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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification of Molecular Markers Associated with Alteration of Receptor-Binding Specificity in a Novel Genotype of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Detected in Cambodia in 2013.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus in Cambodia increased sharply during 2013. Molecular characterization of viruses detected in clinical specimens from human cases revealed the presence of mutations associated with the alteration of receptor-binding specificity (K189R, Q222L) and respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets (N220K with Q222L). Discovery of quasispecies at position 222 (Q/L), in addition to the absence of the mutations in poultry/environmental samples, suggested that the mutations occurred during human infection and did not transmit further.
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The burden of influenza and RSV among inpatients and outpatients in rural western Kenya, 2009-2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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In Kenya, detailed data on the age-specific burden of influenza and RSV are essential to inform use of limited vaccination and treatment resources.
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Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response.
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Risk factors for influenza A(H7N9) disease--China, 2013.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The majority of human cases of novel avian influenza A(H7N9), which emerged in China in spring 2013, include reported exposure to poultry. However, specific host and exposure risk factors for disease are unknown, yet critical to design prevention measures.
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Improvements in pandemic preparedness in 8 Central American countries, 2008-2012.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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In view of ongoing pandemic threats such as the recent human cases of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) in China, it is important that all countries continue their preparedness efforts. Since 2006, Central American countries have received donor funding and technical assistance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to build and improve their capacity for influenza surveillance and pandemic preparedness. Our objective was to measure changes in pandemic preparedness in this region, and explore factors associated with these changes, using evaluations conducted between 2008 and 2012.
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Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009-2012.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Data needed to guide influenza vaccine policies are lacking in tropical countries. We multiplied the number of severe acute respiratory infections by the proportion testing positive for influenza. There were ?6,699 influenza hospitalizations and 803 deaths in Costa Rica during 2009-2012, supporting continuation of a national influenza vaccine program.
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The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ).
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Economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh during 2010.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Understanding the costs of influenza-associated illness in Bangladesh may help health authorities assess the cost-effectiveness of influenza prevention programs. We estimated the annual economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh.
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Identifying areas with a high risk of human infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in East Asia.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The rapid emergence, spread, and disease severity of avian influenza A (H7N9) in China has prompted concerns about a possible pandemic and regional spread in the coming months. The objective of this study was to predict the risk of future human infections with H7N9 in China and neighboring countries by assessing the association between H7N9 cases at sentinel hospitals and putative agricultural, climatic, and demographic risk factors.
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Demographic, socio-economic and geographic determinants of seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in rural western Kenya, 2011.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Influenza-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause a considerable burden of disease in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa communities with the greatest burden among children. Currently, vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza infection and accompanying morbidities. We examined geographic, socio-economic and demographic factors that contributed to acceptance of childhood seasonal influenza vaccination among children living in a population-based morbidity surveillance system in rural western Kenya, where influenza vaccine was offered free-of-charge to children 6 months-10 years old from April to June, 2011. We evaluated associations between maternal and household demographic variables, socio-economic status, and distance from home to vaccination clinics with family vaccination status. 7249 children from 3735 households were eligible for vaccination. Of these, 2675 (36.9%) were fully vaccinated, 506 (7.0%) were partially vaccinated and 4068 (56.1%) were not vaccinated. Children living in households located >5km radius from the vaccination facilities were significantly less likely to be vaccinated (aOR=0.70; 95% CI 0.54-0.91; p=0.007). Children with mothers aged 25-34 and 35-44 years were more likely to be vaccinated than children with mothers less than 25 years of age (aOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.15-1.62; p<0.001; and aOR=1.35; 95% CI 1.10-1.64; p=0.003, respectively). Finally, children aged 2-5 years and >5 years of age (aOR=1.38; 95% CI 1.20-1.59; p<0.001; and aOR=1.41; 95% CI 1.23-1.63; p<0.001, respectively) and who had a sibling hospitalized within the past year (aOR=1.73; 95% CI 1.40-2.14; p<0.001) were more likely to be vaccinated. Shorter distance from the vaccination center, older maternal and child age, household administrator's occupation that did not require them to be away from the home, and having a sibling hospitalized during the past year were associated with increased likelihood of vaccination against influenza in western Kenya. These findings should inform the design of future childhood seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns in rural Kenya, and perhaps elsewhere in Africa.
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Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand.
Western Pac Surveill Response J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition.
