JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
REFERENCE VALUES FOR LEPTIN, CORTISOL, INSULIN AND GLUCOSE, AMONG EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH ADIPOSITY: THE HELENA STUDY.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adequate concentrations of leptin, cortisol, and insulin are important for a suitable metabolism and development during adolescence. These hormones jointly with glucose play a major role in fat metabolism and development of childhood obesity. Our main objective was to quantify biomarkers as leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose status in European adolescents to contribute to establish reference ranges.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Dietary lipid intake only partially influences variance in serum phospholipid fatty acid composition in adolescents: impact of other dietary factors.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the correlation between food and fatty acid (FA) intake and the serum phospholipid (PL) FA status in European adolescents and explored the percentage of variation in serum PL FA that could be attributed to dietary habits. Participants included 528 adolescents recruited in the HELENA Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, self-administered, non-consecutive 24-h recalls. PL FA concentrations were measured in fasting venous serum samples. Reduced rank regressions were applied to examine the combined effect of food intakes. Results indicated that the variance in serum PL FA in adolescents, that could be explained by diet varied from 7.0% for MUFA to 14.2% for n-3FA. The variance in the long-chain n-3FA was mainly explained by fish intake but also by coffee and tea consumption. In conclusion this study indicated that dietary intake influences the serum PL FA status to a limited amount but that also other factors interfere. However, dietary intake is important as it is among those factors that could be modified. Furthermore, the results suggest that the overall dietary habits should be considered instead of only the consumption of single foods or nutrients, as the medium of the food or concomitant intake of foods and nutrients might interact and as such influence absorption or metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Physical Activity Modifies the Associations between Genetic Variants and Blood Pressure in European Adolescents.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We hypothesized that physical activity and sedentary behavior could modify the associations between known genetic variants blood pressure-associated genes in European adolescents. Meeting current physical activity recommendations (?60 minutes/day) was able attenuate the deleterious effect of the NOS3 rs3918227 polymorphism on systolic blood pressure in European adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Micafungin is more active against Candida albicans biofilms with high metabolic activity.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability to form biofilm enables Candida spp. to cause catheter-related candidaemia. The use of agents with in vitro activity against Candida albicans biofilms, such as micafungin, could obviate catheter removal. The metabolic activity of C. albicans biofilms is strain-dependent, and cell wall formation is thought to be more prominent in biofilms showing high metabolic activity.
Related JoVE Video
[Information disclosure and decision making preferences of patients with advanced cancer in a Pain and Palliative Care Unit in Chile].
Rev Med Chil
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Information disclosure and decision making process are important steps in advanced cancer patients management; however, there is no research done in this area in Chile.
Related JoVE Video
Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) from Rosa canina, sacha inchi and chia oils may increase ALA accretion and its conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in diverse tissues of the rat.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential n-3 PUFA; its n-3 LCPUFA derivatives EPA and DHA, which have diverse beneficial effects, are scarce in the human diet. In recent years nontraditional vegetable oils rich in ALA (up to 45%) have been developed as new alternatives to increase ALA consumption. This work evaluated the accretion of ALA, EPA and DHA into the phospholipids extracted from erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, quadriceps and the brain in rats fed sunflower (SFO), canola (CO), Rosa canina (RCO), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, SIO) and chia (Salvia hispánica, ChO) oils. Five experimental groups (n = 12 per group) were fed for 21 days with SFO (1% ALA), CO (10% ALA), RCO (33% ALA), SIO (49% ALA), and ChO (64% ALA). SIO and ChO allowed higher ALA accretion in all tissues, except the brain, and a reduction in the content of arachidonic acid in all tissues except the brain. EPA was increased in erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart and quadriceps, but not in the brain. DHA was increased in the liver, small intestine and brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that ALA, when provided in significant amounts, can be converted into n-3 LCPUFA, mostly DHA in the liver and brain. It is suggested that oils rich in ALA, such as SIO and ChO, are good sources for obtaining higher tissue levels of ALA, also allowing its selective conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in some tissues of the rat.
Related JoVE Video
Occult bloodstream infections in adults: a "benign" entity.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with septic episodes whose blood cultures turn positive after being sent home from emergency departments (EDs) are recognized as having occult bloodstream infections (BSI). The incidence, etiology, clinical circumstances, and outcome of occult BSI in children are well known, but, to our knowledge, data in adult patients are scarce. We analyzed the episodes of occult BSI in adult patients at our institution.
