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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Morphological and ultrastructural evaluation of the golden retriever muscular dystrophy trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease, characterized by atrophy and muscle weakness. The respiratory failure is a common cause of early death in patients with DMD. Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a canine model which has been extensively used for many advances in therapeutics applications. As the patients with DMD, the GRMD frequently died from cardiac and respiratory failure. Observing the respiratory failure in DMD is one of the major causes of mortality we aimed to describe the morphological and ultrastructural data of trachea, lungs (conductive and respiratory portion of the system), and diaphragm muscle using histological and ultrastructural analysis. The diaphragm muscle showed discontinuous fibers architecture, with different diameter; a robust perimysium inflammatory infiltrate and some muscle cells displayed central nuclei. GRMD trachea and lungs presented collagen fibers and in addition, the GRMD lungs showed higher of levels collagen fibers that could limit the alveolar ducts and alveoli distension. Therefore, the most features observed were the collagen areas and fibrosis. We suggested in this study that the collagen remodeling in the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle may increase fibrosis and affect the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle function that can be a major cause of respiratory failure that occur in patients with DMD. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:857-861, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Seasonal variations cause morphological changes and altered spermatogenesis in the testes of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus).
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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This study complements the previous investigations of the reproductive biology of male viscachas, a rodent of a seasonal Hystricognathi that exhibits photoperiod-induced morphological variations in the reproductive system. In the present study, a quantitative analysis of spermatogenesis was performed during the summer and the spring. Spermatogonial cells were analyzed to determine by immunolabelling for STRA8 and DAZL, which are essential for spermatogenesis. Six free-living male viscachas were captured, three animals in the summer during the period of reproductive activity and three animals in the spring during the period of testicular regression. The testes of the viscachas were collected and processed for light microscopy, macroscopic and immunochemical analyses. The germ and Sertoli cells present in the seminiferous tubules were quantitatively analyzed in each animal. The efficiency coefficient for spermatogonial mitosis, meiotic yield, overall spermatogenesis yield and Sertoli cell index, revealed that the Sertoli cells in male viscachas captured during the summer had a reduced capacity to structurally and nutritionally support the developing round spermatids compared with the male viscachas captured during the spring. The animals produced less sperm during the spring than the summer, suggesting a seasonal impact on spermatogenesis. Immunolabelling for STRA8 and DAZL was detected during summer and spring seasons. These results suggest that in seasonal rodents, such as the male viscachas, the photoperiod promotes significant changes in the testis and in the germ cell yield.
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The effect of bone allografts combined with bone marrow stromal cells on the healing of segmental bone defects in a sheep model.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The repair of large bone defects is a major orthopedic challenge because autologous bone grafts are not available in large amounts and because harvesting is often associated with donor-site morbidity. Considering that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) are responsible for the maintenance of bone turnover throughout life, we investigated bone repair at a site of a critically sized segmental defect in sheep tibia treated with BMSCs loaded onto allografts. The defect was created in the mid-portion of the tibial diaphysis of eight adult sheep, and the sheep were treated with ex-vivo expanded autologous BMSCs isolated from marrow aspirates and loaded onto cortical allografts (n = 4). The treated sheep were compared with control sheep that had been treated with cell-free allografts (n = 4) obtained from donors of the same breed as the receptor sheep.
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Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast.
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Morphology of the eyeball from the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Aquatic mammals underwent morphological and physiological adaptations due to the transition from terrestrial to aquatic environment. One of the morphological changes regards their vision since cetaceans' eyes are able to withstand mechanical, chemical, osmotic, and optical water conditions. Due to insufficient information about these animals, especially regarding their sense organs, this study aimed to describe the morphology of the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) eyeball. Three newborn females, stranded dead on the coast of Sergipe and Bahia, Brazil, were used. Samples were fixed in a 10% formalin solution, dissected, photographed, collected, and evaluated through light and electron microscopy techniques. The Humpback whale sclera was thick and had an irregular surface with mechanoreceptors in its lamina propria. Lens was dense, transparent, and ellipsoidal, consisting of three layers, and the vascularized choroid contains melanocytes, mechanoreceptors, and a fibrous tapetum lucidum. The Humpback whale eyeball is similar to other cetaceans and suggests an adaptation to diving and migration, contributing to the perception of differences in temperature, pressure, and lighting.
