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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Patients' Care Needs: Documentation Analysis in General Hospitals.
Int J Nurs Knowl
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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The purpose of the study is (a) to describe care needs derived from records of patients in Dutch hospitals, and (b) to evaluate whether nurses employed the NANDA-I classification to formulate patients' care needs.
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Thoracic sympathetic block for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I: A double-blind randomized controlled study.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Pain relief in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) remains a major challenge, in part due to the lack of evidence-based treatment trials specific for this condition. We performed a long-term randomized, double-blinded active-control study to evaluate the efficacy of thoracic sympathetic block (TSB) for upper limb type I CRPS. The study objective was to evaluate the analgesic effect of TSB in CRPS. Patients with CRPS type I were treated with standardized pharmacological and physical therapy and were randomized to either TSB or control procedure as an add-on treatment. Clinical data, pain intensity, and interference (Brief Pain Inventory), pain dimensions (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ]), neuropathic characteristics (Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI]), mood, upper limb function (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and quality of life were assessed before, and at 1 month and 12 months after the procedure. Thirty-six patients (19 female, 44.7±11.1 years of age) underwent the procedure (17 in the TSB group). Average pain intensity at 1 month was not significantly different after TSB (3.5±3.2) compared to control procedure (4.8±2.7; P=0.249). At 12 months, however, the average pain item was significantly lower in the TSB group (3.47±3.5) compared to the control group (5.86±2.9; P=0.046). Scores from the MPQ, evoked-pain symptoms subscores (NPSI), and depression scores (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were significantly lower in the TSB group compared to the control group at 1 and at 12 months. Other measurements were not influenced by the treatment. Quality of life was only slightly improved by TSB. No major adverse events occurred. Larger, multicentric trials should be performed to confirm these original findings.
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Generation and structure of extremely large clusters in pulsed jets.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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Extremely large xenon clusters with sizes exceeding the predictions of the Hagena scaling law by several orders of magnitude are shown to be produced in pulsed gas jets. The cluster sizes are determined using single-shot single-particle imaging experiments with short-wavelength light pulses from the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH). Scanning the time delay between the pulsed cluster source and the intense femtosecond x-ray pulses first shows a main plateau with size distributions in line with the scaling laws, which is followed by an after-pulse of giant clusters. For the extremely large clusters with radii of several hundred nanometers the x-ray scattering patterns indicate a grainy substructure of the particles, suggesting that they grow by cluster coagulation.
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Evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of avian influenza virus subtypes in blue-winged teal (Anas discors).
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Seasonal dynamics of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are driven by host density and population immunity. Through an analysis of subtypic data for IAVs isolated from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), we present evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of viral subtypes in spring and summer/autumn.
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Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress.
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Validation of the Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes (Q-DIO) Instrument for Use in Brazil and the United States.
Int J Nurs Knowl
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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To assess the reliability and validity of Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes (Q-DIO) in Brazil and in the United States.
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Nursing diagnosis in intensive care unit: the Turkey experience.
Crit Care Nurs Q
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine intensive care unit nurses diagnostic abilities and diagnoses that they provide.
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Decreased capacity for sodium export out of Arabidopsis chloroplasts impairs salt tolerance, photosynthesis and plant performance.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Salt stress is a widespread phenomenon, limiting plant performance in large areas around the world. Although various types of plant sodium/proton antiporters have been characterized, the physiological function of NHD1 from Arabidopsis thaliana has not been elucidated in detail so far. Here we report that the NHD1-GFP fusion protein localizes to the chloroplast envelope. Heterologous expression of AtNHD1 was sufficient to complement a salt-sensitive Escherichia coli mutant lacking its endogenous sodium/proton exchangers. Transport competence of NHD1 was confirmed using recombinant, highly purified carrier protein reconstituted into proteoliposomes, proving Na(+) /H(+) antiport. In planta NHD1 expression was found to be highest in mature and senescent leaves but was not induced by sodium chloride application. When compared to wild-type controls, nhd1 T-DNA insertion mutants showed decreased biomasses and lower chlorophyll levels after sodium feeding. Interestingly, if grown on sand and supplemented with high sodium chloride, nhd1 mutants exhibited leaf tissue Na(+) levels similar to those of wild-type plants, but the Na(+) content of chloroplasts increased significantly. These high sodium levels in mutant chloroplasts resulted in markedly impaired photosynthetic performance as revealed by a lower quantum yield of photosystem II and increased non-photochemical quenching. Moreover, high Na(+) levels might hamper activity of the plastidic bile acid/sodium symporter family protein 2 (BASS2). The resulting pyruvate deficiency might cause the observed decreased phenylalanine levels in the nhd1 mutants due to lack of precursors.
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Seroprevalence for Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Austrian adults: a cross-sectional survey among military personnel and civilians.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis infections in Austria and the exposure risk of military personnel were assessed in an exploratory nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence survey in 526 healthy adult individuals, 222 of which were soldiers and 304 were civilians. Screening for IgA/IgG antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase I) and IgG/IgM antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase II), and to F. tularensis was done with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, an in-house complement fixation test was used. Overall, 11 individuals (2.0%) showed antibodies to C. burnetii, 3 individuals (0.5%) were seropositive for F. tularensis, and one (0.3%) individual was borderline positive. All individuals positive or borderline for F. tularensis tested negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. All individuals tested negative for antibodies against B. melitensis/B. abortus. There were no significant differences between the seroprevalence of C. burnetii and F. tularensis among military personnel and civilians. Our data demonstrate serological evidence of a low rate of exposure to C. burnetii and F. tularensis among the Austrian adult population and military personnel.
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Prevalence, intensity, and phylogenetic analysis of Henneguya piaractus and Myxobolus cf. colossomatis from farmed Piaractus mesopotamicus in Brazil.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Henneguya piaractus and Myxobolus colossomatis (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) are commonly found in the characid Piaractus mesopotamicus, an important fish farm species in Brazil. This paper describes the prevalence, mean intensity, molecular phylogeny, ultrastructure, and histology of H. piaractus and M. cf. colossomatis found infecting specimens of P. mesopotamicus collected from fish farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 278 fish were collected from 3 fish farms between February 2008 and July 2010. Parasite prevalence and mean intensity varied throughout the study period, and according to location and year. A phylogenetic tree, placing South American species in a global context, showed a clear tendency among myxosporean species to cluster according to host families. Ultrastructural analysis for M. cf. colossomatis showed the plasmodial wall with numerous projections toward host cells and phagocytic activity. Histopathological data showed hyperplasia caused by H. piaractus in highly infected fish. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of H. piaractus showed results similar to those that have previously been reported.
