The interplay between host cell genetics and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Understanding the host genetic and epigenetic alterations and the influence of EBV on cell signaling and host gene regulation will aid in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of NPC and provide useful biomarkers and targets for diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we provide an update of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes associated with NPC, as well as genes associated with NPC risk including those involved in carcinogen detoxification and DNA repair. We also describe the importance of host genetics that govern the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex and immune responses, and we describe the impact of EBV infection on host cell signaling changes and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. High-power genomic sequencing approaches are needed to elucidate the genetic basis for inherited susceptibility to NPC and to identify the genes and pathways driving its molecular pathogenesis.
More than 75% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients have already developed local or regional spread at diagnosis, which hampers effective treatment and results in a poor prognosis. It is essential to characterize more sensitive and specific biomarkers for screening of high risk individuals and assessment of NPC treatment effectiveness. NPC is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated tumor in which only a few viral proteins but more than 20 BamHI A rightward transcripts (BART) microRNAs are detected, at abundant levels. We hypothesized that these BART microRNAs may be novel biomarkers for NPC. Systematic analysis of EBV BART microRNA expression profiles in EBV latently infected Mutu I and Mutu III cell lines, EBV-harboring NPC and noncancerous NP cells found that miR-BART3, miR-BART7 and miR-BART13 microRNAs are highly expressed and regularly secreted into the extracellular environment of NPC cells. These BART microRNAs were evaluated for used as potential NPC biomarkers. Analysis of plasma specimens obtained from NPC patients (n?=?89), and healthy (n?=?28) and non-NPC tumor patient controls (n?=?18) found levels of both miR-BART7 and miR-BART13, but not miR-BART3, to be distinctly presence among NPC patients, with elevated levels being particularly apparent among patients with advanced disease. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis combining miR-BART7 and miR-BART13 levels produces a 90% predictive value for the presence of NPC. Analysis of 41 NPC patients before and after radiotherapy showed that miR-BART7 and miR-BART13, but not miR-BART3, were diminished after treatment. These results indicate that EBV microRNAs, miR-BART7 and miR-BART13, may constitute useful new serological biomarkers for diagnosis of NPC and prediction of treatment efficacy.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a human malignancy that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Early diagnosis of NPC will greatly improve the overall survival. However, current EBV DNA marker detection still lacks the predictive value to perform well in high-risk populations for early detection of NPC. Since aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is widely considered to be an important epigenetic change in early carcinogenesis, this study identified a panel of methylation markers for early detection of NPC and also assessed the clinical usefulness of these markers with noninvasive plasma specimens instead of biopsies. MS-HRM assays were carried out to assess the methylation status of a selected panel of four TSGs (RASSF1A, WIF1, DAPK1 and RAR?2) in biopsies, NP brushings and cell-free plasma from NPC patients. High-risk and cancer-free groups were used as controls. DNA methylation panel showed higher sensitivity and specificity than EBV DNA marker in cell-free plasma from NPC patients at early Stages (I and II) and in addition to the EBV DNA marker, MS-HRM test for plasma and NP brushing DNA methylation significantly increased the detection rate at all NPC stages as well as local recurrence, using this selected four-gene panel (p < 0.05). MS-HRM assay on a selected gene panel has great potential to become a noninvasive and complementary test for NPC early and recurrent detection in combination with the EBV DNA test to increase the sensitivity for NPC detection at an early stage.
Balance is a critical modifiable risk factor for falls in older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify the physiotherapy assessment tools used to evaluate balance in clinical practice and to determine the components of balance assessed through the use of standardized and/or other measures.