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The role of temperature and humidity on seasonal influenza in tropical areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama.
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Population-based incidence of severe acute respiratory virus infections among children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh, June-October 2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Better understanding the etiology-specific incidence of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in resource-poor, rural settings will help further develop and prioritize prevention strategies. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of SARIs among children in rural Bangladesh.
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Use of national pneumonia surveillance to describe influenza A(H7N9) virus epidemiology, China, 2004-2013.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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In mainland China, most avian influenza A(H7N9) cases in the spring of 2013 were reported through the pneumonia of unknown etiology (PUE) surveillance system. To understand the role of possible underreporting and surveillance bias in assessing the epidemiology of subtype H7N9 cases and the effect of live-poultry market closures, we examined all PUE cases reported from 2004 through May 3, 2013. Historically, the PUE system was underused, reporting was inconsistent, and PUE reporting was biased toward A(H7N9)-affected provinces, with sparse data from unaffected provinces; however, we found no evidence that the older ages of persons with A(H7N9) resulted from surveillance bias. The absolute number and the proportion of PUE cases confirmed to be A(H7N9) declined after live-poultry market closures (p<0.001), indicating that market closures might have positively affected outbreak control. In China, PUE surveillance needs to be improved.
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Risk factors associated with fatal influenza, Romania, October 2009 - May 2011.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Limited data are available from Central and Eastern Europe on risk factors for severe complications of influenza. Such data are essential to prioritize prevention and treatment resources and to adapt influenza vaccination recommendations.
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Protection by face masks against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on trans-Pacific passenger aircraft, 2009.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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In response to several influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that developed in passengers after they traveled on the same 2 flights from New York, New York, USA, to Hong Kong, China, to Fuzhou, China, we assessed transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on these flights. We defined a case of infection as onset of fever and respiratory symptoms and detection of virus by PCR in a passenger or crew member of either flight. Illness developed only in passengers who traveled on the New York to Hong Kong flight. We compared exposures of 9 case-passengers with those of 32 asymptomatic control-passengers. None of the 9 case-passengers, compared with 47% (15/32) of control-passengers, wore a face mask for the entire flight (odds ratio 0, 95% CI 0-0.71). The source case-passenger was not identified. Wearing a face mask was a protective factor against influenza infection. We recommend a more comprehensive intervention study to accurately estimate this effect.
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Monitoring avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through national influenza-like illness surveillance, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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In China during March 4-April 28, 2013, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus testing was performed on 20,739 specimens from patients with influenza-like illness in 10 provinces with confirmed human cases: 6 (0.03%) were positive, and increased numbers of unsubtypeable influenza-positive specimens were not seen. Careful monitoring and rapid characterization of influenza A(H7N9) and other influenza viruses remain critical.
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Influenza cost and cost-effectiveness studies globally--a review.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Every year, approximately 10-20% of the worlds population is infected with influenza viruses, resulting in a significant number of outpatient and hospital visits and substantial economic burden both on health care systems and society. With recently updated WHO recommendations on influenza vaccination and broadening vaccine production, policy makers in middle- and low-income countries will need data on the cost of influenza disease and the cost effectiveness of vaccination. We reviewed the published literature to summarize estimates of cost and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. We searched PUBMED (MEDLINE), EMBASE, WEB of KNOWLEDGE, and IGOOGLE using the key words influenza, economic cost, cost effectiveness, and economic burden. We identified 140 studies which estimated either cost associated with seasonal influenza or cost effectiveness/cost-benefit of influenza vaccination. 118 of these studies were conducted in World Bank-defined high income, 22 in upper-middle income, and no studies in low and lower-middle income countries. The per capita cost of a case of influenza illness ranged from $30 to $64. 22 studies reported that influenza vaccination was cost-saving; reported cost-effectiveness ratios were $10,000/outcome in 13 studies, $10,000 to $50,000 in 13 studies, and ?$50,000 in 3 studies. There were no studies from low income countries and few studies among pregnant women. Substantial differences in methodology limited the generalization of results. Decision makers in lower income countries lack economic data to support influenza vaccine policy decisions, especially of pregnant women. Standardized cost-effectiveness studies of influenza vaccination of WHO-recommended risk groups methods are urgently needed.
