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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification and Expression of Acetylcholinesterase in Octopus vulgaris Arm Development and Regeneration: a Conserved Role for ACHE?
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) is a glycoprotein with a key role in terminating synaptic transmission in cholinergic neurons of both vertebrates and invertebrates. ACHE is also involved in the regulation of cell growth and morphogenesis during embryogenesis and regeneration acting through its non-cholinergic sites. The mollusk Octopus vulgaris provides a powerful model for investigating the mechanisms underlying tissue morphogenesis due to its high regenerative power. Here, we performed a comparative investigation of arm morphogenesis during adult arm regeneration and embryonic arm development which may provide insights on the conserved ACHE pathways. In this study, we cloned and characterized O. vulgaris ACHE, finding a single highly conserved ACHE hydrophobic variant, characterized by prototypical catalytic sites and a putative consensus region for a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor attachment at the COOH-terminus. We then show that its expression level is correlated to the stage of morphogenesis in both adult and embryonic arm. In particular, ACHE is localized in typical neuronal sites when adult-like arm morphology is established and in differentiating cell locations during the early stages of arm morphogenesis. This possibility is also supported by the presence in the ACHE sequence and model structure of both cholinergic and non-cholinergic sites. This study provides insights into ACHE conserved roles during processes of arm morphogenesis. In addition, our modeling study offers a solid basis for predicting the interaction of the ACHE domains with pharmacological blockers for in vivo investigations. We therefore suggest ACHE as a target for the regulation of tissue morphogenesis.
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Androgens affect muscle, motor neuron, and survival in a mouse model of SOD1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest the involvement of androgens in ALS pathogenesis, but the mechanism through which androgens modify the ALS phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that androgen ablation by surgical castration extends survival and disease duration of a transgenic mouse model of ALS expressing mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1-G93A). Furthermore, long-term treatment of orchiectomized hSOD1-G93A mice with nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid, worsened disease manifestations. ND treatment induced muscle fiber hypertrophy but caused motor neuron death. ND negatively affected survival, thereby dissociating skeletal muscle pathology from life span in this ALS mouse model. Interestingly, orchiectomy decreased androgen receptor levels in the spinal cord and muscle, whereas ND treatment had the opposite effect. Notably, stimulation with ND promoted the recruitment of endogenous androgen receptor into biochemical complexes that were insoluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, a finding consistent with protein aggregation. Overall, our results shed light on the role of androgens as modifiers of ALS pathogenesis via dysregulation of androgen receptor homeostasis.
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Androgen-dependent impairment of myogenesis in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disease caused by expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the androgen receptor (AR). SBMA is triggered by the interaction between polyQ-AR and its natural ligands, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). SBMA is characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle fasciculations, weakness, and atrophy. To test the hypothesis that the interaction between polyQ-AR and androgens exerts cell-autonomous toxicity in skeletal muscle, we characterized the process of myogenesis and polyQ-AR expression in DHT-treated satellite cells obtained from SBMA patients and age-matched healthy control subjects. Treatment with androgens increased the size and number of myonuclei in myotubes from control subjects, but not from SBMA patients. Myotubes from SBMA patients had a reduced number of nuclei, suggesting impaired myotube fusion and altered contractile structures. The lack of anabolic effects of androgens on myotubes from SBMA patients was not due to defects in myoblast proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. DHT treatment of myotubes from SBMA patients increased nuclear accumulation of polyQ-AR and decreased the expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) when compared to myotubes from control subjects. Following DHT treatment, exposure of myotubes from SBMA patients with IL-4 treatment rescued myonuclear number and size to control levels. This supports the hypothesis that androgens alter the fusion process in SBMA myogenesis. In conclusion, these results provide evidence of an androgen-dependent impairment of myogenesis in SBMA that could contribute to disease pathogenesis.
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New routes to therapy for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedys disease, is a genetically inherited neuromuscular disorder characterized by loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord and skeletal muscle fasciculation, weakness, and atrophy. SBMA is caused by expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the gene coding for the androgen receptor (AR). PolyQ expansions cause at least eight other neurological disorders, which are collectively known as polyQ diseases. SBMA is unique in the family of polyQ diseases in that the disease manifests fully in male individuals only. The sex specificity of SBMA is the result of the interaction between mutant AR and its natural ligand, testosterone. Here, we will discuss emerging therapeutic perspectives for SBMA in light of recent findings regarding disease pathogenesis.