Worldwide, the highest prevalence of esophageal cancer (EC) occurs in Northern China. High-density SNP arrays allow identification of identity-by-descent (IBD) segments in genomic DNAs representative of shared common ancestral regions. We utilized IBD approaches to map susceptibility loci associated with low-penetrance SNPs in high-risk Henan hereditary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Affymetrix GeneChip Human mapping SNP array IBD analysis was performed in 32 Henan family history-positive (FH+) ESCC patients, 18 Henan healthy unrelated individuals, and 45 Chinese individuals from a CHB HapMap dataset using PLink (scoring IBD segments individually) and Beagle (scoring of shared IBD segments among case/case vs. control/control pairs) software. Both analyses identified longer IBD segment lengths associated with FH+ ESCC compared to controls. However, there was no strong evidence for a genetic founder effect. Pairing IBD analysis with BEAGLE identified 8 critical IBD segments residing at 2q32.1-q32.2, 3p22.3-p22.2, 4q21.1-q21.21, 7p22.2, 8q23.2-q23.3, 10q23.33-q24.1, 14q24.3 and 16q11.2-q12.1, which were more significantly shared among case/case compared to control/control. The shared IBD segments in FH+ ESCC samples with no overlap with control/CHB Hapmap may encompass potential cancer susceptibility loci. Selected targeted genes, PLCE1, GPT2, SIAH1 and CYP2C-18, residing within the IBD segments at 10q23.33-q24.1 and 16q11.2-q12.1, had statistically significant differential expression in primary ESCC tissues and are likely involved in ESCC carcinogenesis. The importance of these IBD segments to the etiology and development of ESCC in high-risk areas requires further study with expanded sample sizes. This is the first report employing the pairing IBD approach for elucidation of the genetic basis of hereditary ESCC in Henan by applying high throughput SNP array analysis.
The genetic etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and mechanisms for inherited susceptibility remain unclear. To examine genetic risk factors for NPC, we hypothesized that heritable risk is attributable to cumulative effects of multiple common low-risk variants. With the premise that individual SNPs only confer subtle effects for cancer risk, a multigenic pathway-based approach was used to systematically examine associations between NPC genetic susceptibility with SNPs in genes in DNA repair pathways and from previously identified cancer genome-wide association study analyses. This case-control study covers 161 genes/loci and focuses on pathway-based analyses in 2,349 Hong Kong individuals, allowing stratification according to NPC familial status for meaningful association analysis. Three SNPs (rs401681, rs6774494 and rs3757318) corresponding to TERT/CLPTM1L (OR 95% CI = 0.77, 0.68-0.88), MDS1-EVI1 (OR 95% CI=0.79 0.69-0.89) and CCDC170 (OR 95% CI = 0.76, 0.66-0.86) conferred modest protective effects individually for NPC risk by the logistic regression analysis after multiple testing adjustment (p(Bonferroni) ?< 0.05). Stratification of NPC according to familial status identified rs2380165 in BLM (OR 95% CI = 1.49, 1.20-1.86, p(Bonferroni) ?< 0.05) association with family history-positive NPC (FH+ NPC) patients. Multiple SNPs pathway-based analysis revealed that the combined gene dosage effects for increasing numbers of unfavorable genotypes in TERT-CLPTM1L and double-strand break repair (DSBR) conferred elevated risk in FH+ and sporadic NPC patients (ORs per allele, 95% CIs = 1.37, 1.22-1.55, p(Bonferroni) ?= 5.00 × 10(-6); 1.17, 1.09-1.26, p(Bonferroni) ?= 4.58 × 10(-4) , respectively, in TERT/NHEJ pathways). Our data suggested cumulative increased NPC risk associations with TERT-CLPTM1L and DSBR pathways contribute to genetic susceptibility to NPC and have potential translational relevance for patient stratification and therapeutics.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a prevalent malignancy in Southeast Asia among the Chinese population. Aberrant regulation of transcripts has been implicated in many types of cancers including NPC. Herein, we characterized mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes by RNA sequencing (RNASeq) of NPC model systems. Matched total mRNA and small RNA of undifferentiated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive NPC xenograft X666 and its derived cell line C666, well-differentiated NPC cell line HK1, and the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP460 were sequenced by Solexa technology. We found 2812 genes and 149 miRNAs (human and EBV) to be differentially expressed in NP460, HK1, C666 and X666 with RNASeq; 533 miRNA-mRNA target pairs were inversely regulated in the three NPC cell lines compared to NP460. Integrated mRNA/miRNA expression profiling and pathway analysis show extracellular matrix organization, Beta-1 integrin cell surface interactions, and the PI3K/AKT, EGFR, ErbB, and Wnt pathways were potentially deregulated in NPC. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed on selected mRNA/miRNAs in order to validate their expression. Transcript sequence variants such as short insertions and deletions (INDEL), single nucleotide variant (SNV), and isomiRs were characterized in the NPC model systems. A novel TP53 transcript variant was identified in NP460, HK1, and C666. Detection of three previously reported novel EBV-encoded BART miRNAs and their isomiRs were also observed. Meta-analysis of a model system to a clinical system aids the choice of different cell lines in NPC studies. This comprehensive characterization of mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes in NPC cell lines and the xenograft provides insights on miRNA regulation of mRNA and valuable resources on transcript variation and regulation in NPC, which are potentially useful for mechanistic and preclinical studies.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare but highly invasive cancer. As options of agents for effective combination chemoradiotherapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma are limited, novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. The ubiquitin ligase CHFR is known to target PARP1 for degradation and is epigenetically inactivated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We present evidence that PARP1 protein is indeed overexpressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in comparison with immortalized normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Tissue microarray analysis also indicated that PARP1 protein is significantly elevated in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, with strong correlation with all stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma development. We found that the PARP inhibitor AZD2281 (olaparib) increased DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells challenged with ionizing radiation or temozolomide. Isobologram analysis confirmed that the cytotoxicity triggered by AZD2281 and DNA-damaging agents was synergistic. Finally, AZD2281 also enhanced the tumor-inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation in animal xenograft models. These observations implicate that PARP1 overexpression is an early event in nasopharyngeal carcinoma development and provide a molecular basis of using PARP inhibitors to potentiate treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radio- and chemotherapy.