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Effect of winter school breaks on influenza-like illness, Argentina, 2005-2008.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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School closures are used to reduce seasonal and pandemic influenza transmission, yet evidence of their effectiveness is sparse. In Argentina, annual winter school breaks occur during the influenza season, providing an opportunity to study this intervention. We used 2005-2008 national weekly surveillance data of visits to a health care provider for influenza-like illness (ILI) from all provinces. Using Serfling-specified Poisson regressions and population-based census denominators, we developed incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for the 3 weeks before, 2 weeks during, and 3 weeks after the break. For persons 5-64 years of age, IRRs were <1 for at least 1 week after the break. Observed rates returned to expected by the third week after the break; overall decrease among persons of all ages was 14%. The largest decrease was among children 5-14 years of age during the week after the break (37% lower IRR). Among adults, effects were weaker and delayed. Two-week winter school breaks significantly decreased visits to a health care provider for ILI among school-aged children and nonelderly adults.
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Incidence of symptomatic A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza during the pandemic and post-pandemic periods in a rural Indian community.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Data on influenza illness rates with population denominators are needed to quantify overall morbidity and to prioritize public health intervention strategies.
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National surveillance for influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam, 2006-2010.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Influenza virus infections result in considerable morbidity and mortality both in the temperate and tropical world. Influenza surveillance over multiple years is important to determine the impact and epidemiology of influenza and to develop a national vaccine policy, especially in countries developing influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity, such as Vietnam. We conducted surveillance of influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam through the National Influenza Surveillance System during 2006-2010. At 15 sentinel sites, the first two patients presenting each weekday with influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as fever and cough and/or sore throat with illness onset within 3 days, were enrolled and throat specimens were collected and tested for influenza virus type and influenza A subtype by RT-PCR. De-identified demographic and provider reported subsequent hospitalization information was collected on each patient. Each site also collected information on the total number of patients with influenza-like illness evaluated per week. Of 29,804 enrolled patients presenting with influenza-like illness, 6516 (22%) were influenza positive. Of enrolled patients, 2737 (9.3%) were reported as subsequently hospitalized; of the 2737, 527 (19%) were influenza positive. Across all age groups with ILI, school-aged children had the highest percent of influenza infection (29%) and the highest percent of subsequent hospitalizations associated with influenza infection (28%). Influenza viruses co-circulated throughout most years in Vietnam during 2006-2010 and often reached peak levels multiple times during a year, when >20% of tests were influenza positive. Influenza is an important cause of all influenza-like illness and provider reported subsequent hospitalization among outpatients in Vietnam, especially among school-aged children. These findings may have important implications for influenza vaccine policy in Vietnam.
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Critical issues in implementing a national integrated all-vaccine preventable disease surveillance system.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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In 2007, the World Health Organization published the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS) outlining measures to enhance national surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The GFIMS emphasized that VPD surveillance should be integrated and placed in a unified framework building upon the strengths of existing surveillance systems to prevent duplication of activities common to all surveillance systems and to minimize human resource and supply expenditures. Unfortunately, there was little experience in actually developing integrated VPD surveillance. We describe the process of developing operational guidance for ministries of health to implement such an integrated surveillance system for multiple VPDs.
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Characteristics of hospitalized cases with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 infection during first winter season of post-pandemic in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (2009 H1N1) re-circulated as the predominant virus from January through February 2011 in China. National surveillance of 2009 H1N1 as a notifiable disease was maintained to monitor potential changes in disease severity from the previous season.
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Estimation of the national disease burden of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness in Kenya and Guatemala: a novel methodology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Knowing the national disease burden of severe influenza in low-income countries can inform policy decisions around influenza treatment and prevention. We present a novel methodology using locally generated data for estimating this burden.
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Incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004-2005.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) occur annually in the United States. However, lack of routine clinical testing for viruses limits understanding of their role among persons seeking medical care. Fecal specimens submitted for routine bacterial culture through a health maintenance organization in Georgia, USA, were tested with molecular diagnostic assays for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and adenovirus. Incidence was estimated by using national health care utilization rates. Routine clinical diagnostics identified a pathogen in 42 (7.3%) of 572 specimens; inclusion of molecular viral testing increased pathogen detection to 15.7%. Community AGE incidence was 41,000 cases/100,000 person-years and outpatient incidence was 5,400/100,000 person-years. Norovirus was the most common pathogen, accounting for 6,500 (16%) and 640 (12%) per 100,000 person-years of community and outpatient AGE episodes, respectively. This study demonstrates that noroviruses are leading causes of AGE among persons seeking medical care.