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Respiratory syncytial virus infection in guatemala, 2007-2012.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Background.?Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI). Little is known about RSV disease among older children and adults in Central America. Methods.?Prospective surveillance for ARI among hospital patients and clinic patients was conducted in Guatemala during 2007-2012. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested for RSV, using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results.?Of 6287 hospitalizations and 2565 clinic visits for ARI, 24% and 12%, respectively, yielded RSV-positive test results. The incidence of RSV-positive hospitalization for ARI was 5.8 cases/10 000 persons per year and was highest among infants aged <6 months (208 cases/10 000 persons per year); among adults, the greatest incidence was observed among those aged ?65 years (2.9 cases/10 000 persons per year). The incidence of RSV-positive clinic visitation for ARI was 32 cases/10 000 persons per year and was highest among infants aged 6-23 months (186 cases/10 000 persons per year). Among RSV-positive hospital patients with ARI, underlying cardiovascular disease was associated with death, moribund discharge, intensive care unit admission, or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-8.8). The case-fatality proportion among RSV-positive hospital patients with ARI was higher for those aged ?5 years than for those aged <5 years (13% vs 3%; P < .001). Conclusions.?The incidences of RSV-associated hospitalization and clinic visitation for ARI were highest among young children, but a substantial burden of ARI due to RSV was observed among older children and adults.
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Nursing Diagnoses Determined by First Year Students: A Vignette Study.
Int J Nurs Knowl
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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The study aimed to determine the ability of first year students in identifying nursing diagnoses.
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Protective effects of diphenyl diselenide in a mouse model of brain toxicity.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Interest in organoselenide chemistry and biochemistry has increased in the past three decades, mainly due to their chemical and biological activities. Here, we investigated the protective effect of the organic selenium compound diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 (5 ?mol/kg), in a mouse model of methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain toxicity. Our group has previously demonstrated that the oral and repeated administration (21 days) of MeHg (40 mg/L) induced MeHg brain accumulation at toxic concentrations, and a pattern of severe cortical and cerebellar biochemical and behavioral. In order to assess neurotoxicity, the neurochemical parameters, namely, mitochondrial complexes I, II, II-III and IV, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as, metal deposition were investigated in mouse cerebral cortex. Cortical neurotoxicity induced by brain MeHg deposition was characterized by the reduction of complexes I, II, and IV activities, reduction of GPx and increased GR activities, increased TBA-RS and 8-OHdG content, and reduced BDNF levels. The daily treatment with (PhSe)2 was able to counteract the inhibitory effect of MeHg on mitochondrial activities, the increased oxidative stress parameters, TBA-RS and 8-OHdG levels, and the reduction of BDNF content. The observed protective (PhSe)2 effect could be linked to its antioxidant properties and/or its ability to reduce MeHg deposition in brain, which was here histochemically corroborated. Altogether, these data indicate that (PhSe)2 could be consider as a neuroprotectant compound to be tested under neurotoxicity.
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Effects on the quality of the nursing care process through an educational program and the use of electronic nursing documentation.
Int J Nurs Knowl
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To evaluate the effect of the educational program "Guided Clinical Reasoning" (GCR) and the introduction of an intelligent electronic nursing documentation system (e-doc) on the quality of the nursing process.
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Motivations, contradictions and ambiguities in the leadership of nurses in management positions in a university hospital.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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To analyze the contradictions and ambiguities which permeate nurses motivation for exercising leadership in management positions, in a university hospital.
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Differential expression of histone deacetylases HDAC1, 2 and 3 in human breast cancer--overexpression of HDAC2 and HDAC3 is associated with clinicopathological indicators of disease progression.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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In breast cancer, the role of epigenetic alterations including modifications of the acetylation status of histones in carcinogenesis has been an important research focus during the last years. An increased deacetylation of histones leads to increased cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and invasion. Class 1 histone deacetylases (HDAC) seem to be most important during carcinogenesis.
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The influence of the use of diagnostic resources on nurses communication with simulated patients during admission interviews.
Int J Nurs Knowl
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine how the use of diagnostic resources influences nurses communication during admission interviews.
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Dynamic compartment specific changes in glutathione and ascorbate levels in Arabidopsis plants exposed to different light intensities.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Excess light conditions induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly in the chloroplasts but also cause an accumulation and production of ROS in peroxisomes, cytosol and vacuoles. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione occur in all cell compartments where they detoxify ROS. In this study compartment specific changes in antioxidant levels and related enzymes were monitored among Arabidopsis wildtype plants and ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants (vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively) exposed to different light intensities (50, 150 which was considered as control condition, 300, 700 and 1,500 mumol m-2 s-1) for 4 h and 14 d.
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Nursing workload and patient safety--a mixed method study with an ecological restorative approach.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The aim of this study was to analyze the potential association between nursing workload and patient safety in the medical and surgical inpatient units of a teaching hospital.
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Synthesis and trypanocidal activity of novel 2,4,5-triaryl-N-hydroxylimidazole derivatives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Herein, we report the design, synthesis and trypanocidal activity of some novel trisubstituted imidazole derivatives. These heterocyclic derivatives were structurally planned by exploring the concept of molecular hybridisation between two arylhydrazones derived from megazol, which has potent trypanocidal activity. The trypanocidal activity of these triarylimidazole derivatives was evaluated against infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and the derivative 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1H,3H-2,4-biimidazol-3-ol showed moderate biological activity (IC50 = 23.9 µM) when compared to benznidazole, a standard trypanocidal drug. These compounds did not present cytotoxic effects at concentrations near the trypanocidal IC50, being considered a good starting point for the development of new anti-Chagas drug candidates.
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Thermoplastic starch/polyester films: effects of extrusion process and poly (lactic acid) addition.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Biodegradable films were produced using the blown extrusion method from blends that contained cassava thermoplastic starch (TPS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with two different extrusion processes. The choice of extrusion process did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) or viscoelasticity of the films, but the addition of PLA decreased the elongation, blow-up ratio (BUR) and opacity and increased the elastic modulus, tensile strength and viscoelastic parameters of the films. The films with 20% PLA exhibited a lower WVP due to the hydrophobic nature of this polymer. Morphological analyses revealed the incompatibility between the polymers used.
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Homocysteine causes disruptions in spinal cord morphology and changes the expression of Pax 1/9 and Sox 9 gene products in the axial mesenchyme.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Neural tube defects (NTD) involve disruptions in the axial mesenchyme, and are related to an imbalance between folic acid (FA) and homocysteine (Hcy). This study evaluated the effects of FA/Hcy imbalance on cell proliferation and expression of the Pax 1/9 and Sox 9 gene products in the axial mesenchyme of chickens.
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Catalytic dehydrogenative Si-N coupling of pyrroles, indoles, carbazoles as well as anilines with hydrosilanes without added base.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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A base-free, catalytic protocol for the dehydrogenative Si-N coupling of weakly nucleophilic N-H groups of heteroarenes or aryl-substituted amines with equimolar amounts of hydrosilanes is reported. Cooperative Si-H bond activation at a Ru-S bond generates a silicon electrophile that forms a Si-N bond prior to the N-H deprotonation by an intermediate Ru-H complex, only releasing H(2).
