits sensitivity to FGFR inhibition in FGFR3-mutant and -translocated cell lines, but not in other FGFR-driven cell lines. We also identify two distinct mechanisms through which EGFR limits sensitivity. In partially FGFR3-dependent lines, inhibition of FGFR3 results in transient downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling that is rescued by rapid upregulation of EGFR signaling. In cell lines that are intrinsically resistant to FGFR inhibition, EGFR dominates signaling via repression of FGFR3, with EGFR inhibition rescued by delayed upregulation of FGFR3 expression. Importantly, combinations of FGFR and EGFR inhibitors overcome these resistance mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Our results illustrate the power of parallel RNAi screens in identifying common resistance mechanisms to targeted therapies.
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Regulation of secondary wall synthesis and cell death by NAC transcription factors in the monocot Brachypodium distachyon.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In several dicotyledonous species, NAC transcription factors act as master switches capable of turning on programmes of secondary cell-wall synthesis and cell death. This work used an oestradiol-inducible system to overexpress the NAC transcription factor BdSWN5 in the monocot model Brachypodium distachyon. This resulted in ectopic secondary cell-wall formation in both roots and shoots. Some of the genes upregulated in the process were a secondary cell-wall cellulose synthase (BdCESA4), a xylem-specific protease (BdXCP1) and an orthologue of AtMYB46 (BdMYB1). While activation of BdMYB1 may not be direct, this study showed that BdSWN5 is capable of transactivating the BdXCP1 promoter through two conserved binding sites. In the course of Brachypodium development, the BdXCP1 promoter was observed to be active in all types of differentiating tracheary elements. Together, these results suggest that Brachypodium SWNs can act as switches that turn on secondary cell-wall synthesis and programmed cell death.
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Performance of Eleocharis macrostachya and its importance for arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Arsenic (As) can be removed from water via rhizofiltration using phytostabilizing plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of Eleocharis macrostachya in constructed wetland prototypes, as well as the plants arsenic mass retention and the distribution of As along the wetland flow gradient and the soil in the wetland mesocosmos.
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Identification and characterization of a set of conserved and new regulators of cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology and migration.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Cell migration is essential during development and in human disease progression including cancer. Most cell migration studies concentrate on known or predicted components of migration pathways.
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Occurrence and treatment of arsenic in groundwater and soil in northern Mexico and southwestern USA.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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This review focuses on the occurrence and treatment of arsenic (As) in the arid region of northern Mexico (states of Chihuahua and Coahuila) and bordering states of the southwestern US (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas), an area known for having high As concentrations. Information assembled and assessed includes the content and probable source of As in water, soil, and sediments and treatment methods that have been applied in the area. High As concentrations were found mainly in groundwater, their source being mostly from natural origin related to volcanic processes with significant anthropogenic contributions near mining and smelting of ores containing arsenic. The affinity of As for solid phases in alkaline conditions common to arid areas precludes it from being present in surface waters, accumulating instead in sediments and shifting its threat to its potential remobilization in reservoir sediments and irrigation waterways. Factors such as oxidation and pH that affect the mobility of As in the subsurface environment are mentioned. Independent of socio-demographic variables, nutritional status, and levels of blood lead, cognitive development in children is being affected when exposed to As. Treatments known to effectively reduce As content to safe drinking water levels as well as those that are capable of reducing As content in soils are discussed. Besides conventional methods, emergent technologies, such as phytoremediation, offer a viable solution to As contamination in drinking water.
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The overexpression of AtPrx37, an apoplastic peroxidase, reduces growth in Arabidopsis.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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Understanding peroxidase function in plants is difficult because of the lack of substrate specificity, the high number of genes and their diversity in structure. In the present study, the relative expression of 22 genes coding putative peroxidases (E.C 1.11.1.x) in Arabidopsis was studied. The relative expression of AtPrx37 showed a correlation with the cessation of growth in rosette leaves as well as with the growth capacity along the flower stem. Using AtPrx37::GUS construction, its expression was associated with the vascular bundles. Furthermore, the overexpression of AtPrx37 under the control of CaMV 35S promoter rendered a dwarf phenotype with smaller plants and delayed development. The plants overexpressing AtPrx37 also showed an increase in the amount of esterified phenolic material associated with their walls. A role in the growth cessation and phenolic cross-linking during lignin deposition is postulated.