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Enhanced surveillance of norovirus outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Georgia.
Public Health Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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The role of noroviruses in both foodborne and person-to-person outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has been difficult to determine in the U.S. because of lack of routine norovirus testing and of national reporting of person-to-person outbreaks. We conducted a prospective study in one state in which enhanced testing for noroviruses was performed to better understand the relative contribution of all gastroenteric pathogens.
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The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1.
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Foodborne illness acquired in the United States--major pathogens.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Estimates of foodborne illness can be used to direct food safety policy and interventions. We used data from active and passive surveillance and other sources to estimate that each year 31 major pathogens acquired in the United States caused 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness (90% credible interval [CrI] 6.6-12.7 million), 55,961 hospitalizations (90% CrI 39,534-75,741), and 1,351 deaths (90% CrI 712-2,268). Most (58%) illnesses were caused by norovirus, followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (11%), Clostridium perfringens (10%), and Campylobacter spp. (9%). Leading causes of hospitalization were nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (35%), norovirus (26%), Campylobacter spp. (15%), and Toxoplasma gondii (8%). Leading causes of death were nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (28%), T. gondii (24%), Listeria monocytogenes (19%), and norovirus (11%). These estimates cannot be compared with prior (1999) estimates to assess trends because different methods were used. Additional data and more refined methods can improve future estimates.
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Hospital capacity during an influenza pandemic-Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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At a major referral hospital in the Southern Hemisphere, the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic brought increased critical care demand and more unscheduled nursing absences. Because of careful preparedness planning, including rapid expansion and redistribution of the numbers of available beds and staff, hospital surge capacity was not exceeded.
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Burden and epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in selected African countries: preliminary results from the African Rotavirus Surveillance Network.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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Severe rotavirus diarrhea in children <5 years of age is a major public health problem; however, limited regional and country specific data on rotavirus disease burden are available from sub-Saharan Africa. In June 2006, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa initiated rotavirus surveillance in selected African countries. With use of standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization, children <5 years of age who were hospitalized with severe diarrhea were enrolled, and stool specimens were collected for detection of rotavirus strains with use of a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus strains were further characterized for G and P types with use of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. From June 2006 through December 2008, rotavirus surveillance was established at 14 sites in 11 African countries. Of 5461 stool samples collected from children enrolled in 8 countries with 1 or 2 complete years of data, 2200 (40%) were positive for rotavirus. Ninety percent of all rotavirus hospitalizations occurred among children aged 3-12 months. Predominant types included G1P[8] (21%), G2P[4] (7%), and P [8] (29%); however, unusual types were also detected, including G8P[6] (5%), G8P[8] (1%), G12P[6] (1%), and G12P[6] (1%). A high percentage of mixed rotavirus infections was also detected. These preliminary results indicate that rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrheal disease in African children.
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Importance and challenges of accurately counting rotavirus deaths in China, 2002.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Rotavirus mortality is an important component of the total burden of rotavirus disease for children under 5 years old, but accurate estimation is difficult for many developing countries. Here we applied a more direct method to improve estimates of rotavirus mortality in China using 2002 Chinese-specific data. Results indicate that in 2002, approximately 13,400 children under 5 years old in China died from rotavirus and 70% of these deaths occur in rural areas. Thus, a national rotavirus immunization program targeting rural areas with high mortality from diarrhoea could dramatically reduce these deaths and urban areas could reduce childhood hospitalizations attributed to rotavirus by 43%.
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Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II-genotype 4 noroviruses in the United States between 1994 and 2006.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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Human noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) are the most common strains detected in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. To gain insight into the epidemiology and genetic variation of GII.4 strains, we analyzed 773 NoV outbreaks reported to the CDC from 1994 to 2006. Of these NoV outbreaks, 629 (81.4%) were caused by GII viruses and 342 (44.2%) were caused by GII.4 strains. The proportion of GII.4 outbreaks increased from 5% in 1994 to 85% in 2006, but distinct annual differences were noted, including sharp increases in 1996, 2003, and 2006 each associated with newly emerging GII.4 strains. Sequence analysis of the full-length VP1 gene of GII.4 strains identified in this study and from GenBank segregated these viruses into at least 9 distinct subclusters which had 1.3 to 3.2% amino acid variation between strains in different subclusters. We propose that GII.4 subclusters be defined as having >5% sequence variation between strains. Our data confirm other studies on the rapid emergence and displacement of highly virulent GII.4 strains.