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Differential autophagy power in the spinal cord and muscle of transgenic ALS mice.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motoneuron disease characterized by misfolded proteins aggregation in affected motoneurons. In mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) ALS models, aggregation correlates to impaired functions of proteasome and/or autophagy, both essential for the intracellular chaperone-mediated protein quality control (PQC), and to a reduced mutSOD1 clearance from motoneurons. Skeletal muscle cells are also sensitive to mutSOD1 toxicity, but no mutSOD1 aggregates are formed in these cells, that might better manage mutSOD1 than motoneurons. Thus, we analyzed in spinal cord and in muscle of transgenic (tg) G93A-SOD1 mice at presymptomatic (PS, 8 weeks) and symptomatic (S, 16 weeks) stages, and in age-matched control mice, whether mutSOD1 differentially modulates relevant PQC players, such as HSPB8, BAG3, and BAG1. Possible sex differences were also considered. No changes of HSPB8, BAG3, and BAG1 at PS stage (8 weeks) were seen in all tissues examined in tg G93A-SOD1 and control mice. At S stage (16 weeks), HSPB8 dramatically increased in skeletal muscle of tg G93A-SOD1 mice, while a minor increase occurred in spinal cord of male, but not female tg G93A-SOD1 mice. BAG3 expression increased both in muscle and spinal cord of tg G93A-SOD1 mice at S stage, BAG1 expression increased only in muscle of the same mice. Since, HSPB8-BAG3 complex assists mutSOD1 autophagic removal, we analyzed two well-known autophagic markers, LC3 and p62. Both LC3 and p62 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in skeletal muscle of tg G93A-SOD1 mice at S stage (16 weeks). This suggests that mutSOD1 expression induces a robust autophagic response specifically in muscle. Together these results demonstrate that, in muscle mutSOD1-induced autophagic response is much higher than in spinal cord. In addition, if mutSOD1 exerts toxicity in muscle, this may not be mediated by misfolded proteins accumulation. It remains unclear whether in muscle mutSOD1 toxicity is related to aberrant autophagy activation.
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Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and 8 interact with FUS to modify its sub-cellular distribution and toxicity in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late onset and progressive motor neuron disease. Mutations in the gene coding for fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS) are responsible for some cases of both familial and sporadic forms of ALS. The mechanism through which mutations of FUS result in motor neuron degeneration and loss is not known. FUS belongs to the family of TET proteins, which are regulated at the post-translational level by arginine methylation. Here, we investigated the impact of arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of FUS-related ALS. We found that wild type FUS (FUS-WT) specifically interacts with protein arginine methyltransferases 1 and 8 (PRMT1 and PRMT8) and undergoes asymmetric dimethylation in cultured cells. ALS-causing FUS mutants retained the ability to interact with both PRMT1 and PRMT8 and undergo asymmetric dimethylation similar to FUS-WT. Importantly, PRMT1 and PRMT8 localized to mutant FUS-positive inclusion bodies. Pharmacologic inhibition of PRMT1 and PRMT8 activity reduced both the nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of FUS-WT and ALS-associated FUS mutants in motor neuron-derived cells and in cells obtained from an ALS patient carrying the R518G mutation. Genetic ablation of the fly homologue of human PRMT1 (DART1) exacerbated the neurodegeneration induced by overexpression of FUS-WT and R521H FUS mutant in a Drosophila model of FUS-related ALS. These results support a role for arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of FUS-related ALS.
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Cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous toxicity in polyglutamine diseases.
Prog. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Polyglutamine diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of polyglutamine tracts in the coding regions of specific genes. One of the most important features of polyglutamine diseases is that, despite the widespread and in some cases ubiquitous expression of the polyglutamine proteins, specific populations of neurons degenerate in each disease. This finding has led to the idea that polyglutamine diseases are cell-autonomous diseases, in which selective neuronal dysfunction and death result from damage caused by the mutant protein within the targeted neuronal population itself. Development of animal models for conditional expression of polyglutamine proteins, along with new pharmacologic manipulation of polyglutamine protein expression and toxicity, has led to a remarkable change of the current view of polyglutamine diseases as cell-autonomous disorders. It is becoming evident that toxicity in the neighboring non-neuronal cells contributes to selective neuronal damage. This observation implies non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration in polyglutamine diseases. Here, we describe cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of polyglutamine disease pathogenesis, including toxicity in neurons, skeletal muscle, glia, germinal cells, and other cell types.
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Neurotoxic effects of androgens in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
Front Neuroendocrinol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Expansion of polyglutamine tracts in nine different genes causes selective neuronal degeneration through unknown mechanisms. Expansion of polyglutamine in the androgen receptor is responsible for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. A unique feature of SBMA in the family of polyglutamine diseases is sex specificity. SBMA fully manifests only in males. SBMA is a disease triggered by the binding of polyglutamine androgen receptor to its natural ligand testosterone. Recent evidence has emerged showing that the expanded polyglutamine tract itself is not the only determinant of disease pathogenesis. There is evidence that both the native structure and function of the disease protein strongly influence the pathogenicity of mutant protein. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of disease pathogenesis and advancements towards development of potential therapeutic strategies for SBMA.