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The EndoPredict Gene-Expression Assay in Clinical Practice - Performance and Impact on Clinical Decisions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The validated EndoPredict assay is a novel tool to predict the risk of metastases of patients with estrogen receptor positive, HER2 negative breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy alone. It has been designed to integrate genomic and clinical information and includes clinico-pathological factors such as tumor size and nodal status. The test is feasible in a decentral setting in molecular pathology laboratories. In this project, we investigated the performance of this test in clinical practice, and performed a retrospective evaluation of its impact on treatment decisions in breast cancer. During one year, EndoPredict assays from 167 patients could be successfully performed. For retrospective evaluation of treatment decisions, a questionnaire was sent to the clinical partner. Regarding the molecular EP class, samples from 56 patients (33.5%) had a low-risk, whereas 111 patients (66.5%) showed a high-risk gene profile. After integration of the clinicopathological factors the combined clinical and molecular score (EPclin) resulted in a low-risk group of 77 patients (46.4%), while 89 (53.6%) had a high risk EPclin score. The EPclin-based estimated median 10-year-risk for metastases with endocrine therapy alone was 11% for the whole cohort. The median handling time averaged three days (range: 0 to 11 days), 59.3% of the tests could be performed in three or less than three days. Comparison of pre- and post-test therapy decisions showed a change of therapy in 37.7% of patients. 16 patients (12.3%) had a change to an additional chemotherapy while 25.4% of patients (n?=?33) changed to an endocrine therapy alone. In 73 patients (56.2%) no change of therapy resulted. In 6.1% of patients (n?=?8), the patients did not agree to the recommendation of the tumor board. Our results show that the EndoPredict assay could be routinely performed in decentral molecular pathology laboratories and the results markedly change treatment decisions.
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Sulfate supply influences compartment specific glutathione metabolism and confers enhanced resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus during a hypersensitive response.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Sufficient sulfate supply has been linked to the development of sulfur induced resistance or sulfur enhanced defense (SIR/SED) in plants. In this study we investigated the effects of sulfate (S) supply on the response of genetically resistant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Plants grown with sufficient sulfate (+S plants) developed significantly less necrotic lesions during a hypersensitive response (HR) when compared to plants grown without sulfate (-S plants). In +S plants reduced TMV accumulation was evident on the level of viral RNA. Enhanced virus resistance correlated with elevated levels of cysteine and glutathione and early induction of a Tau class glutathione S-transferase and a salicylic acid-binding catalase gene. These data indicate that the elevated antioxidant capacity of +S plants was able to reduce the effects of HR, leading to enhanced virus resistance. Expression of pathogenesis-related genes was also markedly up-regulated in +S plants after TMV-inoculation. On the subcellular level, comparison of TMV-inoculated +S and -S plants revealed that +S plants contained 55-132 % higher glutathione levels in mitochondria, chloroplasts, nuclei, peroxisomes and the cytosol than -S plants. Interestingly, mitochondria were the only organelles where TMV-inoculation resulted in a decrease of glutathione levels when compared to mock-inoculated plants. This was particularly obvious in -S plants, where the development of necrotic lesions was more pronounced. In summary, the overall higher antioxidative capacity and elevated activation of defense genes in +S plants indicate that sufficient sulfate supply enhances a preexisting plant defense reaction resulting in reduced symptom development and virus accumulation.
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Prediction of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: New Biomarker Approaches and Concepts.
Breast Care (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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SUMMARY: About 10-25% of breast cancer patients achieve a pathologically confirmed complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tissue samples of pretreatment core biopsies are a valuable resource for translational research aiming towards predictive biomarkers for selecting patients who are likely to benefit from neoadjuvant therapy. The German Breast Group (GBG) and the AGO-B Group (AGO = Working Group Gynecological Oncology) have extensive experience in conducting neoadjuvant clinical trials. Technologies as immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays and standardized reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approaches on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples allow high-throughput investigation of protein and mRNA biomarkers. With these approaches, we could demonstrate that molecular tumor subtypes and immunological infiltrates are valuable and independent predictors of therapy response. New biomarkers such as poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP) might be useful for the prediction of response to conventional and new targeted therapies. This review summarizes current research projects focusing on biomarker discovery in the neoadjuvant setting.
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Prenatal lead acetate exposure induces apoptosis and changes GFAP expression during spinal cord development.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Lead is an important heavy metal pollutant in the environment, and it induces neurodevelopmental toxicity, which is characterized by histological, ultrastructural, and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal acute lead exposure on apoptosis, GFAP expression, and lead deposition in the developing spinal cord. Chick embryos were exposed to 150?g or 450?g doses of lead acetate via yolk sac at E3 or E5 embryonic ages and incubated for six days. Lead deposition was observed in the ependymal cells, developing dorsal, and ventral horns, and in the white matter of all the exposed embryos. TUNEL-positive cells were found in all layers of the spinal cord of the control and treated embryos, and lead exposure resulted in a significant increase in the numerical density of the apoptotic cells. Control embryos showed intense GFAP expression in the ependymal cells of the roof and floor plates, and in the gray and white matters; whereas exposure to lead reduced GFAP reactivity. In ovo lead exposure induces apoptosis, and reduces GFAP expression in the nervous system of the chick embryos, which may cause impairments during neuronal development and consequences in childhood and adulthood.
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Projection structure of channelrhodopsin-2 at 6 Å resolution by electron crystallography.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is the prototype of a new class of light-gated ion channels that is finding widespread applications in optogenetics and biomedical research. We present a 6-Å projection map of ChR2, obtained by cryo-electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals grown from pure, heterologously expressed protein. The map shows that ChR2 is the same dimer with non-crystallographic 2-fold symmetry in three different membrane crystals. This is consistent with biochemical analysis, which shows a stable dimer in detergent solution. Comparison to the projection map to bacteriorhodopsin indicates a similar structure of seven transmembrane alpha helices. Based on the projection map and sequence alignments, we built a homology model of ChR2 that potentially accounts for light-induced channel gating. Although a monomeric channel is not ruled out, comparison to other membrane channels and transporters suggests that the ChR2 channel is located at the dimer interface on the 2-fold axis, lined by transmembrane helices 3 and 4.