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Health care transmission of a newly emergent adenovirus serotype in health care personnel at a military hospital in Texas, 2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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Adenoviruses can cause outbreaks of febrile respiratory illness in military trainees, but until 2007, adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) was never associated with such outbreaks. From April through June 2007, 15 trainees at one base were hospitalized for pneumonia due to Ad14. Subsequent reports of febrile respiratory illness among health care personnel suggested nosocomial transmission.
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Burden of severe rotavirus diarrhea in indonesia.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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Globally, rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea-related hospitalizations and deaths among young children, but the burden of rotavirus disease in Indonesia is poorly documented. From January through December 2006, we conducted prospective surveillance (inpatient and outpatient) among children aged <5 years at 6 hospitals in 6 provinces of Indonesia, using standardized methodology. Of 2240 enrolled children hospitalized for diarrhea, 1345 (60%) were rotavirus positive. Of 176 children enrolled in outpatient clinics in 3 hospitals, 73 (41%) were rotavirus positive. Among children hospitalized for diarrhea, dehydration was more common among those who tested positive for rotavirus than among those who did not (91% vs 82%; P < .05), as was vomiting (86% vs 67%; P < .05). Children aged 6-23 months experienced 72% of all rotavirus episodes. Rotavirus prevalence increased slightly in the cool, dry season. The most commonly detected genotypes were G9 (30%) and P[6] (56%). G1P[6] and G9P[6] accounted for 34% and 21% of strains, respectively. A high proportion of genotype P[6] was detected, in combination with the common G types G1 and G9. Available rotavirus vaccines would likely be efficacious against the most common circulating strains, but continued monitoring of uncommon genotypes is needed.
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Sentinel hospital surveillance for rotavirus in latin american and Caribbean countries.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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The burden of rotavirus disease in the Latin American region has been poorly understood despite the promise of effective vaccines. We describe here the implementation and results of a rotavirus surveillance network in the Latin American and Caribbean region. From 2005 through 2007, stool specimens and epidemiologic information were gathered from children <5 years of age who were hospitalized for acute diarrhea (3 looser-than-normal stools within <24 h) lasting <14 days with use of a standardized generic protocol. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus, and a proportion of detected strains were typed. The proportion of samples positive for rotavirus was applied to World Health Organization diarrhea-related mortality estimates to calculate rotavirus-associated mortality. In 2007, the network comprised 54 sites in 11 countries. During 2006-2007, specimens were collected from 19,817 children; 8141 of these specimens were positive for rotavirus. The median percentage of positive specimens in the country was 31.5% (range, 24%-47%). The risk of death from rotavirus diarrhea by age 5 years was 1 of 2874. Strong rotavirus winter seasonality was apparent, even in tropical Central America. Globally common strains (P[8] G1, P[8] G9, and P[4] G2) accounted for >75% of strains, although unusual strains, including G12, were detected at low levels. As rotavirus vaccines continue to be introduced in Latin America, maintenance of surveillance will provide robust pre-introduction data and a platform for estimating vaccine effectiveness and other measures of impact.
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How much could rotavirus vaccines reduce diarrhea-associated mortality in northern Ghana? A model to assess impact.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Effective rotavirus vaccines could substantially reduce the approximately 500,000 deaths due to rotavirus disease per year worldwide, although the impact will depend on vaccine effectiveness, timing of administration, and coverage. We modeled vaccine impact on rotavirus-associated mortality in rural Ghana.
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Rotavirus disease burden and impact and cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in kenya.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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The projected impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination are important for supporting rotavirus vaccine introduction in Africa, where limited health intervention funds are available.
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Epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children <5 years of age in Morocco during 1 year of sentinel hospital surveillance, June 2006-May 2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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In anticipation of vaccine introduction, we assessed the epidemiology, burden, and genotype of infecting strains of rotavirus disease among Moroccan children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis.
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The burden of hospitalizations and clinic visits for rotavirus disease in children aged <5 years in the Philippines.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Recent data on the burden of hospitalization and clinic visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis are needed to support the decision to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the Philippines.