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Morphometric analysis of fetal development of Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) by ultrasonography--pilot study.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Measurements on the growth process and placental development of the embryo and fetuses of Cavia porcellus were carried out using ultrasonography. Embryo, fetus, and placenta were monitored from Day 15 after mating day to the end of gestation. Based on linear and quadratic regressions, the following morphometric analysis showed a good indicator of the gestational age: placental diameter, biparietal diameter, renal length, and crown rump. The embryonic cardiac beat was first detected at an average of 22.5 days. The placental diameter showed constant increase from beginning of gestation then remained to term and presented a quadratic correlation with gestational age (r(2) = 0.89). Mean placental diameter at the end of pregnancy was 3.5 ± 0.23 cm. By Day 30, it was possible to measure biparietal diameter, which followed a linear pattern of increase up to the end of gestation (r(2) = 0.95). Mean biparietal diameter in the end of pregnancy was 1.94 ± 0.03 cm. Kidneys were firstly observed on Day 35 as hyperechoic structures without the distinction of medullar and cortical layers, thus the regression model equation between kidney length and gestational age presents a quadratic relationship (r(2) = 0.7). The crown rump presented a simple linear growth, starting from 15 days of gestation, displaying a high correlation with the gestational age (r(2) = 0.9). The offspring were born after an average gestation of 61.3 days. In this study, we conclude that biparietal diameter, placental diameter, and crown rump are adequate predictive parameters of gestational age in guinea pigs because they present high correlation index.
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Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.
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Yolk sac mesenchymal progenitor cells from New World mice (Necromys lasiurus) with multipotent differential potential.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine.
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Changes in expression pattern of selected endometrial proteins following mesenchymal stem cells infusion in mares with endometrosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their self-renewal potential and differentiation capacity are useful for tissue regeneration. Immunomodulatory and trophic properties of MSCs were demonstrated suggesting their use as medicinal signaling cells able to positively change local environment in injured tissue. Equine endometrosis is a progressive degenerative disease responsible for glandular alterations and endometrial fibrosis which causes infertility in mares. More precisely, this disease is characterized by phenotypic changes in the expression pattern of selected endometrial proteins. Currently, no effective treatment is available for endometrosis. Herein, we aimed at the evaluation of expression pattern of these proteins after allogeneic equine adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (eAT-MSCs) infusion as well as at testing the capacity of these cells to promote endometrial tissue remodeling in mares with endometrosis. eAT-MSC (2 × 10(7)/animal) were transplanted into mares' uterus and control animals received only placebo. Uterine biopsies were collected before (day 0) and after (days 7, 21 and 60) cells transplantation. Conventional histopathology as well as expression analysis of such proteins as laminin, vimentin, Ki-67-antigen, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) have been performed before and after eAT-MSCs transplantation. We demonstrated that eAT-MSCs induced early (at day 7) remodeling of endometrial tissue microenvironment through changes observed in intra cellular and intra glandular localization of aforementioned proteins. We demonstrated that eAT-MSCs were able to positively modulate the expression pattern of studied secretory proteins as well as, to promote the induction of glandular epithelial cells proliferation suggesting local benefits to committed endometrial tissue environment after eAT-MSCs transplantation.
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Comparative study by computed radiography, histology, and scanning electron microscopy of the articular cartilage of normal goats and in chronic infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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In the northeast of Brazil, caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is one of the key reasons for herd productivity decreasing that result in considerable economic losses. A comparative study was carried out using computed radiography (CR), histological analysis (HA), and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) of the joints of CAE infected and normal goats. Humerus head surface of positive animals presented reduced joint space, increased bone density, and signs of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The carpal joint presented no morphological alterations in CR in any of the animals studied. Tarsus joint was the most affected, characterized by severe DJD, absence of joint space, increased periarticular soft tissue density, edema, and bone sclerosis. Histological analysis showed chronic tissue lesions, complete loss of the surface zone, absence of proteoglycans in the transition and radial zones and destruction of the cartilage surface in the CAE positive animals. Analysis by SEM showed ulcerated lesions with irregular and folded patterns on the joint surface that distinguished the limits between areas of normal and affected cartilage. The morphological study of the joints of normal and CAE positive goats deepened understanding of the alteration in the tissue bioarchitecture of the most affected joints. The SEM finding sustained previous histological reports, similar to those found for rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that the goat infected with CAE can be considered as a potential model for research in this area. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development.