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Androgen receptor expression in primary breast cancer and its predictive and prognostic value in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to be of potential prognostic importance in retrospective cohorts. We evaluated immunohistochemical AR expression on a tissue microarray of 673 core biopsies from primary breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) chemotherapy in the prospective GeparTrio phase-III trial. AR was detected in 53.2% of tumours. Lowest AR expression was detected in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) with 21.2%. Highest AR expression was observed in Luminal A-like tumours with 67%. In AR-positive tumours, pathological complete response (pCR) rate was 12.8% compared to 25.4% in AR-negative tumours (P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, AR independently predicted pCR (OR 1.86; 95% CI [1.16-2.79] P = 0.0086). Overall patients with an AR-positive tumour had a significant better disease-free (DFS) (AR-positive 78.9% vs. AR-negative 72.5%; log-rank P = 0.0329) and overall survival (OS) (88.8% vs. 82.7%; log-rank P = 0.0234) than those with AR-negative tumours. Stratified analysis revealed that in the TNBC subgroup, but not in the other subgroups defined by ER, PgR and HER2, AR expression predicted a better DFS (AR-positive 85.7% vs. AR-negative 65.5% log-rank P = 0.0544) and OS (95.2% vs. 76.2%; log-rank P = 0.0355). Within the non-pCR subgroup, AR positivity selected a group with a significant better DFS (P = 0.045) and OS (0.021) but not within the pCR group. Patients with an AR-negative tumour have a higher chance of achieving a pCR than those with an AR-positive one. But, patients with AR-positive tumours have a better survival especially if they did not achieve a pCR.
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Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Langau, Austria, 2010.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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We report on the first documented outbreak of leptospirosis in Austria. In July 2010, four cases of serologically confirmed leptospirosis occurred in athletes after a triathlon held in Langau. Heavy rains preceded the triathlon (rainfall: 22 mm). The index case (Patient A) was a 41-year-old previously healthy male, who was admitted to hospital A on July 8 with a four-day history of fever up to 40°C that began 14 days after attending the triathlon event. On July 7, patient B, a 42-year-old male, was admitted to the same hospital, with signs and symptoms of kidney failure. Hemodialysis was performed every other day for 3 weeks. While the serum drawn on the day of admission was negative for antibodies against Leptospira, a specimen from July 28 tested positive with Leptospira interrogans. On July 11, patient C, a 40-year-old male, was admitted to hospital B for nephritis. On July 14, patient D, a 44-year-old male, was admitted to hospital C with a ten days history of intermittent fever, mild dry cough and headache. Our report underlines that in Austria recreational users of bodies of freshwater must be aware of an existing risk of contracting leptospirosis, particularly after heavy rains. The suppressive influence of a triathlon on the immune system is well documented and therefore an outbreak in this population group can be seen as a sensitive indicator concerning possible risk for the general population.
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Comparative spatiotemporal analysis of root aerenchyma formation processes in maize due to sulphate, nitrate or phosphate deprivation.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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Nitrate (N), phosphate (P) or sulphate (S) deprivation causes aerenchyma formation in maize (Zea mays L.) nodal roots. The exact mechanisms that trigger the formation of aerenchyma under these circumstances are unclear. We have compared aerenchyma distribution across the nodal roots of first whorl (just emerging in 10-day-old seedlings), which were subject to S, N or P deprivation over a period of 10 days in connection with oxygen consumption, ATP concentration, cellulase and polygalacturonase activity in the whole root. The effect of deprivation on aerenchyma formation was examined using light and electron microscopy, along with in situ detection of calcium and of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence microscopy. Aerenchyma was not found in the root base regardless of the deprivation. Programmed cell death (PCD) was observed near the root tip, either within the first two days (-N) or a few days later (-S, -P) of the treatment. Roots at day 6 under all three nutrient-deprived conditions showed signs of PCD 1 cm behind the cap, whereas only N-deprived root cells 0.5 cm behind the cap showed severe ultrastructural alterations, due to advanced PCD. The lower ATP concentration and the higher oxygen consumptions observed at day 2 in N-, P- and S-deprived roots compared to the control indicated that PCD may be triggered by perturbations in energy status of the root. The peaks of cellulase activity located between days 3 (-N) and 6 (-P), along with the respective alterations in polygalacturonase activity, indicated a coordination which preceded aerenchyma formation. ROS and calcium seemed to contribute to PCD initiation, with ROS possessing dual roles as signals and eliminators. All the examined parameters presented both common features and characteristic variations among the deprivations.
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Synthesis and antitubercular activity of new L-serinyl hydrazone derivatives.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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A series of 32 L-serinyl hydrazone derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, being also evaluated their cell viabilities in non infected and infected macrophages with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The compounds 8c, 8e, 8h and 8i, were non-cytotoxic and exhibited an important minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) activity between 25 and 100 ?g/mL, which can be compared with that of the tuberculostatic drug D-cicloserine (5-20 ?g/mL).
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Cytoplasmic poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase expression is predictive and prognostic in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays a key role in DNA repair and cellular stress response. Inhibitors of PARP show promising clinical activity in metastatic, triple-negative or BRCA-mutated breast cancer.
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Genome-wide gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer core biopsies using microarrays.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The routine workflow for invasive cancer diagnostics includes biopsy processing by formalin fixation and paraffin embedding. It has been shown only recently that this kind of sample can be used for gene expression analysis with microarrays. To support this view, the authors conducted a microarray study using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) core needle biopsies from breast cancers. Typically, for the 3-biased chip type that was used, the probe sets interrogate sequences near the poly-A-tail of the transcripts, and this kind of probe turned out to be suitable to measure RNA levels in FFPE biopsies. For ER and HER2, the authors observed strong correlations between RNA levels and protein expression (p = 0.000003 and p = 0.0022). ER and HER2 classification of the biopsies by the RNA levels was feasible with high sensitivity and specificity (AUROC = 0.93 and AUROC = 0.96). Furthermore, a signature of 346 genes was identified that correlated with ER and a signature of 528 genes that correlated with HER2 protein status. Many of these genes (ER: 63%) could be confirmed by analysis of gene expression data from frozen tissues. The findings support the notion that clinically relevant information can be gained from microarray analyses of FFPE cancer biopsies. This opens new opportunities for biomarker detection studies and the integration of microarrays into the workflow of cancer diagnostics.
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Quantitative determination of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 mRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue--a new option for predictive biomarker assessment in breast cancer.
Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The development of optimized therapy strategies against malignant tumors is critically dependent on the assessment of tissue-based biomarkers in routine diagnostic tissue samples. We investigated a novel, fully automated, and xylene-free method for RNA isolation and biomarker determination using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The aim was to show that this approach is feasible and gives results that are comparable to the current gold standards. Expression of the breast cancer biomarkers ESR1, PGR, and HER2 was measured in a total of 501 FFPE tissue samples from 167 breast carcinomas, which had been stored for up to 21 years. Total RNA was extracted from tissue sections and biomarker expression was measured by kinetic RT-PCR (RT-kPCR). The results of the new method were compared with immunohistochemistry as the current gold standard.RNA was successfully isolated from all samples, with a mean yield of 1.4 ?g/sample and fragment lengths of at least 150 bp in 99% of samples. RT-kPCR analysis of ESR1, PGR, and HER2 was possible in all samples. Comparing RT-kPCR results with standard IHC, we found a good concordance for ESR1 (agreement: 98.4%), PGR (84.4%), and HER2 (89.8%). We observed a low section-to-section variability of kPCR results for all 3 biomarkers (root of mean squared errors: 0.2 to 0.5 Ct values). The new approach is a reliable high-throughput instrument for standardized testing of biomarkers in clinical routine and for research studies on archived FFPE material up to 21 years old. For the assessment of ESR1, PGR, and HER2 the results are comparable to the current gold-standard.