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Hospital-Based Surveillance of Rotavirus Diarrhea in the Peoples Republic of China, August 2003-July 2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Rotaviruses cause acute diarrhea worldwide. Previous studies of rotavirus diarrhea in China found that rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in young children. In the present study, surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea was conducted involving 9549 children aged <5 years who were admitted for treatment of diarrhea at 11 sentinel hospitals in China from August 2003 through July 2007. Group A rotavirus was detected in 3749 (47.8%) of the 7846 fecal specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rotavirus isolates were characterized by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to determine G and P genotypes. All the strains that are common worldwide were detected; G3P[8] was the most common. An unusual G5 strain was detected in 2 specimens. Of all episodes of rotavirus diarrhea, 94% occurred during the first 2 years of life, peaking at 6-23 months of age. Our findings indicate that globally common rotavirus strains continue to be a major cause of severe childhood diarrhea in China. Introduction of routine immunization with effective rotavirus vaccines would substantially reduce this burden.
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Global rotavirus surveillance: determining the need and measuring the impact of rotavirus vaccines.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Rotavirus remains the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide and of diarrheal mortality in poor countries. In 2003, the GAVI Alliance launched the Rotavirus Vaccine Program and the Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan to close the gap of access to rotavirus vaccines in industrialized and developing countries by generating data on rotavirus disease burden, projected impact, and cost-effectiveness of vaccination and by conducting clinical trials of existing vaccines in impoverished settings. By the end of 2008, rotavirus vaccines were licensed in >100 countries, although only 17 countries have introduced routine rotavirus vaccination. Increased uptake of the vaccine by countries with the highest childhood mortality will depend in part on a solid evidence base of estimated burden and cost of rotavirus illness. Since 2001, regional surveillance networks worldwide have generated burden and strain data from 196 sites in 59 countries. Among children aged <5 years who are hospitalized for severe diarrhea in different regions of the world, a regional median of 39% (range by country, 20%-73%) test positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccines are a cost-effective intervention and may be cost saving with a GAVI Alliance subsidy from the health care perspective. Punctual vaccination and high coverage of populations at highest risk of mortality will maximize the impact of vaccination. Surveillance platforms will allow measurement of the rapid impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on the heavy burden of rotavirus on child health worldwide.
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Risk of norovirus transmission during air travel.
J Travel Med
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2009
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During October 2006, an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis sickened 200 (59%) of the 379 passengers and 26 (18%) of the 144 crew members on a riverboat. In November 2006, CDC was notified that a group of ill passengers had boarded a commercial flight from St Louis, Missouri, to Atlanta, Georgia. A recent study demonstrated probable norovirus transmission from eight symptomatic flight attendants to passengers on board an aircraft during an international flight; however, there are no published reports of transmission of norovirus on flights of short duration.
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Outbreak of severe respiratory disease associated with emergent human adenovirus serotype 14 at a US air force training facility in 2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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In 2007, a US Air Force training facility reported a cluster of severe respiratory illnesses associated with a rare human adenovirus (Ad) serotype, Ad14. We investigated this outbreak to better understand its epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and associated risk factors.
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Outbreak of norovirus infection among river rafters associated with packaged delicatessen meat, Grand Canyon, 2005.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Norovirus is often transmitted by infected food handlers at the point of service, whereas reports of food contamination before wholesale distribution are rare. In September 2005, we investigated reports of gastroenteritis among rafters who went on unrelated trips on the Colorado River.
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Incidence of influenza-associated mortality and hospitalizations in Argentina during 2002-2009.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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We estimated rates of influenza-associated deaths and hospitalizations in Argentina, a country that recommends annual influenza vaccination for persons at high risk of complications from influenza illness.
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2009 Pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 vaccination in Africa--successes and challenges.
J. Infect. Dis.
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To provide vaccination against infection due to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) to resource-constrained countries with otherwise very little access to the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) coordinated distribution of donated vaccine to selected countries worldwide, including those in Africa. From February through November 2010, 32.2 million doses were delivered to 34 countries in Africa. Of the 19.2 million doses delivered to countries that reported their vaccination activities to WHO, 12.2 million doses (64%) were administered. Population coverage in these countries varied from 0.4% to 11%, with a median coverage of 4%. All countries targeted pregnant women (median proportion of all vaccine doses administered [mpv], 21% [range, 4%-72%]) and healthcare workers (mpv, 9% [range, 1%-73%]). Fourteen of 19 countries targeted persons with chronic conditions (mpv, 26% [range, 5%-66%]) and 10 of 19 countries vaccinated children (mpv, 54% [range, 17%-75%]). Most vaccine was distributed after peak A(H1N1)pdm09 transmission in the region. The frequency and severity of adverse events were consistent with those recorded after other inactivated influenza vaccines. Pandemic preparedness plans will need to include strategies to ensure more-rapid procedures to identify vaccine supplies and distribute and import vaccines to countries that may bear the brunt of a future pandemic.