Related JoVE Video
Conjugated linoleic acid improves glucose utilization in the soleus muscle of rats fed linoleic acid-enriched and linoleic acid-deprived diets.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has on glucose metabolism in experimental animals depends on nutritional conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that CLA improves glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in rats fed different levels of dietary linoleic acid (LA). We investigated the effect of CLA on the uptake, incorporation, and oxidation of glucose and glycogen synthesis in the soleus muscle of rats who were fed either LA-enriched ((+)LA) or LA-deprived ((-)LA) diets, under basal conditions and in the absence or presence of insulin and/or palmitate. For 60 days, male Wistar rats were fed 1 of 4 diets consisting of (+)LA, (-)LA, or (+)LA and (-)LA supplemented with CLA. Nutritional parameters and soleus glucose metabolism were evaluated. Under basal conditions, CLA enhanced soleus glucose oxidation, whereas increased glucose uptake and incorporation were observed in the (-)LA + CLA group. Conjugated linoleic acid-supplemented rats presented a lower response to insulin on glucose metabolism compared with non-CLA-supplemented rats. Palmitate partially inhibited the effect of insulin on the uptake and incorporation of glucose in the (+)LA and (-)LA groups but not in the (+)LA + CLA or (-)LA + CLA groups. Dietary CLA increased glucose utilization under basal conditions and prevented the palmitate-induced inhibition of glucose uptake and incorporation that is stimulated by insulin. The beneficial effects of CLA were better in LA-deprived rats. Conjugated linoleic acid may also have negative effects, such as lowering the insulin response capacity. These results demonstrate the complexities of the interactions between CLA, palmitate, and/or insulin to differentially modify muscle glucose utilization and show that the magnitude of the response is related to the dietary LA levels.
Related JoVE Video
Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
Associations of early life and sociodemographic factors with menarcheal age in European adolescents.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early menarche has been associated with adult overweight, cardiovascular risk factors, and other diseases. Little is known about the determinants of menarcheal age (MA). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine the associations between early life programming factors and menarcheal age in European adolescents. Secondly, the influence of sociodemographical factors on menarcheal age was also studied. A total of 1,069 European girls from the HELENA cross-sectional study, aged 12.5-17.5 years, were included in this study. Using multilevel linear regression models, a possible association between birth weight and length, ponderal index at birth, gestational age, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and menarcheal age was examined. Associations between geographical gradient, number of siblings, physical activity (PA), dietary factors, and menarcheal age were also examined. After adjustment, menarcheal age was positively associated with birth weight and length (p?=?0.01 and p?=?0.01). Conclusion: These findings confirm that birth weight and length may have a programming effect on menarcheal age. Next to this finding, sociodemographic factors were not associated with menarcheal age.
Related JoVE Video
[Physical fitness evolution in octogenarian population and its relationship with a sedentary lifestyle].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical fitness over two years of following up in octogenarian people and to check whether a sedentary lifestyle modify these variations.
Related JoVE Video
Chinchón declaration; decalogue on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS).
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multidisciplinary experts in the areas of nutrition and health met in Chinchón, Madrid, on November 25-26, 2013 under the auspices of the Fundación para la Investigación Nutricional (Nutrition Research Foundation) and with the collaboration of the Madrid Regional Government's Health Ministry, the International Sweeteners Association and the Carlos III Health Institute CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition. They analyzed the current status of scientific knowledge on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) and developed a consensus Decalogue on their use; this constitutes the Chinchón Declaration. Sweeteners, including sugar, represent a subject of undeniable interest and are currently a popular topic, although areas relating to their safety and benefits remain unknown to segments of academia and the general public. The nature of LNCS makes them vulnerable to biased and even contradictory information. They are food additives that are broadly used as sugar substitutes to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements when non-nutritional or non-caloric alternatives are needed. The Chinchón Decalogue is the outcome of a meeting for reflection and consensus by a group of experts with backgrounds in different scientific disciplines (toxicology, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, physiology, food science, public health, pediatrics, endocrinology and nutrition, nursing, pharmaceutical care and food legislation). The Decalogue includes different aspects of LNCS related to regulation, use, benefits and safety. In general, benefits of LNCS have been traditionally neglected in comparison with the tendency for emphasising unexisting or unproven possible risks. The need to strengthen research on LNCS in Spain was emphasized, as well as the need to educate both professionals and the public.
Related JoVE Video
Health inequalities in urban adolescents: role of physical activity, diet, and genetics.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coordinated European projects relying on standardized methods are needed to identify health inequalities across Europe. This study aimed to compare fitness, fatness, and cardiometabolic risk between urban adolescents from the south and center-north of Europe and to explore whether physical activity (PA) and other factors might explain these differences.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils in body composition and lipid regulation in mice.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Neck rejuvenation with mastoid-spanning barbed tensor threads (MST operation).
Aesthetic Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Face rejuvenation with barbed tensor threads has been used in a variety of techniques by many authors focused mainly on cheek rejuvenation. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of detailed techniques and descriptions of surgical steps in barbed-thread neck rejuvenation. Here we describe our technique and analyze the results of this approach to minimally invasive neck rejuvenation with barbed threads.