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Gab2 regulates cytoskeletal organization and migration of mammary epithelial cells by modulating RhoA activation.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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The docking protein Gab2 is overexpressed in several human malignancies, including breast cancer, and is associated with increased metastatic potential. Here we report that Gab2 overexpression in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells led to delayed cell spreading, a decrease in stress fibers and mature focal adhesions, and enhanced cell migration. Expression of a Gab2 mutant uncoupled from 14-3-3-mediated negative feedback (Gab2(2xA)) led to a more mesenchymal morphology and acquisition of invasive potential. Expression of either Gab2 or Gab2(2xA) led to decreased activation of RhoA, but only the latter increased levels of Rac-GTP. Expression of constitutively active RhoA in MCF-10A/Gab2 cells restored stress fibers and focal adhesions, indicating that Gab2 signals upstream of RhoA to suppress these structures. Mutation of the two Shp2-binding sites to phenylalanine (Gab2(?Shp2)) markedly reduced the effects of Gab2 on cellular phenotype and RhoA activation. Expression of Gab2 or Gab2(2xA), but not Gab2(?Shp2), promoted Vav2 phosphorylation and plasma membrane recruitment of p190A RhoGAP. Knockdown of p190A RhoGAP reversed Gab2-mediated effects on stress fibers and focal adhesions. The identification of a novel pathway downstream of Gab2 involving negative regulation of RhoA by p190A RhoGAP sheds new light on the role of Gab2 in cancer progression.
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Clinical disease caused by Klebsiella in 2 unrelated patients with interleukin 12 receptor beta1 deficiency.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Patients with interleukin 12 (IL-12)p40 or IL-12 receptor ?1 (IL12R?1) deficiencies are prone to develop infections caused by mycobacteria and salmonella; other infections have only been rarely observed. In this report we describe 2 unrelated patients with complete autosomal recessive IL12R?1 deficiency who suffered from sepsis attributable to Klebsiella pneumoniae. A Mexican boy suffered from disseminated bacille Calmette-Guérin disease and infections caused by K pneumoniae and Candida albicans and had a fatal outcome. A Turkish girl living in France suffered from disseminated Nocardia nova infection and K pneumoniae sepsis. Therefore, Klebsiella infections should be considered in patients with IL12R?1 deficiency. Conversely, IL12R?1 deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained klebsiellosis.
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Bacille Calmette-Guérin infection and disease with fatal outcome associated with a point mutation in the interleukin-12/interleukin-23 receptor beta-1 chain in two Mexican families.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) mainly suffer from Mycobacterium and Salmonella infections, which are due to mutations in genes controlling the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23-dependent IFN-? production. We performed a molecular diagnosis in two Mexican patients with persistent mycobacterial infections. Patients 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) from two unrelated, non-consanguineous families from two villages near Mexico City developed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) disease secondary to vaccination; patients and their families were studied at the immunological level for production and response to IFN-?. The ?1 subunit of the IL-12 receptor (encoded by the IL12RB1 gene) was not expressed in cells from P1 or P2, or in two siblings of P1. Sequencing of the IL12RB1 gene showed the same point mutation 1791+2 T>G, homozygous in patients and heterozygous in parents. P1 and P2 died at the ages of 4 and 16 years, respectively, with disseminated and uncontrolled BCG disease and with Candida albicans infections in spite of multiple anti-mycobacterial drug treatments. One of P2s siblings also died following disseminated mycobacterial infection secondary to BCG vaccination. These are the first cases in Mexico of patients with BCG disease traced to a mutation in the IL12RB1 gene, with a fatal outcome. Doctors must be alert to the adverse reactions to BCG vaccination and to persistent Mycobacterium infections, and in such cases should investigate possible mutations in the genes of the IL-12/IL-23-IFN-? axis.