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Structural and ultrastructural features of the agouti tongue (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766).
J. Anat.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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The agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent belonging to the family Dasyproctidae that is found throughout Brazil and feeds on fruits and seeds. The aim of the present study was to describe the following features of the tongue of agouti: its morphological structures, the three-dimensional characteristics of the lingual papillae surface, the connective tissue cores (CTCs) and the epithelial cell ultrastructure. Four types of papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue with a triangular shape: filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate. Filiform papillae were distributed throughout the tongue surface, and removal of the epithelial surface revealed conical CTCs and multifilaments. Fungiform papillae were observed in the rostral and middle regions, whereas foliate papillae developed in pairs on the lateral margin of the caudal region. Removal of the epithelium in these regions revealed CTCs with parallel laminar conformation. Vallate papillae were arranged in a V-shape in the caudal region, and their CTCs ranged in shape from elongate to ovoid. The ultrastructural components of the dorsal epithelium were the basal, spinous, granular and keratinised layers. A broad area with cytoplasmic projections was identified in the interface region between the lamina propria and the basal layer. Flattened cells with intermediate filaments were observed in the transitional region between spinous and granular layers. The keratinised layer was composed of superimposed epithelial cells where desmosomes and cell-surface microridges were observed. These structural features, including the three-dimensional aspects of the lingual papillae, the CTCs and the epithelial ultrastructure, indicate that when compared with other animals, particularly other rodent species, the morphological features of the tongue of agouti are relatively well developed, especially regarding foliate and vallate papillae.
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Horse spleen segmentation technique as large animal model of preclinical trials.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The parenchymal distribution of the splenic artery was studied in order to obtain anatomical basis for partial splenectomy. Thirty two spleens were studied, 26 spleens of healthy horses weighing 320 to 450kg, aged 3 to 12 years and 6 spleens of fetus removed from slaughterhouse. The spleens were submitted to arteriography and scintigraphy in order to have their vascular pattern examined and compared to the external aspect of the organ aiming establish anatomo-surgical segments. All radiographs were photographed with a digital camera and the digital images were submitted to a measuring system for comparative analysis of areas of dorsal and ventral anatomo-surgical segments. Anatomical investigations into the angioarchitecture of the equine spleen showed a paucivascular area, which coincides with a thinner external area, allowing the organ to be divided in two anatomo-surgical segments of approximately 50% of the organ each.
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Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the countrys agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.
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Development and morphology of the inverted yolk sac in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Although the guinea pig is an important animal model for human placentation, aspects of fetal nutrition are not fully understood, especially in regard to the yolk sac that is regarded to be essential for early development of the embryo. We investigated differentiation by means of histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Data suggest that the guinea pigs yolk sac was not sufficiently developed to facilitate substantial fetal nutrition in early pregnancy. On Day 12, it was a flat, inverted, but avascular structure. This was followed by differentiation to form the typical, highly villous and vascularized condition of advanced gestation. Finally, the yolk sac degenerated toward term. We suggest that the guinea pig and other caviomorphs rely predominantly on hemotrophic nutrition via the placenta even in very early pregnancy. In contrast to the general pattern of mammals, histiotrophic nutrition via yolk sac routes seems to be most essential during mid-gestation.
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Development of respiratory tract from bovine embryos.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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We studied the development of respiratory tract in bovine embryos by light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. This process was observed formation of laryngeal-tracheal tube in embryos that present crown-rump (CR) length of 9.0 mm (20/21 days of pregnancy) at around the fourth gestational week; the organ wall appears to be formed of epithelium comprising several cell layers and supported by mesenchyme. Within the lungs, the areas subjacent to epithelium present condensed mesenchyme, while more distal areas loose mesenchyme, in which blood vessels beginn to form, as the organ is in a pseudo-glandular phase. Ultra-structurally, the mesenchyme cells present irregular shapes, having a stellar or fusiform appearance and are united by desmosomes, where the cytoskeleton attaches to the cellular membrane, forming a connection. The bifurcation of trachea caudal portion in the main bronchia is simultaneous to the appearance of the tracheal bronchi, during the fifth gestational week.
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Microscopy of the umbilical cord of rock cavies--Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820 (Rodenta, Caviidae).