Related JoVE Video
Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Moderate-vigorous physical activity across body mass index in females: moderating effect of endocannabinoids and temperament.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI.
Related JoVE Video
Matters of the heart in bioenergetics: mitochondrial fusion into continuous reticulum is not needed for maximal respiratory activity.
J. Bioenerg. Biomembr.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondria are dynamic structures for which fusion and fission are well characterized for rapidly dividing cells in culture. Based on these data, it has recently been proposed that high respiratory activity is the result of fusion and formation of mitochondrial reticulum, while fission results in fragmented mitochondria with low respiratory activity. In this work we test the validity of this new hypothesis by analyzing our own experimental data obtained in studies of isolated heart mitochondria, permeabilized cells of cardiac phenotype with different mitochondrial arrangement and dynamics. Additionally, we reviewed published data including electron tomographic investigation of mitochondrial membrane-associated structures in heart cells. Oxygraphic studies show that maximal ADP-dependent respiration rates are equally high both in isolated heart mitochondria and in permeabilized cardiomyocytes. On the contrary, these rates are three times lower in NB HL-1 cells with fused mitochondrial reticulum. Confocal and electron tomographic studies show that there is no mitochondrial reticulum in cardiac cells, known to contain 5,000-10,000 individual, single mitochondria, which are regularly arranged at the level of sarcomeres and are at Z-lines separated from each other by membrane structures, including the T-tubular system in close connection to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The new structural data in the literature show a principal role for the elaborated T-tubular system in organization of cell metabolism by supplying calcium, oxygen and substrates from the extracellular medium into local domains of the cardiac cells for calcium cycling within Calcium Release Units, associated with respiration and its regulation in Intracellular Energetic Units.
Related JoVE Video
Algorithm for the early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly people.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The elderly population is particularly at risk for developing vitamin B12-deficiency. Serum cobalamin does not necessarily reflect a normal B12 status. The determination of methylmalonic acid is not available in all laboratories. Issues of sensitivity for holotranscobalamin and the low specificity of total homocysteine limit their utility. The aim of the present study is to establish a diagnostic algorithm by using a combination of these markers in place of a single measurement.
Related JoVE Video
Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: Impact on health and obesity prevention.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefits of regular physical activity have been known since ancient Greek. But in the last Century the scientific knowledge around this topic has progressed enormously, starting with the early studies of JN Morris and RS Paffenberger, who demonstrated that physical activity at work reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In the Harvard alumni study, the lowest risk was associated with a weekly output of 1000 to 2000 kcal performing vigorous activities. Further studies in all age groups have supported these findings and have added that even moderate levels of physical activity provide considerable benefits to health, including lower prevalence of overweight and obesity at all ages. Metabolic fat oxidation rate is highest at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% of VO2max. This means that people must be active regularly and force physiological mechanisms at certain intensities. All this body of evidence has contributed to current WHO physical activity recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults and elderly, and 60 min/day of MVPA in children and adolescents, with additional strength training, apart from adopting an active lifestyle. In the last 50 years, occupational physical activity has been reduced for about 120 kcal/day, and sedentarism has emerged as an additional risk factor to physical inactivity. Even if less than 60 min of TV time in adults have been related to lower average BMI, there is still a need for research to determine the appropriate dose of exercise in combination with sedentary behaviours and other activities in the context of our modern lifestyle in order to prevent obesity at all ages. As public health measures have failed to stop the obesity epidemic in the last 3 decades, there is clearly a need to change the paradigm. The inclusion of sport scientists, physical education teachers and other professionals in the multidisciplinary team which should be responsible for drawing the road map to prevent the increase of the obesity epidemic effectively is a "must" from our point of view.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in european adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (?=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (?=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (?=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (?=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (?=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (?=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (?=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (?=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (?=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (?=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (?=-0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (?=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
[Acute physical exercise increases homocysteine concentrations in young trained male subjects].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High levels of homocysteine (Hcy) have been identified as a cardiovascular risk factor. Regarding physical exercise, the results are contradictory.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of trans-fatty acids on liver lipid metabolism in mice fed on diets showing different fatty acid composition.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our aim was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver lipid metabolism in mice fed on experimental diets rich in either oleic or linoleic acid.
Related JoVE Video
Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ? 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (? = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.