Despite salted fish being a classical risk factor of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC), whether secular trends in salted fish consumption worldwide accounted for changes in NPC rates were unknown. The relationship between vegetable and cigarette consumption to NPC risk worldwide were also largely uncertain. We investigated the longitudinal trends in standardised NPC incidence/mortality rates across 8 regions and their associations with secular trends in salted fish, vegetable and tobacco consumptions.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a cancer with its highest prevalence among the southern Chinese and is rare elsewhere in the world. The main treatment modalities include chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, tumor chemoresistance often limits the efficacy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment and reduces survival rates. Thus, identifying new selective chemotherapeutic drugs for nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment is needed. In this current study, the antitumor efficacy of a polo-like kinase inhibitor, Ro5203280, was investigated. Ro5203280 induces tumor suppression both in vitro and in vivo. An inhibitory effect was observed with the highly proliferating cancer cell lines tested, but not with the nontumorigenic cell line. Real-time cell proliferation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, together with immunohistochemical (IHC), immunofluorescence, and Annexin V staining assays, were used to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on cell cycle and apoptosis. Ro5203280 induces G2-M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blotting shows it inhibits PLK1 phosphorylation and downregulates the downstream signaling molecule, Cdc25c, and upregulates two important mitosis regulators, Wee1 and Securin, as well as the DNA damage-related factor Chk2 in vitro and in vivo. In vivo tumorigenicity assays with Ro5203280 intravenous injection showed its potent ability to inhibit tumor growth in mice, with no observable signs of toxicity. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of Ro5203280 as a chemotherapeutic targeting drug for nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). AT13387 is a novel heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, which inhibits the chaperone function of Hsp90 and reduces expression of Hsp90-dependent client oncoproteins. This study aimed to evaluate both the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of AT13387 in the EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1.
A few reports suggested that low levels of Wnt signaling might drive cell reprogramming, but these studies could not establish a clear relationship between Wnt signaling and self-renewal networks. There are ongoing debates as to whether and how the Wnt/?-catenin signaling is involved in the control of pluripotency gene networks. Additionally, whether physiological ?-catenin signaling generates stem-like cells through interactions with other pathways is as yet unclear. The nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells have low expression of ?-catenin and wild-type expression of p53, which provided a possibility to study regulatory mechanism of stemness networks induced by physiological levels of Wnt signaling in these cells.