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The rock cavies (Kerodon rupestris) are rodents belonging to family Caviidae, with habitat restricted to northeastern Brazil. Current studies have shown that blood cord has stem and hematopoietic cells both with a high regenerative potential, microscopic studies about the description in rodents and other mammals are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the structural components of the umbilical cord of rock cavies. Rock cavies embryos at different stages of pregnancy were used, three in the first third, five in middle third, and six in the final third of gestation. They were obtained at the Centre for Wild Animals Multiplication of Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid. In rock cavies was observed that the number of vessels involved in the transport of maternal substances was represented by two major arteries, veins and an allantois duct. The umbilical cord was delimited by amniotic epithelium, formed by a layer of squamous cells, connective tissue with characteristic of the mucosal tissue, corresponding to the Wharton jelly (fetal mesenchyme), where elastic fibers were observed and intercellular spaces were arranged in concentric blades. The morphology observed in rock cavies is similar to that described in the literature for other mammals, including man. The rock cavies are well adapted to captivity and are docile, which makes this animal an important model for study within the field of regenerative medicine. The knowledge of the umbilical cord morphology represents a base point for using this animal as a model for culture and cell therapy.
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Marsupial morphology of reproduction: South America opossum male model.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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This study aims to describe the morphology of Didelphis sp. male genital organs (penis, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, prostate, and bulbourethral gland). Ten male animals were used, eight for macroscopic and light microscopy analysis, and two for scanning electron microscopy. The testes and epididymis showed similarity to other eutherian mammals. The bifid penis showed the urethra ending in the medial region where the bifurcation begins, occurring in each segment extension of the urethral groove until the beginning of the glans. Histologically, the penis consists of a cavernous and spongy body, covered by stratified squamous epithelium with loose connective tissue. The urethra was lined by transitional stratified epithelium. In the prostate, prostatic segments were found consisting of tubular glands in a radial arrangement around the urethra, coated externally by a dense connective tissue associated with a relatively thick layer of smooth muscle arranged in two layers that surround the glandular tissue. The animals had three pairs of bulbourethral glands placed at the membranous and cavernous urethra junction with descending and parallel excretory ducts ending caudally in the urethral lumen.
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Fetal-maternal interactions in the synepitheliochorial placenta using the eGFP cloned cattle model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate mechanisms of fetal-maternal cell interactions in the bovine placenta, we developed a model of transgenic enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (t-eGFP) expressing bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer (NT) to assess the distribution of fetal-derived products in the bovine placenta. In addition, we searched for male specific DNA in the blood of females carrying in vitro produced male embryos. Our hypothesis is that the bovine placenta is more permeable to fetal-derived products than described elsewhere.
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Ultrastructural aspects of Callithrix penicillata lingual papillae.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Callithrix penicillata belongs to the family Callitrichidae, Callithrix genus. They are basically insectivorous, but they consume fruits. The mucosa of the tongue is composed of some papillary types, revealing different levels of expertise. The present study attempted to describe the morphological and ultrastructural aspects of the dorsal surface of the C. penicillata, describing the characteristics and distribution of papillae found. Five tongues of C. penicillata (two females and three males), obtained from breeding colonies of CENP-Ananindeua-PA, died from natural causes. The material was fixed partly in a buffer solution paraformaldehyde 10% and partly in modified Karnovsky solution, divided into apex, body, and root, and then the fragments were used in light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The average length of the tongue of the females was 22 mm and for males 20.5 mm. Three types of papillae were described: filiform (along all tissue extension with 154 ?m of diameter), fungiform (along all tissue extension with 275 ?m of diameter), and vallate (just three units in caudal (dorsal) portion with 672 ?m of diameter). Data analysis indicates that the distribution and ultrastructural morphology of the C. penicillata lingual papillae are some similar to other primates.