Related JoVE Video
Nutrient intake of European adolescents: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE: An adequate nutritional intake in childhood and adolescence is crucial for growth and the prevention of youth and adult obesity and nutrition-related morbidities. Improving nutrient intake in children and adolescents is of public health importance. The purpose of the present study was to describe and evaluate the nutrient intake in a European sample using the D-A-CH nutrient intake recommendations and the Nutritional Quality Index (NQI). DESIGN: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, the main objective of which is to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. SETTING: Eight cities in Europe. SUBJECTS: The initial sample consisted of 3528 European adolescents. Among these, 1590 adolescents (54 % female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and nutrient intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software. RESULTS: The intakes of most macronutrients, vitamins and minerals were in line with the D-A-CH recommendations. While the intakes of SFA and salt were too high, the intake of PUFA was too low. Furthermore, the intakes of vitamin D, folate, iodine and F were less than about 55 % of the recommendations. The median NQI was about 71 (of a maximum of 100). CONCLUSIONS: The intakes of most nutrients were adequate. However, further studies using suitable criteria to assess nutrient status are needed. Public health initiatives should educate children and adolescents regarding balanced food choices.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
CD36 and SR-BI are involved in cellular uptake of provitamin A carotenoids by Caco-2 and HEK cells, and some of their genetic variants are associated with plasma concentrations of these micronutrients in humans.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and cluster determinant 36 (CD36) have been involved in cellular uptake of some provitamin A carotenoids. However, data are incomplete (e.g., there are no data on ?-carotene), and it is not known whether genetic variants in their encoding genes can affect provitamin A carotenoid status. The objectives were 1) to assess the involvement of these scavenger receptors in cellular uptake of the main provitamin A carotenoids (i.e., ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and ?-cryptoxanthin) as well as that of preformed vitamin A (i.e., retinol) and 2) to investigate the contribution of genetic variations in genes encoding these proteins to interindividual variations in plasma concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids. The involvement of SR-BI and CD36 in carotenoids and retinol cellular uptake was investigated in Caco-2 and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The involvement of scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) and CD36 genetic variants on plasma concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids was assessed by association studies in 3 independent populations. Cell experiments suggested the involvement of both proteins in cellular uptake of provitamin A carotenoids but not in that of retinol. Association studies showed that several plasma provitamin A carotenoid concentrations were significantly different (P < 0.0083) between participants who bore different genotypes at single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in CD36 and SCARB1. In conclusion, SR-BI and CD36 are involved in cellular uptake of provitamin A carotenoids, and genetic variations in their encoding genes may modulate plasma concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids at a population level.
Related JoVE Video
Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2×24h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Physical strength is associated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores in Spanish institutionalized elderly.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing muscle strength of hands, the dominant arm and legs in Spanish institutionalized elderly people according to sex, age and cognitive status.
Related JoVE Video
More physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To test whether youths who engage in vigorous physical activity are more likely to have lean bodies while ingesting relatively large amounts of energy. For this purpose, we studied the associations of both physical activity and adiposity with energy intake in adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, ewe and goat dairy artisanal farmhouses.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria collected from artisanal farmhouses were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic methods including biochemical assays, ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were performed. This approach provides accuracy for identification, and helps to avoid the loss of natural biodiversity including potentially valuable strains.
Related JoVE Video
6,6-Di-tert-butyl-4,4-dimeth-oxy-2,2-[1,3-diazinane-1,3-diylbis(methyl-ene)]diphenol 0.19-hydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the title hexa-hydro-pyrimidine derivative, C(28)H(42)N(2)O(4)·0.19H(2)O, the 1,3-diazinane ring has a chair conformation with a diequatorial substitution. The asymmetric unit contains one half-organic mol-ecule and a solvent water mol-ecule with occupany 0.095. The mol-ecule lies on a mirror plane perpendicular to [010] which passes through the C atoms at the 2- and 5-positions of the heterocyclic system. The partially occupied water mol-ecule is also located on this mirror plane. The dihedral angle between the planes of the aromatic rings is 17.71?(3)°. Two intra-molecular O-H?N hydrogen bonds with graph-set motif S(6) are present. No remarkable inter-molecular contacts exist in the crystal structure.
Related JoVE Video
Health effects related to low vitamin D concentrations: beyond bone metabolism.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitamin D is essential for a vast number of physiologic processes, and thus adequate levels are necessary or advantageous for optimal health. During childhood and adolescence, an adequate vitamin D status is needed due to its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure, and development.
Related JoVE Video
Contribution of bone turnover markers to bone mass in pubertal boys and girls.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between bone turnover markers and bone mass in adolescence is not clear. We aimed to evaluate the associations between bone turnover markers and bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and area (BMA).
Related JoVE Video
Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and beta-carotene) in European adolescents - the HELENA Study.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An adequate nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, E) and b-carotene is essential especially during childhood and adolescence, because of their important roles in cell growth and development. Currently, there are no physiological reference values for blood concentration of these vitamins and b-carotene in apparently healthy European adolescents. The aim of the current study was to obtain reliable and comparable data of antioxidant vitamins and b-carotene in a cross-sectional study, within HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence), which was conducted in a representative sample of adolescents from ten European cities.