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Enhanced glutathione metabolism is correlated with sulfur-induced resistance in Tobacco mosaic virus-infected genetically susceptible Nicotiana tabacum plants.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Sulfur-induced resistance, also known as sulfur-enhanced defense (SIR/SED) was investigated in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun nn during compatible interaction with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in correlation with glutathione metabolism. To evaluate the influence of sulfur nutritional status on virus infection, tobacco plants were treated with nutrient solutions containing either sufficient sulfate (+S) or no sulfate (-S). Sufficient sulfate supply resulted in a suppressed and delayed symptom development and diminished virus accumulation over a period of 14 days after inoculation as compared with -S conditions. Expression of the defense marker gene PR-1a was markedly upregulated in sulfate-treated plants during the first day after TMV inoculation. The occurrence of SIR/SED correlated with a higher level of activity of sulfate assimilation, cysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plants treated with sulfate. Additionally, two key genes involved in cysteine and glutathione biosynthesis (encoding adenosine 5-phosphosulfate reductase and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase, respectively) were upregulated within the first day after TMV inoculation under +S conditions. Sulfate withdrawal from the soil was accelerated at the beginning of the infection, whereas it declined in the long term, leading to an accumulation of sulfur in the soil of plants grown with sulfate. This observation could be correlated with a decrease in sulfur contents in TMV-infected leaves in the long term. In summary, this is the first study that demonstrates a link between the activation of cysteine and glutathione metabolism and the induction of SIR/SED during a compatible plant-virus interaction in tobacco plants, indicating a general mechanism behind SIR/SED.
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[Influenza-vaccinated and non-vaccinated elderly: reported morbidity and sociodemographic aspects, Porto Alegre (RS, Brazil), 2004].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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This descriptive transversal epidemiological study had the objective of comparing the elderly population who took the influenza vaccine and who did not regarding the occurrence of events of diseases or hospital admittances within three months after the vaccination. It was not possible to work with probable sampling and the attempt of pairing the vaccinated and non-vaccinated elderly was not successful due to the high vaccine coverage observed (73% of the target population) and due to the short time available to make the interviews. The result of the descriptive analysis of the 1,130 elderly interviewed was quite interesting even not being possible to infer it regarding the universe of the elderly population from Porto Alegre. We found a higher proportion of vaccinated people in the age group of 70 to 79 years old (42%), and a prevalence of non-vaccinated among the age group of 60 to 64 years old (40%). The vaccinated elderly were mostly older; female, who have private health care insurance; with higher income; that perform physical activities and non-smokers. The non-vaccinated were mostly men; younger; with lower income; that do not perform physical exercises; and smoke. A lower percentage of pneumonias reports and hospital admittances was observed among the vaccinated in comparison to the non-vaccinated people.
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[Epidemiologic profile and level of knowledge among diabetic patients about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy].
Arq Bras Oftalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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To assess the epidemiologic profile and level of knowledge of diabetic patients about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR).
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Staphylococcal peptidoglycan co-localizes with Nod2 and TLR2 and activates innate immune response via both receptors in primary murine keratinocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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In mammalian host cells staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by Nod2. Whether PGN is also recognized by TLR2 is disputed. Here we carried out PGN co-localization and stimulation studies with TLR2 and Nod2 in wild type and mutant host cells. To exclude contamination with lipoproteins, polymeric staphylococcal PGN (PGN(pol)) was isolated from Staphylococcus aureus ?lgt (lacking lipidated prelipoproteins). PGN(pol) was biotinylated (PGN-Bio) for fluorescence monitoring with specific antibodies. Keratinocytes from murine oral epithelium (MK) readily internalized PGN-Bio in an endocytosis-like process. In wt MK, PGN(pol) induced intracellular accumulation of Nod2 and TLR2 and co-localized with Nod2 and TLR2, but not with TLR4. In TLR2-deficient MK Nod2 and in Nod2-deficient MK TLR2 was induced, indicating that PGN(pol) recognition by Nod2 is independent of TLR2 and vice versa. In both mutants IL-6 and IL-1B release was decreased by approximately 50% compared to wt MK, suggesting that the immune responses induced by Nod2 and TLR2 are comparable and that the two receptors act additively in MK. In TLR2-transfected HEK293 cells PGN(pol) induced NFkB-promoter fused luciferase expression. To support the data, co-localization and signaling studies were carried out with SHL-PGN, a lipase protein covalently tethered to PGN-fragments of varying sizes at its C-terminus. SHL-PGN also co-localized with Nod2 or TLR2 and induced their accumulation, while SHL without PGN did not. The results show that staphylococcal PGN not only co-localizes with Nod2 but also with TLR2. PGN is able to stimulate the immune system via both receptors.
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Expression of classical NF-kappaB pathway effectors in human ovarian carcinoma.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Functional studies have demonstrated that nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB promotes tumour progression in ovarian cancer cells. However, surprisingly little is known of the expression of effectors of the NF-kappaB pathway in human ovarian cancer in vivo.
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[Psychometric properties of Q-DIO, an instrument to measure the quality of documented nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes].
Pflege
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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The instrument Q-DIO was developed in the years 2005 till 2006 to measure the quality of documented nursing diagnoses, interventions, and nursing sensitive patient outcomes. Testing psychometric properties of the Q-DIO (Quality of nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes.) was the study aim. Instrument testing included internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, item analyses, and an assessment of the objectivity. To render variation in scores, a random strata sample of 60 nursing documentations was drawn. The strata represented 30 nursing documentations with and 30 without application of theory based, standardised nursing language. Internal consistency of the subscale nursing diagnoses as process showed Cronbachs Alpha 0.83 [0.78, 0.88]; nursing diagnoses as product 0.98 [0.94, 0.99]; nursing interventions 0.90 [0.85, 0.94]; and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes 0.99 [0.95, 0.99]. With Cohens Kappa of 0.95, the intrarater reliability was good. The interrater reliability showed a Kappa of 0.94 [0.90, 0.96]. Item analyses confirmed the fulfilment of criteria for degree of difficulty and discriminative validity of the items. In this study, Q-DIO has shown to be a reliable instrument. It allows measuring the documented quality of nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes with and without implementation of theory based, standardised nursing languages. Studies for further testing of Q-DIO in other settings are recommended. The results implicitly support the use of nursing classifications such as NANDA, NIC and NOC.
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Effects of inorganic selenium administration in methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in mouse cerebral cortex.
Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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Selenium can counteract methylmercury (MeHg) neurotoxicity. However, data about the neuroprotective effects of sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3)) on the activity of mitochondrial complexes and creatine kinase (mtCK) are scarce. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the chronic exposure to Na(2)SeO(3) on brain energy metabolism and oxidative stress parameters in MeHg-poisoned mice. Adult male mice were orally treated with MeHg (40 mg L(-1) in drinking water, ad libitum) during 21 days and simultaneously administrated with daily subcutaneous injections of Na(2)SeO(3) (5 ?mol kg(-1)), a potential neuroprotectant. Mitochondrial complexes I to IV and mtCK activities were measured in cerebral cortex mitochondria. The cerebro-cortical tissue was also used to evaluate the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation. Metal deposition was followed autometalographically (AMG). Na(2)SeO(3) partially prevented MeHg-induced inhibition of complexes II-III, IV and mtCK activities; however, it was unable to prevent MeHg-induced complex I and II inhibition. MeHg increased lipid peroxidation, GR activity and decreased GPx activity in the cerebral cortex; however, Na(2)SeO(3) did not modify such events. Furthermore, Na(2)SeO(3)per se inhibited complexes I, II-III and IV and mtCK activities and increased GPx and GR activities and lipid peroxidation. These data show that inorganic selenium was ineffective in preventing most of the MeHg-induced brain biochemical alterations. However, the most prominent finding was the selenium-induced reduction of cells labelled for metal deposition. Although, the literature supports the beneficial effects of selenium against mercury toxicity, the toxic effects elicited by Na(2)SeO(3), alone or in combination with mercury, should be considered when this compound is proposed as a potential protective therapy for MeHg poisoning.
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Down-regulation of the antigen processing machinery is linked to a loss of inflammatory response in colorectal cancer.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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Antitumor inflammatory response is known to inhibit tumor growth in colorectal carcinoma. The density and functionality of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is regulated by the antigen processing machinery through regulator proteins such as transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen. We aimed to investigate the in vivo association of those factors and their impact on prognosis in colorectal cancer. TAP1, TAP2 and MHC class I antigen expression, inflammatory infiltrate and TIL (CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD20(+)) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 336 sporadic colorectal carcinomas. The factors were correlated with each other and with clinic-pathological parameters and patient outcome. We found TAP1 and TAP2 expression to be significantly associated with MHC class I antigen expression (TAP1: r = 0.363, P < .001; TAP2: r = 0.393, P < .001). Increased density of CD8(+) TIL was predominantly found in TAP1, TAP2 and MHC class I antigen-positive cases. Increased density of CD4(+) TIL was linked with TAP1 and TAP2, but not with MHC class I antigen. High CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell count but not TAP1, TAP2 and MHC class I antigen expression had favorable prognostic impact in colorectal cancer (P = .003 and P = .003, respectively). In conclusion, our data show that the expression of key components of the antigen processing machinery is tightly linked to the density of TIL, which are positive prognostic factors in colorectal cancer in vivo. This implies that modulation of these factors may help to enhance antitumor inflammatory response which in turn may improve patient prognosis.
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Acute exposure of rabbits to diphenyl diselenide: a toxicological evaluation.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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The simple organoselenium compound diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2) is a promising new pharmacological agent. However, few toxicological evaluations of this molecule have been reported. We evaluated the effects of acute administration of (PhSe)(2) on toxicological parameters in rabbits. Adult New Zealand rabbits were exposed to (PhSe)(2) (5-500?micromol?kg(-1) , intraperitoneally) once a day for 5 days. Exposure to 500?micromol?kg(-1) caused 85% mortality. Exposure to 50?micromol?kg(-1) of (PhSe)(2) increased the glutathione levels in the hippocampus, kidney, heart, muscle and blood, whereas lipoperoxidation (TBARS) decreased in the cerebellum and kidney after exposure to 5?micromol?kg(-1) . The activity of glutathione peroxidase increased in the heart and muscle of rabbits treated with 50?micromol?kg(-1) of (PhSe)(2) and glutathione reductase activity was reduced in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and kidney. Treatment with (PhSe)(2) reduced the activity of ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase in the hippocampus and increased this activity in the heart, but did not alter the activity of complexes I and II of the respiratory chain in the liver and brain. Hepatic and renal biochemical and histological parameters were not modified by (PhSe)(2) and apoptosis was not detected in these tissues; however, the hepatic cells tended to accumulate fat vacuoles. These results indicated that acute toxicology to (PhSe)(2) in rabbit is dependent on the dose, which should motivate further experiments on the therapeutic properties of this compound.
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Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plants.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana). Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer which is involved in many metabolic processes including plant defense. Thus information on the subcellular distribution in these model plants especially during stress situations provides a deeper insight into compartment specific defense reactions and reflects the occurrence of compartment specific oxidative stress. With immunogold cytochemistry and computer-supported transmission electron microscopy glutathione could be localized in highest contents in mitochondria, followed by nuclei, peroxisomes, the cytosol, and plastids. Within chloroplasts and mitochondria, glutathione was restricted to the stroma and matrix, respectively, and did not occur in the lumen of cristae and thylakoids. Glutathione was also found at the membrane and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. It was also associated with the trans and cis side of dictyosomes. None or only very little glutathione was detected in vacuoles and the apoplast of mesophyll and root cells. Additionally, glutathione was found in all cell compartments of phloem vessels, vascular parenchyma cells (including vacuoles) but was absent in xylem vessels. The specificity of this method was supported by the reduction of glutathione labeling in all cell compartments (up to 98%) of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana rml1 mutant. Additionally, we found a similar distribution of glutathione in samples after conventional fixation and rapid microwave-supported fixation. Thus, indicating that a redistribution of glutathione does not occur during sample preparation. Summing up, this study gives a detailed insight into the subcellular distribution of glutathione in plants and presents solid evidence for the accuracy and specificity of the applied method.
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Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earths surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm(-2) UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of the embryonic cells, leading to oxidative stress. Our combined morphological and biochemical analyses revealed important effects induced by UV-B on M. olfersi embryos, and the results suggest that the recent changes in global conditions may have injurious effects, at least on the embryos of freshwater prawns.
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Leadership in nursing: analysis of the process of choosing the heads.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The process of choosing heads can be strategic to achieve desired results in nursing care. This study presents an exploratory and descriptive research that aims to analyze the process of choosing heads for the ward, in the nursing area of a teaching hospital in Porto Alegre. Data was collected from registered nurses, technicians and nursing auxiliaries through a semi-structured interview technique and free choice of words. Three theme categories emerged from content analysis: process of choosing heads, managerial competences of the head-to-be and team articulation. Leadership was the word most frequently associated with the process of choosing heads. The consultation process for the choice of the leader also contributes to the success of the manager, as it makes the team members feel co-responsible for the results achieved and legitimizes the head-to-be in their group.