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Native functions of the androgen receptor are essential to pathogenesis in a Drosophila model of spinobulbar muscular atrophy.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR). This mutation confers toxic function to AR through unknown mechanisms. Mutant AR toxicity requires binding of its hormone ligand, suggesting that pathogenesis involves ligand-induced changes in AR. However, whether toxicity is mediated by native AR function or a novel AR function is unknown. We systematically investigated events downstream of ligand-dependent AR activation in a Drosophila model of SBMA. We show that nuclear translocation of AR is necessary, but not sufficient, for toxicity and that DNA binding by AR is necessary for toxicity. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that a functional AF-2 domain is essential for toxicity, a finding corroborated by a genetic screen that identified AF-2 interactors as dominant modifiers of degeneration. These findings indicate that SBMA pathogenesis is mediated by misappropriation of native protein function, a mechanism that may apply broadly to polyglutamine diseases.
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B2 attenuates polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor toxicity in cell and fly models of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Expanded polyglutamine tracts cause neurodegeneration through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism. Generation of inclusions is a common feature of polyglutamine diseases and other protein misfolding disorders. Inclusion formation is likely to be a defensive response of the cell to the presence of unfolded protein. Recently, the compound B2 has been shown to increase inclusion formation and decrease toxicity of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin in cultured cells. We explored the effect of B2 on spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). SBMA is caused by expansion of polyglutamine in the androgen receptor (AR) and is characterized by the loss of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. We found that B2 increases the deposition of mutant AR into nuclear inclusions, without altering the ligand-induced aggregation, expression, or subcellular distribution of the mutant protein. The effect of B2 on inclusions was associated with a decrease in AR transactivation function. We show that B2 reduces mutant AR toxicity in cell and fly models of SBMA, further supporting the idea that accumulation of polyglutamine-expanded protein into inclusions is protective. Our findings suggest B2 as a novel approach to therapy for SBMA.
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Post-translational modifications of expanded polyglutamine proteins: impact on neurotoxicity.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Polyglutamine diseases are a family of nine neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion in different genes of a CAG triplet repeat stretch, which encodes an elongated polyglutamine tract. This polyglutamine tract is thought to confer a toxic gain of function to the bearing proteins, which leads to late onset and progressive loss of neurons in specific regions of the central nervous system. The mechanisms underlying specificity for neuronal vulnerability remain enigmatic. One explanation is that the polyglutamine tract is not the only determinant of neurodegeneration and that protein context and post-translational events may also be crucial for pathogenesis. Here, we review how post-translational modifications of the polyglutamine proteins contribute to modulate neurotoxicity.
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Mitochondrial abnormalities in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion mutation in the androgen receptor (AR). We investigated whether the mutant protein alters mitochondrial function. We found that constitutive and doxycycline-induced expression of the mutant AR in MN-1 and PC12 cells, respectively, are associated with depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. This was mitigated by cyclosporine A, which inhibits opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. We also found that the expression of the mutant protein in the presence of ligand results in an elevated level of reactive oxygen species, which is blocked by the treatment with the antioxidants co-enzyme Q10 and idebenone. The mutant protein in MN-1 cells also resulted in increased Bax, caspase 9 and caspase 3. We assessed the effects of mutant AR on the transcription of mitochondrial proteins and found altered expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 and the mitochondrial specific antioxidant superoxide dismutase-2 in affected tissues of SBMA knock-in mice. In addition, we found that the AR associates with mitochondria in cultured cells. This study thus provides evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in SBMA cell and animal models, either through indirect effects on the transcription of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes or through direct effects of the mutant protein on mitochondria or both. These findings indicate possible benefit from mitochondrial therapy for SBMA.
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Overexpression of IGF-1 in muscle attenuates disease in a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR) causes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). We previously showed that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of AR reduces ligand binding and attenuates the mutant AR toxicity. Here, we show that in culture insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) reduces AR aggregation and increases AR clearance via the ubiquitin-proteasome system through phosphorylation of AR by Akt. In vivo, SBMA transgenic mice overexpressing a muscle-specific isoform of IGF-1 selectively in skeletal muscle show evidence of increased Akt activation and AR phosphorylation and decreased AR aggregation. Augmentation of IGF-1/Akt signaling rescues behavioral and histopathological abnormalities, extends the life span, and reduces both muscle and spinal cord pathology of SBMA mice. This study establishes IGF-1/Akt-mediated inactivation of mutant AR as a strategy to counteract disease in vivo and demonstrates that skeletal muscle is a viable target tissue for therapeutic intervention in SBMA.
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Insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 administration ameliorates disease manifestations in a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
Mol. Med.