Related JoVE Video
Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since inadequate food consumption patterns during adolescence are not only linked with the occurrence of obesity in youth but also with the subsequent risk of developing diseases in adulthood, the establishment and maintenance of a healthy diet early in life is of great public health importance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the food consumption of a well-characterized sample of European adolescents against food-based dietary guidelines for the first time.
Related JoVE Video
Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An adequate vitamin D status is essential during childhood and adolescence, for its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure and development. It also reduces the risk of conditions such as CVD, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, infections and autoimmune disease. As comparable data on the European level are lacking, assessment of vitamin D concentrations was included in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from a subsample of 1006 adolescents (470 males; 46·8 %) with an age range of 12·5-17·5 years, selected in the ten HELENA cities in the nine European countries participating in this cross-sectional study, and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) by ELISA using EDTA plasma. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution were computed by age and sex. Median 25(OH)D levels for the whole population were 57·1 nmol/l (5th percentile 24·3 nmol/l, 95th percentile 99·05 nmol/l). Vitamin D status was classified into four groups according to international guidelines (sufficiency/optimal levels ? 75 nmol/l; insufficiency 50-75 nmol/l; deficiency 27·5-49·99 nmol/l and severe deficiency < 27·5 nmol/l). About 80 % of the sample had suboptimal levels (39 % had insufficient, 27 % deficient and 15 % severely deficient levels). Vitamin D concentrations increased with age (P < 0·01) and tended to decrease according to BMI. Geographical differences were also identified. Our study results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in European adolescents and should be a matter of concern for public health authorities.
Related JoVE Video
Physical activity, fitness, and serum leptin concentrations in adolescents.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the association of physical activity and fitness with leptin concentrations in European adolescents, after taking into account several potential confounders including total body fat (TBF).
Related JoVE Video
Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.
Can. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.
Related JoVE Video
Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.
Related JoVE Video
Studies of the role of tubulin beta II isotype in regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intracellular energetic units in cardiac cells.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of tubulin ?II, a cytoskeletal protein, in regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and energy fluxes in heart cells. This isotype of tubulin is closely associated with mitochondria and co-expressed with mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK). It can be rapidly removed by mild proteolytic treatment of permeabilized cardiomyocytes in the absence of stimulatory effect of cytochrome c, that demonstrating the intactness of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Contrary to isolated mitochondria, in permeabilized cardiomyocytes (in situ mitochondria) the addition of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in the presence of creatine had no effect on the rate of respiration controlled by activated MtCK, showing limited permeability of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) for ADP regenerated by MtCK. Under normal conditions, this effect can be considered as one of the most sensitive tests of the intactness of cardiomyocytes and controlled permeability of MOM for adenine nucleotides. However, proteolytic treatment of permeabilized cardiomyocytes with trypsin, by removing mitochondrial ?II tubulin, induces high sensitivity of MtCK-regulated respiration to PK-PEP, significantly changes its kinetics and the affinity to exogenous ADP. MtCK coupled to ATP synthasome and to VDAC controlled by tubulin ?II provides functional compartmentation of ATP in mitochondria and energy channeling into cytoplasm via phosphotransfer network. Therefore, direct transfer of mitochondrially produced ATP to sites of its utilization is largely avoided under physiological conditions, but may occur in pathology when mitochondria are damaged. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Local Signaling in Myocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Fitness and fatness are independently associated with markers of insulin resistance in European adolescents; the HELENA study.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the independent association of total and central body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with markers of insulin resistance after controlling for several potential confounders in European adolescents participating in the HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional) study.
Related JoVE Video
FADS1 genetic variability interacts with dietary ?-linolenic acid intake to affect serum non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations in European adolescents.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two rate-limiting enzymes in PUFA biosynthesis, ?5- and ?6-desaturases, are encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, respectively. Genetic variants in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster are associated with changes in plasma concentrations of PUFA, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and TG. However, little is known about whether dietary PUFA intake modulates these associations, especially in adolescents. We assessed whether dietary linoleic acid (LA) or ?-linolenic acid (ALA) modulate the association between the FADS1 rs174546 polymorphism and concentrations of PUFA, other lipids, and lipoproteins in adolescents. Dietary intakes of LA and ALA, FADS1 rs174546 genotypes, PUFA levels in serum phospholipids, and serum concentrations of TG, cholesterol, and lipoproteins were determined in 573 European adolescents from the HELENA study. The sample was stratified according to the median dietary LA (?9.4 and >9.4 g/d) and ALA (?1.4 and >1.4 g/d) intakes. The associations between FADS1 rs174546 and concentrations of PUFA, TG, cholesterol, and lipoproteins were not affected by dietary LA intake (all P-interaction > 0.05). Similarly, the association between the FADS1 rs174546 polymorphism and serum phospholipid concentrations of ALA or EPA was not modified by dietary ALA intake (all P-interaction > 0.05). In contrast, the rs174546 minor allele was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01 under the dominant model) and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.02 under the dominant model) in the high-ALA-intake group but not in the low-ALA-intake group (P-interaction = 0.01). These results suggest that dietary ALA intake modulates the association between FADS1 rs174546 and serum total and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations at a young age.