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Mesenchymal progenitor cells from canine fetal tissues: yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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During fetal development, mesenchymal progenitor (MP) cells are co-localized in major hematopoietic territories, such as yolk sac (YS), bone marrow (BM), liver (LV), and others. Studies using mouse and human MP cells isolated from fetus have shown that these cells are very similar but not identical to adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Their differentiation potential is usually restricted to production of highly committed osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors. Such properties of fetal MP cells can be very useful for tissue regeneration, when a great number of committed precursors are required. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize MP cells from canine YS, BM, and LV in early and late stages of fetal development. Gestational stage was identified, and cell culture conditions were evaluated for efficient isolation of canine MP cells. All canine fetal MP cells expressed vimentin, nestin, and CD44 proteins. Cytokeratin 18 expression was observed in BM- and LV-MP cells, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin expression was observed only in YS-MP cells. A small number of MP cells (5%) from LV and YS expressed Oct3/4 protein. The differentiation potential of canine fetal MP cells varied significantly: YS- and BM-MP cells differentiated into bone and cartilage, whereas LV-MP cells differentiation was limited to osteogenic fate. None of the canine fetal MP cells were able to differentiate into adipose cells. Our data suggest that canine fetal MP cells are an appropriate in vitro model to study MP biology from hematopoietic territories and they are a source of committed osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors for regenerative medicine.
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Characteristics of the equine embryo and fetus from days 15 to 107 of pregnancy.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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In spite of numerous, substantial advances in equine reproduction, many stages of embryonic and fetal morphological development are poorly understood, with no apparent single source of comprehensive information. Hence, the objective of the present study was to provide a complete macroscopic and microscopic description of the equine embryo/fetus at various gestational ages. Thirty-four embryos/fetuses were aged based on their crown rump length (CRL), and submitted to macroscopic description, biometry, light and scanning microscopy, as well as the alizarin technique. All observed developmental changes were chronologically ordered and described. As examples of the main observed features, an accentuated cervical curvature was observed upon macroscopic examination in all specimens. In the nervous system, the encephalic fourth ventricle and the encephalic vesicles forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, were visualized from Day 19 (ovulation = Day 0). The thoracic and pelvic limbs were also visualized; their extremities gave rise to the hoof during development from Day 27. Development of other structures such as pigmented optical vesicle, liver, tail, cardiac area, lungs, and dermal vascularization started on Days 25, 25, 19, 19, 34, and 35, respectively. Light and scanning microscopy facilitated detailed examinations of several organs, e.g., heart, kidneys, lungs, and intestine, whereas the alizarin technique enabled visualization of ossification. Observations in this study contributed to the knowledge regarding equine embryogenesis, and included much detailed data from many specimens collected over a long developmental interval.
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Light and scanning electron microcopy study of the tongue in Rhea americana.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Morphological characteristics of the tongue were studied in adult rhea (Rhea americana). The lingual surface and the surface of epithelium-connective tissue interface of rhea tongue were examined macroscopically and by light and scanning electron microscopy. The rhea tongue revealed a triangular aspect, without adjustment of the inferior bill formation, occupying approximately ¼ of the length of the oral cavity. Lingual papilla-like structures were not observed over the lingual surface. The tongue mucosa was composed of a thick non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the dorsal and ventral part, supported by a connective tissue core. The submucosa contained numerous glands with cytoplasmic granules, and luminal secretion was positive for histochemical reaction to Alcian Blue in pH 2.5 and PAS, and negative to Alcian Blue in pH 0.5. Despite the rudimentary characteristic of the tongue in rhea, our results suggest an important role of tongue secretions in food lubrication and humidification during the swallowing process, based on the enormous quantity of lingual glands in the submucosa and the histochemical characteristics of their secretions.
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Chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentation in Thrichomys laurentinus (Echimyidae) and the evolution of hystricognath rodents.
J. Exp. Zool. B Mol. Dev. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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The evolutionary history of Hystricognathi is associated with major transformations in their placental system. Data so far indicate that key characters are independent from size dimensions in medium to very large species. To better understand the situation in smaller species, we analyzed placental development in a spiny rat, Thrichomys laurentinus. Fourteen individuals ranging from early implantation to near term were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry, proliferation activity and electron microscopy. Placentation in Thrichomys revealed major parallels to the guinea pig and other hystricognath rodents with respect to the early and invasive implantation, the process of trophoblast invasion, the internal organization of the labyrinth and the trophospongium as well as the establishment of the complete inverted yolk sac placenta. In contrast to systematically related small-sized species, the placental regionalization in Thrichomys was characterized by a remarkable lobulated structure and associated growing processes. Reverse to former perspectives, these conditions represented ancient character states of hystricognaths. The subplacenta was temporarily supplied by both the maternal and fetal blood systems, a rare condition among hystricognaths. The extraplacental trophoblast originating from the subplacenta was partly proliferative in mid gestation. In conclusion, the presented results indicated that only minor variations occurred in small-sized hystricognath species, independent of their systematic interrelationships. Previous views were supported that placentation in hystricognaths followed an extraordinary stable pattern, although the group had distinct habitats in South America and Africa that were separated 30-40 million years ago.