Tumor-initiating cells (TIC), also known as cancer stem cells, are regarded widely as a specific subpopulation of cells needed for cancer initiation and progression. TICs have yet to be identified in esophageal tumors that have an increasing incidence in developed countries. Here, we report a CD90(+) cell population found in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which is endowed with stem cell-like properties and high tumorigenic and metastatic potential. mRNA profiling of these cells suggested pathways through which they drive tumor growth and metastasis, with deregulation of an Ets-1/MMP signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition figuring prominently. These cells possessed higher self-renewal activity and were sufficient for tumor growth, differentiation, metastasis, and chemotherapeutic resistance. CD90(+) TICs were isolated and characterized from ESCC clinical specimens as well as ESCC cell lines. In freshly resected clinical specimens, they represented a rare cell population, the levels of which correlated with strong family histories and lymph node metastasis. Our results prompt further study of this CD90(+) population of esophageal TICs as potential therapeutic targets.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CXCL8 (also named IL-8) are strongly expressed in the tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, their role in the growth of NPC has not been fully examined. This study aims to evaluate the functions of MIF and CXCL8 on the growth of NPC tumor spheres. The elevated expression of CXCL8 in tumor over normal tissues was confirmed in 37 pairs of biopsies from NPC patients. In the in vitro study, all the poorly differentiated NPC cell lines, including the EBV-positive C666-1, and the EBV-negative CNE-1, CNE-2, SUNE-1, HNE-1 and HONE-1 cells, were found to express CXCL8 and MIF. Therefore, the EBV-positive C666-1 cell was selected to examine for the role of MIF and CXCL8 in the growth of the NPC tumor spheres. Functional study showed that the growth of C666-1 tumor spheres, under the nutrient poor or growth factor supplemented culture conditions, could be inhibited by the CXCL8 specific peptide inhibitor. The growth of the tumor spheres could also be reduced by the CXCR2 specific inhibitor SB225002 or the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002, indicating that the endogenously produced CXCL8 plays an autocrine role in the growth of the tumor spheres. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the gene expression of CXCL8 could be reduced by the MIF specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) or NF-?B inhibitor parthenolide, and the growth of tumor spheres was also reduced after MIF siRNA transfection. Taken together, the present study highlights the role of MIF/CXCL8/CXCR2 axis in the growth of NPC tumor spheres. Chemotherapeutic interference of this signaling pathway may help to control the growth of the NPC tumor.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is etiologically associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, the exact role of EBV in NPC pathogenesis remains elusive. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is common in human cancers including NPC and plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a major inflammatory cytokine, is a potent activator of STAT3. In this study, we report that EBV-infected immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cells often acquire an enhanced response to IL-6-induced STAT3 activation to promote their growth and invasive properties. Interestingly, this enhanced IL-6/STAT3 response was mediated by overexpression of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R). Furthermore, IL-6R overexpression enhanced IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in uninfected immortalized NPE cells in vitro, and promoted growth and tumorigenicity of EBV-positive NPC cell line (C666-1) in vivo. Moreover, it is shown for the first time that IL-6R was overexpressed in clinical specimens of NPC. IL-6 expression could also be strongly detected in the stromal cells of NPC and a higher circulating level of IL-6 was found in the sera of advance-staged NPC patients compared to the control subjects. Therefore, IL-6R overexpression, coupled with enhanced IL-6/STAT3 signaling may facilitate the malignant transformation of EBV-infected premalignant NPE cells into cancer cells, and enhance malignant properties of NPC cells.
The identification of cancer genes in sporadic cancers has been recognized as a major challenge in the field. It is clear that deletion mapping, genomic sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, or global gene expression profiling alone would not have easily identified candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) from the huge array of lost regions or genes observed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In addition, the epigenetically silenced genes would not have been recognized by the mapping of deleted regions. In this review, we describe how functional approaches using monochromosome transfer may be used to circumvent the above problems and identify TSGs in NPC. A few examples of selected NPC TSGs and their functional roles are reviewed. They regulate a variety of gene functions including cell growth and proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis, and angiogenesis. These studies show the advantages of using functional approaches for identification of TSGs.
The group 2 LIM domain protein, Cysteine-rich intestinal protein 2 (CRIP2) was found to play an important role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tumorigenesis. Subcellular fractionation studies show that CRIP2 is expressed in the nucleus. Real-time quantitative PCR shows CRIP2 expression is down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Functional studies reveal that CRIP2 reduces colony formation, growth, and invasion abilities. Furthermore, over-expression of CRIP2 induces apoptosis through induction of active caspases 3 and 9 proteins. In conclusion, this study shows CRIP2 plays an important role in the development of ESCC.
Chromosome 14 was transferred into tumorigenic nasopharyngeal carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma cell lines by a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer approach. Functional complementation of defects present in the cancer cells suppressed tumor formation. A candidate tumor-suppressor gene, cysteine-rich intestinal protein 2 (CRIP2), located in the hot spot for chromosomal loss at 14q32.3, was identified as an important candidate gene capable of functionally suppressing tumor formation. Previous studies have shown that CRIP2 is associated with development. To date, no report has provided functional evidence supporting a role for CRIP2 in tumor development. The present study provides unequivocal evidence that CRIP2 can functionally suppress tumorigenesis. CRIP2 is significantly down-regulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tumors. CRIP2 reexpression functionally suppresses in vivo tumorigenesis and angiogenesis; these effects are induced by its transcription-repressor capability. It interacts with the NF-?B/p65 to inhibit its DNA-binding ability to the promoter regions of the major proangiogenesis cytokines critical for tumor progression, including IL6, IL8, and VEGF. In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence that CRIP2 acts as a transcription repressor of the NF-?B-mediated proangiogenic cytokine expression and thus functionally inhibits tumor formation and angiogenesis.