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Tumor-associated lymphocytes as an independent predictor of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2009
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PURPOSE Preclinical data suggest a contribution of the immune system to chemotherapy response. In this study, we investigated the prespecified hypothesis that the presence of a lymphocytic infiltrate in cancer tissue predicts the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS We investigated intratumoral and stromal lymphocytes in a total of 1,058 pretherapeutic breast cancer core biopsies from two neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane-based studies (GeparDuo, n = 218, training cohort; and GeparTrio, n = 840, validation cohort). Molecular parameters of lymphocyte recruitment and activation were evaluated by kinetic polymerase chain reaction in 134 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Results In a multivariate regression analysis including all known predictive clinicopathologic factors, the percentage of intratumoral lymphocytes was a significant independent parameter for pathologic complete response (pCR) in both cohorts (training cohort: P = .012; validation cohort: P = .001). Lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer responded, with pCR rates of 42% (training cohort) and 40% (validation cohort). In contrast, those tumors without any infiltrating lymphocytes had pCR rates of 3% (training cohort) and 7% (validation cohort). The expression of inflammatory marker genes and proteins was linked to the histopathologic infiltrate, and logistic regression showed a significant association of the T-cell-related markers CD3D and CXCL9 with pCR. CONCLUSION The presence of tumor-associated lymphocytes in breast cancer is a new independent predictor of response to anthracycline/taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy and provides useful information for oncologists to identify a subgroup of patients with a high benefit from this type of chemotherapy.
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[Punitive written warnings issued by nursing services managers].
Rev Gaucha Enferm
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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This survey aims at analyzing the reasons that generated punitive written warnings from a university hospital of Nursing Services in the period 2001 to 2006 involving different managers. This is an exploratory and descriptive study with quantitative approach. The data were categorized into 4 distinct groups, those being: errors of medicines, disciplinary problems, ethical and technical failures. Among the problems identified 236 disciplinary incidents were the most (46%), the medication errors accounted for 28%, ethical issues and 11% technical failure 11%. There were not statistically significant changes or trends identified over the years or between different departments of nursing. It is suggested it should be studied the interference through the use of appropriate tools to manage the performance of managers.
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[Construction and implementation of two quality indicators in nursing services].
Rev Gaucha Enferm
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Indicators monitor the quality of services and improve the attention offered to the patients. Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, has been developing strategies to assess its services according to its institutional management policy of quality The present study aims to report the experience at this university hospital with the construction and implementation of quality indicators in its nursing services. In 2006, four indicators were established: incidence of pressure ulcer, with a goal of < or = 10:1000 patients per day/month and incidence of falls from bed whose goal was established as < or = 2:1000 patients per day/month. Our challenge was to build and implement these indicators as management tools to assess the quality of nursing services, for this is a large hospital.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor C mRNA expression is a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer as detected by kinetic RT-PCR in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is a well described chemotactic and growth factor for lymphatic endothelial cells. Its inhibition leads to suppression of lymphatic and distant metastases in mouse models. In ovarian cancer, the relationship between VEGF-C expression and tumor behavior has not yet been determined by a quantitative method in vivo. Therefore, we used a new technique of RNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples and determined the expression levels of VEGF-C mRNA in a study group of 97 ovarian cancer patients. Expression levels were correlated with clinicopathological features and patient survival. High VEGF-C expression was associated with worse overall (p = 0.0393) and progression-free (p = 0.0155) patient survival. In the subgroups of serous tumors and high-grade tumors, VEGF-C mRNA was still a negative indicator for patient survival (p = 0.0190 and 0.0311, respectively). A trend was observed among patients with high clinical stage (p = 0.0634). In multivariate survival analysis VEGF-C mRNA retained its prognostic influence on progression-free survival (p = 0.006, HR = 0.319 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.142-0.720). High VEGF-C expression was further associated with an increased residual tumor mass after primary cytoreductive surgery. We found no correlation of VEGF-C expression with tumor grade, FIGO stage, lymph node, or distant metastases. Our study demonstrates that high VEGF-C expression is associated with aggressive tumor behavior in ovarian cancer. mRNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor samples is suitable for VEGF-C gene expression studies.
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Effects of folic acid and homocysteine on spinal cord morphology of the chicken embryo.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Maternal ingestion of folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defects, which are associated with high homocysteine levels. Present study evaluated the effects of FA and homocysteine on cell proliferation and cell adhesion, as well as on apoptosis, throughout the development of the spinal cord and mesenchyme of chicken embryos. Normal closure of the neural tube and a regular distribution of the mesenchymal cells were observed in control and FA-treated embryos. All homocysteine-treated embryos and also 6 of 10 embryos treated with FA+homocysteine showed failure of closure of the neural tube. Homocysteine decreased the thickness of the mantle and marginal layers of the spinal cord, and FA did not prevent this effect. FA treatment reversed the decrease of proliferating cells in the spinal cord induced by homocysteine. FA-treated embryos showed the highest numerical density of apoptotic cells. Homocysteine treatment reduced NCAM expression in both spinal cord and mesenchymal tissue, and FA prevents this effect. These results are important because they demonstrate in situ that the imbalance between FA and homocysteine levels can lead to disruptions in spinal cord development, changing proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and consequently changing the arrangement of the spinal cord layers.
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Preparing nurses to use standardized nursing language in the electronic health record.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Research demonstrated nurses education needs to be able to document nursing diagnoses, interventions and patient outcomes in the EHR. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Guided Clinical Reasoning, a learning method to foster nurses abilities in using standardized language. In a cluster randomized experimental study, nurses from 3 wards received Guided Clinical Reasoning (GCR), a learning method to foster nurses in stating nursing diagnoses, related interventions and outcomes. Three wards, receiving Classic Case Discussions, functioned as control group. The learning effect was measured by assessing the quality of 225 nursing documentations by applying 18 Likert-type items with a 0-4 scale of the measurement instrument "Quality of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes" (Q-DIO). T-tests were applied to analyze pre-post intervention scores. GCR led to significantly higher quality of nursing diagnosis documentation; to etiology-specific nursing interventions and to enhanced nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Before GCR, the pre-intervention mean in quality of nursing documentation was = 2.69 (post-intervention = 3.70; p<.0001). Similar results were found for nursing interventions and outcomes. In the control group, the quality remained unchanged. GCR supported nurses abilities to state accurate nursing diagnoses, to select effective nursing interventions and to reach enhanced patient outcomes. Nursing diagnoses (NANDA-I) with related interventions and patient outcomes provide a knowledgebase for nurses to use standardized language in the EHR.
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[Studies about use and application of nursing classifications].
Pflege Z
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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Many nurses are not well educated in the use of nursing classifications. Shortcomings in application of nursing diagnoses and missing coherence with nursing interventions and outcomes were described in various studies. The following studies aimed to analyse the effects of implementing nursing diagnoses on nursing interventions and outcomes.
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[Planning human resources in nursing: challenge for the leadership].
Rev Bras Enferm
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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This study proposes an essay of issues involving human resources planning in nursing in the hospital sector in our current reality, discussing possible topics for future research. This is a retrospective of the evolution of research on determining the number of staff in Brazil, and the incorporation of new instruments to evaluate the work load based on the degree of dependency of the patients and actions in care. The impact of the quantity and quality of human resources on the results of care is discussed, and the role of leaders in adapting the staff composition, in order to supply safe, risk-free care to the patients and their families, seeking a management model for health practices from the perspective of complex care.