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Production of bovine hand-made cloned embryos by zygote-oocyte cytoplasmic hemi-complementation.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cytoplast type and activation process on development of cloned embryos. Bovine oocytes (MII) or zygotes at the one-cell stage (IVF) were manually bisected and segregated in MII or IVF hemi-cytoplasts or hemi-karyoplasts. Adult skin cells from a bovine female were used as nucleus donors (SC). Experimental groups were composed of IVF embryos; parthenogenetic embryos; hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos; and reconstructed HMC embryos using IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?MII hemi-cytoplast?+ SC (G-I); IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?SC (G-II); MII hemi-cytoplast?+?IVF hemi-karyoplast (G-III); and IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?IVF hemi-karyoplast (G-IV). Embryos from G-I to G-IV were allocated to subgroups as sperm-activated (SA) or were further chemically activated (SA?+?CA). Embryos from all groups and subgroups were in vitro cultured in the WOW system. Blastocyst development in subgroup G-I SA (28.2%) was similar to IVF (27.0%) and HMC (31.4%) controls, perhaps due to a to a more suitable activation process and/or better complementation of cytoplasmic reprogramming factors, with the other groups and subgroups having lower levels of development. No blastocyst development was observed when using IVF hemi-karyoplasts (G-III and G-IV), possibly due to the manipulation process during a sensitive biological period. In summary, the presence of cytoplasmic factors from MII hemi-oocytes and the sperm activation process from hemi-zygotes appear to be necessary for adequate in vitro development, as only the zygote-oocyte hemi-complementation was as efficient as controls for the generation of bovine cloned blastocysts.
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Ultrastructural aspects of lingual papillae in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Saimiri sciureus is one of the smallest Cebidae native of Amazon region and also found at the biological reserve of northeast Atlantic forest. It is an omnivore animal, with diversified diet that directly influences the lingual mucosa, which includes certain types of papillae with different organization levels. The present study attempted to describe the morphological and ultrastructure aspects of the dorsal surface of the S. sciureus. Five tongues of de S. sciureus were analyzed from three males and two females who died from natural causes and were obtained from breeding colonies of CENP-Ananindeua-PA. Main macroscopic features were a general triangular shape with a craniocaudal elongation pointed apex. Tissue samples--apex, body, and root of tongue--were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution, following standard scanning protocol, mounted in stubs, coated by gold, and analyzed by Scanning Electron Macroscopy (SEM). Four types of papillae were described: filiform (along all tissue extension with 154 ?m of diameter), fungiform (along all tissue extension with 272 ?m of diameter), vallate [just three units in caudal (dorsal) portion with 830 ?m of diameter] and foliate (one pair at caudolateral surface with ? 13 projections and 3000 ?m in length). Data analysis indicates that the distribution and ultra structural morphology of the S. sciureus lingual papillae are some similar to other primates.
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Successful transplant of mesenchymal stem cells in induced osteonecrosis of the ovine femoral head: preliminary results.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Evaluate the bone tissue recovery following transplantation of ovine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow and human immature dental-pulp stem cells (hIDPSC) in ovine model of induced osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH).
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Developmental potential of bovine hand-made clone embryos reconstructed by aggregation or fusion with distinct cytoplasmic volumes.
Cloning Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Animal cloning has been associated with developmental abnormalities, with the level of heteroplasmy caused by the procedure being one of its potential limiting factors. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the fusion of hemicytoplasts or aggregation of hemiembryos, varying the final cytoplasmic volume, on development and cell density of embryos produced by hand-made cloning (HMC), parthenogenesis or by in vitro fertilization (IVF). One or two enucleated hemicytoplasts were paired and fused with one skin somatic cell. Activated clone and zona-free parthenote embryos and hemiembryos were in vitro cultured in the well-of-the-well (WOW) system, being allocated to one of six experimental groups, on a per WOW basis: single clone or parthenote hemiembryos (1 x 50%); aggregation of two (2 x 50%), three (3 x 50%), or four (4 x 50%) clone or parthenote hemiembryos; single clone or parthenote embryos (1 x 100%); or aggregation of two clone or parthenote embryos (2 x 100%). Control zona-intact parthenote or IVF embryos were in vitro cultured in four-well dishes. Results indicated that the increase in the number of aggregated structures within each WOW was followed by a linear increase in cleavage, blastocyst rate, and cell density. The increase in cytoplasmic volume, either by fusion or by aggregation, had a positive effect on embryo development, supporting the establishment of pregnancies and the birth of a viable clone calf after transfer to recipients. However, embryo aggregation did not improve development on a hemicytoplast basis, except for the aggregation of two clone embryos.