Suppressive effects of DUSP6 in tumorigenesis and EMT-associated properties were observed. Dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP6) is a MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) negatively regulating the activity of ERK, one of the major molecular switches in the MAPK signaling cascade propagating the signaling responses during malignancies. The impact of DUSP6 in EMT and its contribution to tumor dissemination has not yet been characterized. Due to differences in tumor microenvironments affecting cell signaling during cancer progression, DUSP6 may play varying roles in tumor development. We sought to examine the potential role of DUSP6-mediated tumorigenesis and EMT-associated properties in two aerodigestive tract cancers, namely, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Significant loss of DUSP6 was observed in 100% of 11 ESCC cell lines and 71% of seven NPC cell lines. DUSP6 expression was down-regulated in 40% of 30 ESCC tumor tissues and 75% of 20 NPC tumor tissues compared to their respective normal counterparts. Suppressive effects of DUSP6 in tumor formation and cancer cell mobility are seen in in vivo tumorigenicity assay and in vitro colony formation, three-dimensional Matrigel culture, cell migration and invasion chamber tests. Notably, overexpression of DUSP6 impairs EMT-associated properties. Furthermore, tissue microarray analysis reveals a clinical association of DUSP6 expression with better patient survival. Taken together, our study provides a novel insight into understanding the functional impact of DUSP6 in tumorigenesis and metastasis of ESCC and NPC.
The association of Matrix metalloproteinase-19 (MMP19) in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was identified from differential gene profiling, which showed MMP19 was one of the candidate genes down-regulated in the NPC cell lines. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed MMP19 was down-regulated in all seven NPC cell lines. By tissue microarray immunohistochemical staining, MMP19 appears down-regulated in 69.7% of primary NPC specimens. Allelic deletion and promoter hypermethylation contribute to MMP19 down-regulation. We also clearly demonstrate that the catalytic activity of MMP19 plays an important role in antitumor and antiangiogenesis activities in comparative studies of the wild-type and the catalytically inactive mutant MMP19. In the in vivo tumorigenicity assay, only the wild-type (WT), but not mutant, MMP19 transfectants suppress tumor formation in nude mice. In the in vitro colony formation assay, WT MMP19 dramatically reduces colony-forming ability of NPC cell lines, when compared to the inactive mutant. In the tube formation assay of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), secreted WT MMP19, but not mutant MMP19, induces reduction of tube-forming ability in endothelial cells with decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in conditioned media detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The anti-angiogenic activity of WT MMP19 is correlated with suppression of tumor formation. These results now clearly show that catalytic activity of MMP19 is essential for its tumor suppressive and anti-angiogenic functions in NPC.
Cell immortalization is regarded as an early and pre-requisite step in tumor development. Defining the specific genetic events involved in cell immortalization may provide insights into the early events of carcinogenesis. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is common among the Southern Chinese population. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated closely with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The involvement of LMP1 (an EBV-encoded oncogene) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this study, LMP1 expression, in combination with ectopic expression of hTERT (catalytic unit of human telomerase), was shown to extend the life span of primary cultures of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and facilitate the immortalization of one of the cell lines (NP446). This is the first report on the successful immortalization of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells involving LMP1. The events associated with the immortalization of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells by LMP1/hTERT were characterized. Expression of c-Myc, Bmi-1, and Id-1 were upregulated at an early stage of immortalization. At a later stage of immortalization, downregulation of p21 and p16 expression were observed. Upregulation of EGFR expression and activation of MAPK signaling pathway were observed in LMP1/hTERT-immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. The LMP1/hTERT-immortalized NP446 cells were non-tumorigenic in immunosuppressed nude mice and retained anchorage-dependent growth, suggesting that additional events are required for tumorigenic transformation. The ability of the EBV-encoded LMP1, in the presence of hTERT expression, to extend the life span and immortalize primary cultures of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells supports the involvement of EBV infection and its viral products in the early stage of pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
ADAMTS metalloprotease family member ADAMTS9 maps to 3p14.2 and shows significant associations with the aerodigestive tract cancers esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the functional impact of ADAMTS9 on cancer development has not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesized antiangiogenic and tumor-suppressive functions of ADAMTS9 in ESCC and NPC, in stringent tumorigenicity and Matrigel plug angiogenesis assays. ADAMTS9 activation suppressed tumor formation in nude mice. Conversely, knockdown of ADAMTS9 resulted in clones reverting to the tumorigenic phenotype of parental cells. In vivo angiogenesis assays revealed a reduction in microvessel numbers in gel plugs injected with tumor-suppressive cell transfectants. Similarly, conditioned medium from cell transfectants dramatically reduced the tube-forming capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These activities were associated with a reduction in expression levels of the proangiogenic factors MMP9 and VEGFA, which were consistently reduced in ADAMTS9 transfectants derived from both cancers. Taken together, our results indicate that ADAMTS9 contributes an important function in the tumor microenvironment that acts to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in both ESCC and NPC.