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Compartmentalized bronchoalveolar IFN-gamma and IL-12 response in human pulmonary tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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Human tuberculosis (TB) principally involves the lungs, where local immunity impacts on the load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Because concomitants of local Th1 immunity are still under-explored in humans, we characterized immune responses in bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) and systemically in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in persons with active pulmonary TB and in healthy community controls. PPD- and live M.tb-induced IFN-gamma-production were observed in CD4(+), CD8(+), gammadeltaTCR(+), and CD56(+) alveolar T cell subpopulations and NK cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)). IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells (mostly CD45RO(+)) were more abundant (p<0.05). M.tb-induced IL-12p70, but interestingly also IL-4, was increased (p<0.05) in BACs from TB patients. Constitutive expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA in BACs and PBMCs and IFN-gammaR1 in BACs was similar in both study groups. Data were normalized to account for differences in proportions of alveolar T cells and macrophages in the study groups. IFN-gamma-production and its induction by IL-12R engagement occur virtually unimpaired in the bronchoalveolar spaces of patients with pulmonary TB. The reasons for the apparent failure to control M. tuberculosis growth during active pulmonary TB disease is unknown but could be the expression of locally acting immunosuppressive mechanisms that subvert the antimycobacterial effects of IFN-gamma.
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Protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha and Src functionally link focal adhesions to the endoplasmic reticulum to mediate interleukin-1-induced Ca2+ signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Calcium (Ca2+) signaling by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is dependent on focal adhesions, which contain diverse structural and signaling proteins including protein phosphatases. We examined here the role of protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) alpha in regulating IL-1-induced Ca2+ signaling in fibroblasts. IL-1 promoted recruitment of PTPalpha to focal adhesions and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fractions, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of the ER Ca2+ release channel IP3R. In response to IL-1, catalytically active PTPalpha was required for Ca2+ release from the ER, Src-dependent phosphorylation of IP3R1 and accumulation of IP3R1 in focal adhesions. In pulldown assays and immunoprecipitations PTPalpha was required for the association of PTPalpha with IP3R1 and c-Src, and this association was increased by IL-1. Collectively, these data indicate that PTPalpha acts as an adaptor to mediate functional links between focal adhesions and the ER that enable IL-1-induced Ca2+ signaling.
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Experimental ventilator-induced lung injury: exacerbation by positive end-expiratory pressure.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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Previous experimental studies of ventilator-induced lung injury have shown that positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is protective. The authors hypothesized that the application of PEEP during volume-controlled ventilation with a moderately high tidal volume (VT) in previously healthy in vivo rats does not attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury if the peak airway pressure markedly increases during the application of PEEP.
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Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of semi-arid regions in Latin America: genesis, mobility and remediation.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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Several million people around the world are currently exposed to excessive amounts of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in their drinking water. Although the individual toxic effects of As and F have been analyzed, there are few studies addressing their co-occurrences and water treatment options. Several studies conducted in arid and semi-arid regions of Latin America show that the co-occurrences of As and F in drinking water are linked to the volcaniclastic particles in the loess or alluvium, alkaline pH, and limited recharge. The As and F contamination results from water-rock interactions and may be accelerated by geothermal and mining activities, as well as by aquifer over-exploitation. These types of contamination are particularly pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions, where high As concentrations often show a direct relationship with high F concentrations. Enrichment of F is generally related to fluorite dissolution and it is also associated with high Cl, Br, and V concentrations. The methods of As and F removal, such as chemical precipitation followed by filtration and reverse osmosis, are currently being used at different scales and scenarios in Latin America. Although such technologies are available in Latin America, it is still urgent to develop technologies and methods capable of monitoring and removing both of these contaminants simultaneously from drinking water, with a particular focus towards small-scale rural operations.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.