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Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris).
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast.
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Observations on the female internal reproductive organs of the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans).
Am. J. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Alouatta guariba clamitans (brown howler monkey) is an endemic primate from the southeastern Brazil tropical forests, classified as near threatened by the IUCN Red List 2007. The genus Alouatta is one of the most difficult New World monkeys to breed and rear in captivity. In this study we examined the macroscopic and histological aspects of the female genital tract of wild brown howler monkeys to provide baseline information for future reproduction research. The anatomical relationship between the vagina, uterus, broad ligament, oviducts and ovaries are those of a typical primate reproductive tract. The fundic portion of the uterus is globoid, the cervix is well developed, which confers to the uterus an elongated shape, and the vagina is a long flattened channel. Histological analysis conducted in females in the follicular phase revealed large quantities of interstitial luteinized tissue in the ovaries, a stratified nonkeratinized vaginal epithelium, lack of glands in the vaginal mucosa and simple tubular endometrial glands. The observed anatomical features should be considered in the adaptation and application of assisted reproductive techniques aimed at improving captive reproduction for species conservation.
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Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
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Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the botos testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma.
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Muscle reorganisation through local injection of stem cells in the diaphragm of mdx mice.
Acta Vet. Scand.
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The diaphragm is the major respiratory muscle affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and is responsible for causing 80% of deaths. The use of mechanical forces that act on the body or intermittent pressure on the airways improves the quality of life of patients but does not prevent the progression of respiratory failure. Thus, diseases that require tissue repair, such as DMD, represent a group of pathologies that have great potential for cell therapy. The application of stem cells directly into the diaphragm instead of systemic application can reduce cell migration to other affected areas and increase the chances of muscle reorganisation. The mdx mouse is a suitable animal model for this research because its diaphragmatic phenotype is similar to human DMD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential cell implantation in the diaphragm muscle after the xenotransplantation of stem cells.
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Structural characterization of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) tongue by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
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Capybara is the largest rodent in the world and displays a seasonally dependent herbivore feeding behavior. Here, we present an anatomical contribution for understand this fact, by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy methodologies for tongue tissue analysis. The histological preparations revealed filiform, fungiform, vallate, and foliate papillae on the dorsal mucosa of the capybara tongue. The epithelial layer exhibited a lining of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells. The lamina propria was characterized by a dense connective tissue composed of the primary and secondary papillar projections. We also revealed the original aspects of the connective papillae. The shapes of the papillae varied by region of the tongue, and filiform, fungiform, vallate, and foliate papillae and subjacent layers of muscular fibers were observed. Pyriform taste buds occupying the epithelial layer of fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were identified and the intracellular components of the taste buds and the intracorpuscular amyelinated nerve fibers were observed. The taste buds were characterized by the distribution of granular endoplasmic reticulum throughout the perinuclear area, the Golgi apparatus, and mitochondrial assemblies of various distinct diameters. Mitochondrial accumulation was also observed in the collagen bundle-surrounded amyelinated nerve fibers beside the basal cells. Therefore, these peculiar anatomical descriptions may contribute to understanding the adaptation of the feeding behavior of capybaras in a seasonally changing environment.
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Iron transportation across the placenta.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
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According to the classification of placental types among animals, the transfer of iron through the placenta can occur via: absorption connected to transferin through the outer surface of the trophoblast in direct contact with circulating maternal blood; absorption of the erythrocytes by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with accumulation of blood extravased from haemotophagous areas; absorption by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with iron enriched secretions from the endometrial glands and absorption by extravasations of the blood in the maternal-fetal surface and the subsequent phagocytosis of the erythrocytes by trophoblast cells described in bovine, small ruminants, canine and feline. The function of erythrophagocytosis observed after the extravasation of blood in the maternal-fetal interface is undefined in several species. Possibly, the iron is transferred to the fetus through the trophoblastic erythrophagocytosis in the hemophogous area of the placenta and also in the endometrial glands. In this literature survey, new methods of studies regarding placental transfer involving iron and other nutrients necessary for survival and maintenance of embryonic fetus to birth are proposed.
