Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.
There is ample consensus that there is a neurophysiological basis for eating disorders (ED). Traits of personality translate into behavioral traits, purging being a well-defined transversal example. The direct implication of steroid hormones on ED has seldom been studied, despite their effects on behavior.
In the metabolic syndrome, glucocorticoid activity is increased, but circulating levels show little change. Most of blood glucocorticoids are bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which liver expression and circulating levels are higher in females than in males. Since blood hormones are also bound to blood cells, and the size of this compartment is considerable for androgens and estrogens, we analyzed whether sex or eating a cafeteria diet altered the compartmentation of corticosterone in rat blood. The main corticosterone compartment in rat blood is that specifically bound to plasma proteins, with smaller compartments bound to blood cells or free. Cafeteria diet increased the expression of liver CBG gene, binding plasma capacity and the proportion of blood cell-bound corticosterone. There were marked sex differences in blood corticosterone compartmentation in rats, which were unrelated to testosterone. The use of a monoclonal antibody ELISA and a polyclonal Western blot for plasma CBG compared with both specific plasma binding of corticosterone and CBG gene expression suggested the existence of different forms of CBG, with varying affinities for corticosterone in males and females, since ELISA data showed higher plasma CBG for males, but binding and Western blot analyses (plus liver gene expression) and higher physiological effectiveness for females. Good cross-reactivity to the antigen for polyclonal CBG antibody suggests that in all cases we were measuring CBG. The different immunoreactivity and binding affinity may help explain the marked sex-related differences in plasma hormone binding as sex-linked different proportions of CBG forms.
Oleoyl-estrone (OE) is a powerful anti-obesity compound that decreases food intake, decreases insulin resistance and circulating cholesterol. OE stimulates a severe loss of body fat by decreasing adipose tissue lipid synthesis and maintaining lipolysis. Therefore, the body economy loses lipid energy because energy expenditure is maintained. This study analyses the discrepancy between OE effects and the distribution of labelled OE in plasma. Estrone radioimmunoassay of organic solvent plasma extracts of rats treated with OE showed the massive presence of acyl-estrone, but saponification did not release estrone, but containing similar unknown compound. Analysis of label distribution in plasma after oral gavages of (3)H-OE showed the presence of a more hydrophilic compound than OE or any estrogen as well as (3)H(2)O, formed from (3)H-OE in the acidic stomach medium. OE was not attached to a specific transporter in plasma. Through serum HPLC analysis we found W, a labelled derivative more hydrophilic than OE or estrone. The results were confirmed using (14)C-OE. HPLC-MS/MS studies showed that plasma OE levels were one order of magnitude lower than those of W. When liver cell cytosols from rats laden with (3)H-OE were incubated with nuclei from untreated rats, the OE-derived label (i.e., Ws) was found attached to nuclear DNA. Neither estradiol nor estrone interfered with its binding. W is a fairly hydrophilic compound of low molecular weight containing the estrone nucleus, but it is not an ester because saponification or esterases do not yield estrone as OE does. It is concluded that OE acts through its conversion to W, its active form; which binds to a nuclear receptor different from that of estrogen. The estimated W serum levels are proportional to the pharmacological OE effects in vivo. We postulate W as a new type of hormone that exerts the full range of in vivo effects thus far attributed to OE. The full identification of W is anticipated to open the way for the development of new OE-like anti-obesity drugs.
Oleoyl-estrone (OE) elicits a decrease in body fat, which is blocked by glucocorticoids. In order to analyze this counterregulatory effect, we studied the effects of oral OE on adrenalectomized female rats simultaneously receiving corticosterone (subcutaneous pellets). Circulating corticosteroids, liver glycogen, lipids and the expressions in whole liver, soleus muscle, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), and the inguinal and periovaric white adipose tissue (WAT) of genes controlling lipid metabolism were analyzed. Corticosterone reversed OE lipid mobilization, storing fat in liver and subcutaneous WAT. This was not simply the predominance of corticosteroid enhancement of lipogenesis against OE inhibition, but a synergy to enhance lipogenesis. Periovaric WAT showed a different effect, with corticosterone inhibiting OE arrest of lipogenic gene expressions. The data presented suggests that interaction of OE and glucocorticoids (and the metabolic response) depends on the organ or WAT site; there was a direct relationship on the direction and extent of change of SREBP1c expression with those of important energy and lipid handling genes. Our results confirm that corticosterone blocks - and even reverses - OE effects on body lipids in a dose-dependent way, a process mediated, at least in part, by modulation of SREBP1c expression.
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