Related JoVE Video
Melatonin prevents oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats treated with aluminium.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study is designed to determine the simultaneous effect of aluminium (Al) and melatonin (Mel) treatment in intact and ovariectomized (Ovx) female rats on oxidative stress and their inter-organ relationship in the kidney and liver. Al-treated rats received an intra-peritoneal injection of solution of aluminium lactate (0.575 mg Al/100 g of body weight, three times a week), during 12 weeks. Mel groups received intra-peritoneal injections of melatonin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, 5 days/week, during 12 weeks. The results of this study showed that Al treatment in female rats modifies homeostasis of glutathione and the antioxidant capacity of the rat liver and kidney. The alteration of glutathione homeostasis and oxidative status was not associated with an increased lipid peroxidation in both organs with the exception of the increase observed in the liver of Ovx rats. Al also induced modifications in the activity of some enzymes related to the glutathione cycle: GSH-Px in the liver and kidney and glutathione reductase only in the kidney. Al exposure decreased CAT activity in both the kidney and liver of intact and Ovx groups. The administration of Mel in the intact and castrated females treated with Al seems to reduce oxidative changes in the liver and kidney of intact and Ovx rats.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Intracellular Energetic Units regulate metabolism in cardiac cells.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This review describes developments in historical perspective as well as recent results of investigations of cellular mechanisms of regulation of energy fluxes and mitochondrial respiration by cardiac work - the metabolic aspect of the Frank-Starling law of the heart. A Systems Biology solution to this problem needs the integration of physiological and biochemical mechanisms that take into account intracellular interactions of mitochondria with other cellular systems, in particular with cytoskeleton components. Recent data show that different tubulin isotypes are involved in the regular arrangement exhibited by mitochondria and ATP-consuming systems into Intracellular Energetic Units (ICEUs). Beta II tubulin association with the mitochondrial outer membrane, when co-expressed with mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) specifically limits the permeability of voltage-dependent anion channel for adenine nucleotides. In the MtCK reaction this interaction changes the regulatory kinetics of respiration through a decrease in the affinity for adenine nucleotides and an increase in the affinity for creatine. Metabolic Control Analysis of the coupled MtCK-ATP Synthasome in permeabilized cardiomyocytes showed a significant increase in flux control by steps involved in ADP recycling. Mathematical modeling of compartmentalized energy transfer represented by ICEUs shows that cyclic changes in local ADP, Pi, phosphocreatine and creatine concentrations during contraction cycle represent effective metabolic feedback signals when amplified in the coupled non-equilibrium MtCK-ATP Synthasome reactions in mitochondria. This mechanism explains the regulation of respiration on beat to beat basis during workload changes under conditions of metabolic stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes."
Related JoVE Video
Disordered eating prevention programme in schools: a 30-month follow-up.
Eur Eat Disord Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of a school-based prevention programme administered to adolescents; the purpose of the said programme was to reduce disordered eating attitudes and sociocultural influences on the internalisation of the aesthetical body ideal.
Related JoVE Video
RAPD-based screening for spore-forming bacterial populations in Uruguayan commercial powdered milk.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The occurrence of spore-forming bacteria in powdered milk is of concern to the dairy industry due to potential deleterious effects including those resulting from proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Twenty-two powdered milk samples representative of spring and summer production obtained from Uruguayan retail stores were analyzed for type and number of thermophilic and spore-forming bacterial species. Bacillus licheniformis isolates were found to be the most prominent milk powder contaminant followed by Anoxybacillus flavithermus representing 71.5 to 84% of the total microflora. Geobacillus stearothermophilus, however, was not found. B. licheniformis strains F and G were both found in this study but strain F was the prevalent isolate representing 98.9% of the total isolates of this species. A. flavithermus isolates corresponded to strain C in accordance with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, however, in contrast with other reports, the RAPD profiles showed three characteristic bands at approximately 650, 1000 and 1650 bp, but lacking a band at 1250 bp. A third group of isolates was identified corresponding to members of a Bacillus subtilis group and Bacillus megaterium. Isolates designated B. licheniformis, A. flavithermus, B. megaterium and the B. subtilis group represented 89.1 to 93.6% of those analyzed, and depended on previous heat treatment and incubation temperatures of the plates. The remaining isolates were Bacillus pumilus and unidentified spore-formers.