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Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor. Patients develop slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and fasciculations. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity. No effective disease-modifying therapy is currently available for this disease. Our recent studies have demonstrated that insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 reduces the mutant androgen receptor toxicity through activation of Akt in vitro, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy transgenic mice that also overexpress a noncirculating muscle isoform of IGF-1 have a less severe phenotype. Here we sought to establish the efficacy of daily intraperitoneal injections of mecasermin rinfabate, recombinant human IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein 3, in a transgenic mouse model expressing the mutant androgen receptor with an expanded 97 glutamine tract. The study was done in a controlled, randomized, blinded fashion, and, to reflect the clinical settings, the injections were started after the onset of disease manifestations. The treatment resulted in increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced mutant androgen receptor aggregation in muscle. In comparison to vehicle-treated controls, IGF-1-treated transgenic mice showed improved motor performance, attenuated weight loss and increased survival. Our results suggest that peripheral tissue can be targeted to improve the spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy phenotype and indicate that IGF-1 warrants further investigation in clinical trials as a potential treatment for this disease.
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MpzR98C arrests Schwann cell development in a mouse model of early-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B.
Brain
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Mutations in myelin protein zero (MPZ) cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B. Many dominant MPZ mutations, including R98C, present as infantile onset dysmyelinating neuropathies. We have generated an R98C knock-in mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B, where a mutation encoding R98C was targeted to the mouse Mpz gene. Both heterozygous (R98C/+) and homozygous (R98C/R98C) mice develop weakness, abnormal nerve conduction velocities and morphologically abnormal myelin; R98C/R98C mice are more severely affected. MpzR98C is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of Schwann cells and provokes a transitory, canonical unfolded protein response. Ablation of Chop, a mediator of the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase unfolded protein response pathway restores compound muscle action potential amplitudes of R98C/+ mice but does not alter the reduced conduction velocities, reduced axonal diameters or clinical behaviour of these animals. R98C/R98C Schwann cells are developmentally arrested in the promyelinating stage, whereas development is delayed in R98C/+ mice. The proportion of cells expressing c-Jun, an inhibitor of myelination, is elevated in mutant nerves, whereas the proportion of cells expressing the promyelinating transcription factor Krox-20 is decreased, particularly in R98C/R98C mice. Our results provide a potential link between the accumulation of MpzR98C in the endoplasmic reticulum and a developmental delay in myelination. These mice provide a model by which we can begin to understand the early onset dysmyelination seen in patients with R98C and similar mutations.
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Catechol-o-methyl transferase modulates cognition in late life: evidence and implications for cognitive enhancement.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets
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Aging is associated with deficits in several cognitive domains as well as a decline in brain dopamine activity. Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), an enzyme involved in the degradation of dopamine, is a critical determinant of the availability of this neurotransmitter in the prefrontal cortex. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene, Val158Met, modulates the activity of this enzyme and affects cognition and the brain regions underlying this function. The effects of COMT Val158Met polymorphism are magnified in the aging brain. Here, we review the evidence supporting a role of COMT genetic variation in cognitive as well as structural and functional brain changes associated with senescence. We will address the potential modulatory role of genetic and non-genetic factors on the neural and cognitive effects of COMT Val158Met in late life. Furthermore, we will discuss the viability of a COMT-targeted treatment for improving cognitive efficiency in aging.
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The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM11 mediates the degradation of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome-associated polyalanine-expanded PHOX2B.
J. Mol. Med.
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Expansions of a polyalanine (polyA) stretch in the coding region of the PHOX2B gene cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a neurocristopathy characterized by the absence of adequate control of autonomic breathing. Expansion of polyA in PHOX2B leads to protein misfolding and accumulation into inclusions. The mechanisms that regulate mutant protein degradation and turnover have been poorly elucidated. Here, we investigate the regulation of degradation of wild-type and polyA-expanded PHOX2B. We show that expanded PHOX2B is targeted for degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, resulting in lowered levels of the mutant protein relative to its wild-type counterpart. Moreover, we show that mutant PHOX2B forms ubiquitin-positive inclusions, which sequester wild-type PHOX2B. This sequestration correlates with reduced transcriptional activity of endogenous wild-type protein in neuroblastoma cells. Finally, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM11 plays a critical role in the clearance of mutant PHOX2B through the proteasome. Importantly, clearance of mutant PHOX2B by TRIM11 correlates with a rescue of PHOX2B transcriptional activity. We propose that CCHS is partially caused by a dominant-negative effect of expanded PHOX2B due to the retention of the wild-type protein in pathogenic aggregates. Our results demonstrate that TRIM11 is a novel modifier of mutant PHOX2B toxicity and represents a potential therapeutic target for CCHS.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.