Our previous studies of chromosome 14 transfer into tumorigenic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line, SLMT, suggested the existence of tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 14. Gene expression profiling of microcell hybrids and the tumor segregants identified an interesting gene, LTBP-2 (latent transforming growth factor ? binding protein 2), which has been analyzed here for its role in ESCC. LTBP-2 maps to 14q24 and encodes a secreted protein, which is a component of the extracellular matrix microfibrils. LTBP-2 expression was downregulated in ESCC cell lines and tumor tissues. Promoter hypermethylation was found to be involved in LTBP-2 inactivation. Functional studies indicated its tumor-suppressive roles in ESCC. In the in vitro colony formation and Matrigel three-dimensional culture assays, LTBP-2 decreased the colony-forming abilities of ESCC cell lines. LTBP-2 expression was associated with reduction of cell migrating and invasive abilities. LTBP-2 could also reduce the tube-forming ability of endothelial cells. Moreover, LTBP-2 induced tumor suppression in in vivo nude mouse assays. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical staining analysis indicated that LTBP-2 expression is reduced in tumor tissues when compared to normal tissues, and LTBP-2 expression correlated significantly with the survival of ESCC patients. Thus, LTBP-2 appears to play an important role in ESCC.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This study aims to examine the effects of EBV infection on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in NPC cells after the Zn-BC-AM photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment. Cells were treated with the photosensitiser Zn-BC-AM for 24 h before light irradiation. Quantitative ELISA was used to evaluate the production of cytokines. Under the same experimental condition, HK-1-EBV cells produced a higher basal level of IL-1alpha (1561 pg/ml), IL-1beta (16.6 pg/ml) and IL-8 (422.9 pg/ml) than the HK-1 cells. At the light dose of 0.25-0.5 J/cm(2), Zn-BC-AM PDT-treated HK-1-EBV cells were found to produce a higher level of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta than the HK-1 cells. The production of IL-1beta appeared to be mediated via the IL-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-independent pathway. In contrast, the production of angiogenic IL-8 was downregulated in both HK-1 and HK-1-EBV cells after Zn-BC-AM PDT. Our results suggest that Zn-BC-AM PDT might indirectly reduce tumour growth through the modulation of cytokine production.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor often expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, is one of the recently identified molecular targets in cancer treatment. In the present study, the effects of combined treatment of Zn-BC-AM PDT with an EGFR inhibitor AG1478 were investigated. Well-differentiated NPC HK-1 cells were subjected to PDT with 1 microM of Zn-BC-AM and were irradiated at a light dose of 1 J/cm(2) in the presence or absence of EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Specific protein kinase inhibitors of downstream EGFR targets were also used in the investigation. EGFR, Akt, and ERK were found constitutively activated in HK-1 cells and the activities could be inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. A sub-lethal concentration of AG1478 was found to further enhance the irreversible cell damage induced by Zn-BC-AM PDT in HK-1 cells. Pre-incubation of the cells with specific inhibitors of EGFR (AG1478), PI3k/Akt (LY294002), or MEK/ERK (PD98059) before light irradiation were found to enhance Zn-BC-AM PDT-induced formation of apoptotic cells. The efficacy of Zn-BC-AM PDT can be increased through the inhibition of EGFR/PI3K/Akt and EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling pathways in NPC cells. Combination therapy with Zn-BC-AM PDT and EGFR inhibitors may further be developed for the treatment of advanced NPC.