Related JoVE Video
Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from traditional families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. Hunger, taste, health concerns and parents or guardian were the most important influences on the adolescents food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Food and drink intake during television viewing in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare food consumption during television (TV) viewing among adolescents who watched >2 h/d v. ?2 h/d; and to examine the association between sociodemographic variables (age, gender and socio-economic status (SES)) and the consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks during TV viewing.
Related JoVE Video
Associations of birth weight with serum long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in adolescents; the HELENA study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nutritional factors in early life may have long-term physiologic effects in humans. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) play important roles in protecting against cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Our aim was to examine the association of birth weight (BW) with serum long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profile in adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondria-cytoskeleton interaction: distribution of ?-tubulins in cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cells.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondria-cytoskeleton interactions were analyzed in adult rat cardiomyocytes and in cancerous non-beating HL-1 cells of cardiac phenotype. We show that in adult cardiomyocytes ?II-tubulin is associated with mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). ?I-tubulin demonstrates diffused intracellular distribution, ?III-tubulin is colocalized with Z-lines and ?IV-tubulin forms microtubular network. HL-1 cells are characterized by the absence of ?II-tubulin, by the presence of bundles of filamentous ?IV-tubulin and diffusely distributed ?I- and ?III-tubulins. Mitochondrial isoform of creatine kinase (MtCK), highly expressed in cardiomyocytes, is absent in HL-1 cells. Our results show that high apparent K(m) for exogenous ADP in regulation of respiration and high expression of MtCK both correlate with the expression of ?II-tubulin. The absence of ?II-tubulin isotype in isolated mitochondria and in HL-1 cells results in increased apparent affinity of oxidative phosphorylation for exogenous ADP. This observation is consistent with the assumption that the binding of ?II-tubulin to mitochondria limits ADP/ATP diffusion through voltage-dependent anion channel of MOM and thus shifts energy transfer via the phosphocreatine pathway. On the other hand, absence of both ?II-tubulin and MtCK in HL-1 cells can be associated with their more glycolysis-dependent energy metabolism which is typical for cancer cells (Warburg effect).
Related JoVE Video
Associations between common genetic polymorphisms in the liver X receptor alpha and its target genes with the serum HDL-cholesterol concentration in adolescents of the HELENA Study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic variability in the NR1H3 gene (encoding LXR?) and in several of its target genes is associated with serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. We sought to assess if these associations could be detected in adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
[Evaluation of children with tuberculosis contact].
Rev Chilena Infectol
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Koch bacilli), that has re-emerged since the decade of the 80s in relation to the pandemic of HIV infection. Chile has one of the lowest TB prevalence rates in Latin America. In children, TB exhibits some differences from adult disease in terms of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and probability of progression from the infected state to disease, making it more difficult to diagnose and increasing the likelihood of developing the disease once the infection is acquired. There is a National Program for the Prevention and Control of TB that allows us to develop prevention and chemoprophylaxis strategies. This article summarizes these strategies to guide the study and management of children in contact with TB patients.
Related JoVE Video
Common polymorphisms in six genes of the methyl group metabolism pathway and obesity in European adolescents.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between the genetic variability in six genes of methyl group (CH(3)) metabolism and the risk of obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Oxidative stress activates the c-Abl/p73 proapoptotic pathway in Niemann-Pick type C neurons.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of cholesterol leading to neuronal apoptosis. We have previously reported the activation of the c-Abl/p73 proapoptotic pathway in the cerebellum of NPC mice; however, upstream signals underlying the engagement of this pathway remain unknown. Here, we investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in the activation of c-Abl/p73 using different in vitro and in vivo NPC models. Our results indicate a close temporal correlation between the appearance of nitrotyrosine (N-Tyr; a post-translational tyrosine modification caused by oxidative stress) and the activation of c-Abl/p73 in NPC models. To test the functional role of oxidative stress in NPC, we have treated NPC neurons with the antioxidant NAC and observed a dramatic decrease of c-Abl/p73 activation and a reduction in the levels of apoptosis in NPC models. In conclusion, our data suggest that oxidative stress is the main upstream stimulus activating the c-Abl/p73 pathway and neuronal apoptosis in NPC neurons.