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High class I HDAC activity and expression are associated with RelA/p65 activation in pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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The strong association between aberrant HDAC activity and the occurrence of cancer has led to the development of a variety of HDAC inhibitors (HDIs), which emerge as promising new targeted anticancer therapeutics.
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Evaluation of the implementation of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes.
Int J Nurs Terminol Classif
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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This paper aims to provide insight into nursing classifications and to report the effects of nursing diagnostics implementation. This paper summarizes the results of six studies.
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Development of an instrument to measure the quality of documented nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes: the Q-DIO.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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This paper aims to report the development stages of an audit instrument to assess standardised nursing language. Because research-based instruments were not available, the instrument Quality of documentation of nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes (Q-DIO) was developed.
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Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.
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Successful use of mRNA-nucleofection for overexpression of interleukin-10 in murine monocytes/macrophages for anti-inflammatory therapy in a murine model of autoimmune myocarditis.
J Am Heart Assoc
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Overexpression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in murine CD11b(+) monocytes/macrophages via GMP-adapted mRNA-nucleofection was expected to improve clinical outcome and reduce adverse side effects in autoimmune myocarditis. This study represents the proof of principle for a novel anti-inflammatory therapy using overexpression of IL-10 in murine monocytes/macrophages by mRNA-nucleofection for the treatment of autoimmune myocarditis.
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?? T Lymphocytes Coordinate Eosinophil Influx during Allergic Responses.
Front Pharmacol
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Tissue eosinophil infiltration, which is a hallmark of allergic and helminthic diseases, is mainly coordinated by T lymphocytes, via the production of eosinophilotactic chemokines. Among T lymphocyte subsets, lymphocytes expressing ?? T cell receptor have been determined as a key factor for eosinophil accumulation via direct and indirect mechanisms. This knowledge is strongly supported by the fact that, in different experimental models of eosinophilic airway inflammation and helminth-induced Th2 lung inflammation, an evident tissue accumulation of ?? T lymphocytes is observed. In addition, the depletion of ?? T lymphocytes is correlated with the impairment of eosinophil accumulation in inflamed tissue. ?? T lymphocytes are non-conventional T lymphocytes, which comprise a minor T lymphocyte subset, mainly distributed in the tissue, and present crucial roles in innate and acquired immune responses. ?? T lymphocytes recognize several danger- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and stress antigens in a MHC-independent fashion and can provide rapid tissue-specific responses, via the production of a wide range of chemical mediators capable to modulate other cell populations. These mediators include chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines that attract eosinophils into the tissue by either direct recognition (such as IL-5, CCL11/eotaxin), or indirect mechanisms via the modulation of ?? T lymphocytes and macrophages (through the production of interferon-?, IL-4, and CCL2/Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1, for example). The present review presents an overview of how ?? T lymphocytes coordinate eosinophil accumulation in allergy, by focusing on their role in airway inflammation and by discussing the involvement of cytokines and chemokines in this phenomenon.
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[The social representations of the process of choosing leaders in the perspective of the nursing team].
Rev Esc Enferm USP
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This exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study was performed with the objective to analyze the social representation of the process of choosing leaders among nursing workers of a university hospital. The information was obtained through free word association and open interviews. For the purposes of this study, thematic content analysis was performed, guided by the Social Representations Theory. Through this focus the following category emerged: division of the nursing team - the input and output of the process of choosing leaders. The category consists of a crystallization of the social representation of the subject, anchored in elements related to leadership, impartiality, change, knowledge, trust and humanization. The idea of leadership is highlighted as inducing a movement in the division of the team as it is associated with the process of choosing leaders for an environment of communication, suitable for integrating the team and recognizing potential leaders.
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Diagnostic approach to interstitial pneumonias in a single centre: report on 88 cases.
Diagn Pathol
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Interstitial pneumonias (IP) cover a broad spectrum of diseases. Open lung biopsies reveal histological patterns and suggest possible diagnoses. Complete clinical records are necessary for final diagnoses. Especially idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) according to the ATS/ERS classification can only be diagnosed under these predictions. The aim of this study was to compare the results of histological evaluations with the final diagnosis after interdisciplinary case evaluation.
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West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States.
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Cross-cultural adaptation of the Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes (Q-DIO) instrument into Brazilian Portuguese.
Int J Nurs Knowl
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? To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes instrument into Brazilian Portuguese.
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Higher cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression in familial than in sporadic breast cancer.
Virchows Arch.
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Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) is a key element of the single-base excision pathway for repair of DNA single-strand breaks. To compare the cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) expression between familial (BRCA1, BRCA2, or non BRCA1/2) and sporadic breast cancer, we investigated 39 sporadic and 39 familial breast cancer cases. The two groups were matched for hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Additionally, they were matched by grading with a maximum difference of ±1 degree (e.g., G2 instead of G3). Cytoplasmic PARP (cPARP) expression was significantly higher in familial compared to sporadic breast cancer (P?=?0.008, chi-squared test for trends) and a high nuclear PARP expression (nPARP) was significantly more frequently observed in familial breast cancer (64 %) compared with sporadic breast cancer (36 %) (P?=?0.005, chi-squared test). The overall PARP expression was significantly higher in familial breast cancer (P?=?0.042, chi-squared test). In familial breast cancer, a combination of high cPARP and high nPARP expression is the most common (33 %), whereas in sporadic breast cancer, a combination of low cPARP and intermediate nPARP expression is the most common (39 %). Our results show that the overall PARP expression in familial breast cancer is higher than in sporadic breast cancer which might suggest they might respond better to treatment with PARP inhibitors.
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CrRLK1L receptor-like kinases: not just another brick in the wall.
Curr. Opin. Plant Biol.
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In plants, receptor-like kinases regulate many processes during reproductive and vegetative development. The Arabidopsis subfamily of Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinases (CrRLK1Ls) comprises 17 members with a putative extracellular carbohydrate-binding malectin-like domain. Only little is known about the functions of these proteins, although mutant analyses revealed a role during cell elongation, polarized growth, and fertilization. However, the molecular nature of the underlying signal transduction cascades remains largely unknown. CrRLK1L proteins are also involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. It is likely that carbohydrate-rich ligands transmit a signal, which could originate from cell wall components, an arriving pollen tube, or a pathogen attack. Thus, post-translational modifications could be crucial for CrRLK1L signal transduction and ligand binding.
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[The notion of task in focus groups].
Rev Gaucha Enferm
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The aim of this paper is to revisit the concept of task in light of Pichon-Riviéres referential and to discuss its application in research with focus groups. Focus groups are understood as a research technique which proposes to investigate a topic in depth, allowing the construction of new ideas and answers on the subject in focus. The presuppositions of operative groups were used to support the research practice with focus groups. In these, the notion of task has a key strategic position from which it seeks to intervene in society through dialogue and collective construction, unlike simple data collecting
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.