Chromosome 14 allelic loss is common in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and may reflect essential tumor suppressor gene loss in tumorigenesis. An intact chromosome 14 was transferred to an NPC cell line using a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer approach. Microcell hybrids (MCHs) containing intact exogenously transferred chromosome 14 were tumor suppressive in athymic mice, demonstrating that intact chromosome 14 NPC MCHs are able to suppress tumor growth in mice. Comparative analysis of these MCHs and their derived tumor segregants identified 4 commonly eliminated tumor-suppressive CRs. Here we provide functional evidence that a gene, Mirror-Image POLydactyly 1 (MIPOL1), which maps within a single 14q13.1-13.3 CR and that hitherto has been reported to be associated only with a developmental disorder, specifically suppresses in vivo tumor formation. MIPOL1 gene expression is down-regulated in all NPC cell lines and in approximately 63% of NPC tumors via promoter hypermethylation and allelic loss. SLC25A21 and FOXA1, 2 neighboring genes mapping to this region, did not show this frequent down-regulated gene expression or promoter hypermethylation, precluding possible global methylation effects and providing further evidence that MIPOL1 plays a unique role in NPC. The protein localizes mainly to the nucleus. Re-expression of MIPOL1 in the stable transfectants induces cell cycle arrest. MIPOL1 tumor suppression is related to up-regulation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27(KIP1) protein pathways. This study provides compelling evidence that chromosome 14 harbors tumor suppressor genes associated with NPC and that a candidate gene, MIPOL1, is associated with tumor development.
The present study aims to determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT)-induced apoptosis of the HK-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. HY-PDT was found to induce proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-9 and -3 in HK-1 cells. Apoptotic nuclei were observed at 6 h after PDT whereas B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2-associated-X-protein (Bax) translocation and formation of Bax channel is responsible for the cell death. Increase in phosphorylation of p38 MAPKs and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) was detected at 15-30 min after HY-PDT. The appearance of phosphorylated form of p38 MAPKs and JNK1/2 was inhibited by the singlet oxygen scavenger l-histidine. HY-PDT-induced cell death was enhanced by the chemical inhibitors for p38 MAPKs (SB202190 and SB203580), but not by the JNKs inhibitor SP600125. Knockdown of the p38alpha and p38beta MAPK isoforms by small interfering RNA (siRNA) are more effective than the p38delta in enhancing PDT-induced cell death. Augmentation of apoptosis by p38alpha or p38beta knockdown is also correlated with the increased proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-9 after HY-PDT treatment. Our results suggested that HY-PDT activated p38 MAPKs through the production of singlet oxygen. Inhibition of p38 MAPKs with chemical inhibitors or siRNA enhances HY-PDT-induced apoptosis of the HK-1 NPC cells.
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) are commonly present with latent EBV infection. However, events regulating EBV infection at early stages of the disease and the role of EBV in disease pathogenesis are largely undefined. Genetic alterations leading to activation of cyclin D1 signaling in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cells have been postulated to predispose cells to EBV infection. We previously reported that loss of p16, a negative regulator of cyclin D1 signaling, is a frequent feature of NPC tumors. Here, we report that early premalignant lesions of nasopharyngeal epithelium overexpress cyclin D1. Furthermore, overexpression of cyclin D1 is closely associated with EBV infection. Therefore we investigated the potential role of cyclin D1 overexpression in dysplastic NPE cells in vitro. In human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cells, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 (CDK4(R24C)) suppressed differentiation. This suppression may have implications for the close association of EBV infection with undifferentiated NPC. In these in vitro models, we found that cellular growth arrest and senescence occurred in EBV-infected cell populations immediately after infection. Nevertheless, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 or knockdown of p16 in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cell lines could counteract the EBV-induced growth arrest and senescence. We conclude that dysregulated expression of cyclin D1 in NPE cells may contribute to NPC pathogenesis by enabling persistent infection of EBV.
This study identified LTBP-2 as a pleiotropic tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which safeguards against critical malignant behaviors of tumor cells. LTBP-2 expression was significantly decreased or lost in up to 100% of NPC cell lines (7/7) and 80% of biopsies (24/30). Promoter hypermethylation was found to be involved in LTBP-2 silencing. Using a tetracycline-regulated inducible expression system, we unveiled functional roles of LTBP-2 in suppressing colony formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, angiogenesis, VEGF secretion, and tumorigenicity. Three-dimensional culture studies suggested the involvement of LTBP-2 in maintenance of tumor cell dormancy in a growth factor favorable microenvironment.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.