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Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta: a microvascular cast study [corrected] in late pregnancy.
Zool. Sci.
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The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae. This confers the three-dimensional structure observed in vascular casts. On the maternal side, casts demonstrated uterine folds coated by with primary and secondary ridges, and by areolae dispersed between these ridges. The arteriole runs through the center/middle of ridges, branching at the top into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base of the bulbous protrusions, the fetal venules arise. The blood vessel orientation in the materno-fetal interface of the placentae of collared peccaries suggests a blood flow pattern of the type countercurrent to cross current. The same pattern has been reported in domestic swine demonstrating that, even after 38 million years, the Tayassuidae and Suidae families exhibit similar placental morphology, which is here characterized at the microvascular level.
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Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
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In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies.
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Ultrastructural features of the myotendinous junction of the sternomastoid muscle in Wistar rats: from newborn to aging.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
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The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a major area for transmitting force from the skeletal muscle system and acts in joint position and stabilization. This study aimed to use transmission electron microscopy to describe the ultrastructural features of the MTJ of the sternomastoid muscle in Wistar rats from newborn to formation during adulthood and possible changes with aging. Ultrastructural features of the MTJ from the newborn group revealed pattern during development with interactions between muscle cells and extracellular matrix elements with thin folds in the sarcolemma and high cellular activity evidenced through numerous oval mitochondria groupings. The adult group had classical morphological features of the MTJ, with folds in the sarcolemma forming long projections called "finger-like processes" and sarcoplasmic invaginations. Sarcomeres were aligned in series, showing mitochondria near the Z line in groupings between collagen fiber bundles. The old group had altered "finger-like processes," thickened in both levels of sarcoplasmic invaginations and in central connections with the lateral junctions. We conclude that the MTJ undergoes intense activity from newborn to its formation during adulthood. With increasing age, changes to the MTJ were observed in the shapes of the invaginations and "finger-like processes" due to hypoactivity, potentially compromising force transmission and joint stability.
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Morphological observations of ampullae of lorenzini in Squatina guggenheim and S. occulta (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Squatinidae).
Microsc. Res. Tech.
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We have conducted a morphological study of the ampullae of Lorenzini on two shark species from Squatina Genus. In both species, S. guggenheim and S. occulta, the ampullae were observed like small pores scattered in the head region similar to other species of the Chondrichthyes Class. However, differently of the other species a greatest density of ampullae of Lorenzini was observed along of the body surface. After fixation using 10% formaldehyde, the ampullae were removed and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the two shark species differed by the presence of dorsal spines that appeared from the head to the first dorsal fin in S. guggenheim and were absent in S. occulta. Microscopically, there were no differences between the ampullae of Lorenzini channels in these two species. The wall of the ampulla was formed by a simple squamous epithelium. Bands of connective tissue, hyaline cartilage and collagen fibers were found between the ampulla and the skeletal striated muscle layer. Nerve branches responsible for conducting signal pulses to the central nervous system were visible between the muscle and connective tissue layers. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis, we found that the channels were twisted and positioned parallel to the skin. The inside of the channels contained a large amount of a gelatinous secretion composed by polysaccharides. Therefore, we conclude that the morphological combination of extended distribution of the ampullae of Lorenzini and the body shape may represent an adaptation of these species to their way of life.
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Bone marrow cells of swine: collection and separation.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
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Bone marrow is a source of stem cells for greater and easier access, which is widely studied as a provider of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells for various purposes, mainly therapeutic by the advances in research involving cell therapy. The swine is an animal species commonly used in the pursuit of development of experimental models. Thus, this study aimed to standardize protocol for collection and separation of bone marrow in swines, since this species is widely used as experimental models for various diseases. Twelve animals were used, which underwent bone marrow puncture with access from the iliac crest and cell separation by density gradient followed by a viability test with an average of 98% of viable cells. Given our results, we can ensure the swine as an excellent model for obtaining and isolation of mononuclear cells from bone marrow, stimulating several studies addressing the field of cell therapy.
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Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells.
BMC Vet. Res.
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The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-?. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST) cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs) and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP) stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry.
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