Related JoVE Video
Recommended levels and intensities of physical activity to avoid low-cardiorespiratory fitness in European adolescents: The HELENA study.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific physical activity (PA) intensity thresholds that best discriminate between unhealthy/healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of several anthropometric indices with insulin resistance proxy measures among European adolescents: The Helena Study.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the current study was to compare the association of several anthropometric indices, with insulin resistance (IR) proxy measures in European adolescents. The present study comprises 1,097 adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 from ten European cities participating in the HELENA study. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference, skinfolds thickness, fat mass (FM), fasting plasma glucose (G(F)) and serum insulin (I(F)) levels were measured. HOMA (as indicator of IR body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. I(F) and HOMA were statistically significantly related to BMI, WC, skinfold sum, WHtR, WHR and FM. BMI, WC, WHtR, skinfold sum and FM displayed similar correlation with I(F) and HOMA as opposed to WHR where lower correlation with IR indices was detected in the overall sample. Similar results were found for boys, girls and underweight/normal weight adolescents. On the other hand, WC and WHtR were found to be more strongly associated with IR proxy measures compared to the rest of anthropometric indices among overweight/obese subjects. Based on the current findings, WC and WHtR could be used, alternatively, to identify the overweight/obese adolescent at risk for developing IR. In addition, all aforementioned anthropometric indices, except WHR, could be used among the underweight/normal weight adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
[Presence of mutations associated with ganciclovir resistance in cytomegalovirus UL97 gene].
Rev Med Chil
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long term use of ganciclovir (GCV) is associated with acquired resistance to it. Ninety percent of the responsible mutations occur in cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL 97 gene.
Related JoVE Video
Passive smoking alters circulating naïve/memory lymphocyte T-cell subpopulations in children.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While it has been indicated that exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) can cause a local in vivo response, limited evidence exists on its possible systemic effects from population-based levels of exposure. We investigated into a possible systemic response in the immune parameters and lymphocyte subsets, i.e. B cell (CD19+), T cell (CD4+CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+, CD3+CD45RO+, CD3+CD45RA+) and natural killer (CD3+CD16CD56+) lymphocyte subsets relative to exposure to SHS. Blood was drawn from healthy, verified non-smoker, adolescent subjects (n = 68, mean age 14.2) and analysed for cotinine, antioxidants and lymphocyte immunophenotyping. SHS exposure was assessed using serum cotinine. Biomarker quantified exposure to SHS was correlated with a linear dose-response reduction in the percentages of memory CD4+CD45RO+ (p = 0.005) and CD3+CD45RO+ T-cell subsets (p = 0.005 and p = 0.003, respectively) and a linear increase in the percentage of naïve CD4+CD45RA+ and CD3+CD45RA+ T-cell subsets (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, higher exposure to SHS was associated with a higher CD4+CD45RA+ count (532 vs. 409 cells/ml, p = 0.017). Moreover, after controlling for age, gender, body mass index and plasma antioxidants, SHS exposure was found to be associated with the percentage of circulating naïve and memory CD4+ and CD3+ T-cell subpopulations, as revealed through a linear regression analysis. These findings indicate a systemic immunological response in healthy adolescents exposed to population-based levels of SHS exposure and imply an additional biological pathway for the interaction between exposure to SHS and its adverse effects on human health.
Related JoVE Video
Topoisomerase II-mediated DNA damage is differently repaired during the cell cycle by non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Topoisomerase II (Top2) is a nuclear enzyme involved in several metabolic processes of DNA. Chemotherapy agents that poison Top2 are known to induce persistent protein-mediated DNA double strand breaks (DSB). In this report, by using knock down experiments, we demonstrated that Top2alpha was largely responsible for the induction of gammaH2AX and cytotoxicity by the Top2 poisons idarubicin and etoposide in normal human cells. As DSB resulting from Top2 poisons-mediated damage may be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR), we aimed to analyze both DNA repair pathways. We found that DNA-PKcs was rapidly activated in human cells, as evidenced by autophosphorylation at serine 2056, following Top2-mediated DNA damage. The chemical inhibition of DNA-PKcs by wortmannin and vanillin resulted in an increased accumulation of DNA DSB, as evaluated by the comet assay. This was supported by a hypersensitive phenotype to Top2 poisons of Ku80- and DNA-PKcs- defective Chinese hamster cell lines. We also showed that Rad51 protein levels, Rad51 foci formation and sister chromatid exchanges were increased in human cells following Top2-mediated DNA damage. In support, BRCA2- and Rad51C- defective Chinese hamster cells displayed hypersensitivity to Top2 poisons. The analysis by immunofluorescence of the DNA DSB repair response in synchronized human cell cultures revealed activation of DNA-PKcs throughout the cell cycle and Rad51 foci formation in S and late S/G2 cells. Additionally, we found an increase of DNA-PKcs-mediated residual repair events, but not Rad51 residual foci, into micronucleated and apoptotic cells. Therefore, we conclude that in human cells both NHEJ and HR are required, with cell cycle stage specificity, for the repair of Top2-mediated reversible DNA damage. Moreover, NHEJ-mediated residual repair events are more frequently associated to irreversibly damaged cells.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.