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Delayed 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 circulation in West Africa, May 2009-April 2010.
J. Infect. Dis.
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To understand 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) circulation in West Africa, we collected influenza surveillance data from ministries of health and influenza laboratories in 10 countries, including Cameroon, from 4 May 2009 through 3 April 2010. A total of 10,203 respiratory specimens were tested, of which 25% were positive for influenza virus. Until the end of December 2009, only 14% of all detected strains were A(H1N1)pdm09, but the frequency increased to 89% from January through 3 April 2010. Five West African countries did not report their first A(H1N1)pdm09 case until 6 months after the emergence of the pandemic in North America, in April 2009. The time from first detection of A(H1N1)pdm09 in a country to the time of A(H1N1)pdm09 predominance varied from 0 to 37 weeks. Seven countries did not report A(H1N1)pdm09 predominance until 2010. Introduction and transmission of A(H1N1)pdm09 were delayed in this region.
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Demographic shift of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during and after pandemic, rural India.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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Population-based active surveillance in India showed higher incidence rates for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among children during pandemic versus postpandemic periods (345 vs. 199/1,000 person-years), whereas adults had higher rates during postpandemic versus pandemic periods (131 vs. 69/1,000 person-years). Demographic shifts as pandemics evolve should be considered in public health response planning.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices about the seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in Srinagar, India.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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Healthcare workers (HCWs) universally have a poor uptake of influenza vaccination. However, no data are available from India.
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Seasonality, timing, and climate drivers of influenza activity worldwide.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Although influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that annually causes substantial disease burden, data on virus activity in tropical countries are limited. We analyzed publicly available influenza data to better understand the global circulation of influenza viruses.
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Validity of clinical case definitions for influenza surveillance among hospitalized patients: results from a rural community in North India.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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Clinical case definitions used for influenza surveillance among hospitalized patients vary and need systematic evaluation. DESIGN, SETTING AND SAMPLE: During July 2009-August 2011, we collected clinical data and specimens (nasal and throat swabs) from rural patients hospitalized for acute medical illnesses. Specimens were tested by rRT-PCR for influenza viruses.
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Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.
PLoS Med.
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Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya.
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Estimated global mortality associated with the first 12 months of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus circulation: a modelling study.
Lancet Infect Dis
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18,500 laboratory-confirmed deaths caused by the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 were reported worldwide for the period April, 2009, to August, 2010. This number is likely to be only a fraction of the true number of the deaths associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1. We aimed to estimate the global number of deaths during the first 12 months of virus circulation in each country.
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Design and initiation of a study to assess the direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccine given to children in rural India.
Vaccine
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The burden of disease due to influenza is not well characterized for children in developing countries and the effectiveness of available influenza vaccines in lower resource settings has not been established. We initiated a prospective, longitudinal, phase IV, household-randomized, controlled, observer-blinded three year study (2009-2011) in a rural community of India to measure the total and indirect household protective effects of immunizing children ages 6 months through 10 years with seasonal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or a control vaccine (n=3697). Active weekly surveillance was conducted year round with home visits for identification of febrile acute respiratory illness (FARI) conducted for all vaccine recipients and household members (n=18,220). Nasal and throat swabs were collected from each FARI episode for influenza detection by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was reduction in laboratory confirmed influenza infections in the influenza vaccine versus control vaccine group, with secondary outcome assessing indirect effects among the entire study population. This report describes the study site, cluster study design, choice of study and control vaccines, and the initial enrollment in the study.
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An analysis of 332 fatalities infected with pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in Argentina.
PLoS ONE
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The apparent high number of deaths in Argentina during the 2009 pandemic led to concern that the influenza A H1N1pdm disease was different there. We report the characteristics and risk factors for influenza A H1N1pdm fatalities.
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Incidence of respiratory virus-associated pneumonia in urban poor young children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011.
PLoS ONE
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged <2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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Early detection of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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To explore Bangladeshs ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June-July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.